COMBAT PHOTOGRAPHY DURING THE FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR OF 1859

The Cemetary at Melegnano -- Aftermath of Combat. June, 1859.

GLASS STEREOGRAPHS
The Daguerreotype (A unique image on a silvered metal plate.) and the Calotype (A paper negative from which more than one positive paper print could be taken.) were discovered in 1839, then perfected throughout the 1840s. But both these processes, magical as they seemed to their time, were slow and very limited in what kinds of subjects they could successfully represent. And there were severe limitations on the number of multiple copies that could be made from each process.
In the early 1850s Frederick Scott Archer worked out a usable photographic process that could catch a slightly larger slice of the flow of daily life and freeze it into a crisp negative image on glass. And this negative image could be used to make as many positive prints as desired. The possibilities of creating multiple copies from a single negative opened up the photography profession to the possibility of mass production and distribution and created an economic market for mass consumption of these images. During the next thirty-odd years millions of images using Archer’s wet-collodian process flooded the world as commercial photographers developed ways to find new mass markets for their photographs. Stereograph views, cartes-de-visite, and topographical scenes moved from a novelty to a commonplace tool of commerce, science and education.
The stereographic format was used most frequently for views of scenery or buildings. However, the photographic materials were still so slow that it was impossible to capture fast motion, and difficult to arrest any movement at all. For thirty years it seems as if photographs of civic monuments and urban buildings were taken during some disaster that has cleared the streets of all the people, but, in fact, usually they were hurrying by too quickly to impress their images on the slow glass plates of the photographer. Blurred figures and fragments of movement in the busy streets and boulevards of the cities were captured only occasionally by the camera.
Some early stereographs were created on glass, extending the long-established practice of producing painted glass lantern slides for entertainment. Most of these glass stereo views were manufactured and sold between about 1855 and 1859; although some glass stereos were made even as late as World War I. Glass stereos were considered to be more beautiful and a more luxurious product than stereos on paper, but they were bulky, heavier and more awkward to handle, and, of course, terribly fragile. The Langenheim Brothers, from Philadelphia, were the predominant makers of glass stereo views in the United States. But an even larger producer and distributer of glass views was Ferrier & Soulier in Paris, a firm later bought out by Leon & Levy. Marc Antoine Gaudin and Alexis Pierre Gaudin, brothers based in Paris, was another established firm that made, manufactured and distributed glass stereo views. These firms often sent photographers to the sites of known tourist attractions throughout Europe and the Near East, and then marketed these views widely to the public during the first wave of excited interest in the educational and entertainment value of the stereoscope. The beautiful scenery of Switzerland was a favorite subject of these stereo view makers, as was views of the cities and buildings of Italy and of France itself.

View of Girgh, in upper Egypt, by Francis Frith. Published by Negretti & Zambra, 1857.

View of Girgh, in upper Egypt, by Francis Frith, 1857.

No. 956. View of Constantinople and the Mosque of Soliman.

No. 956 View of Constantinople and the Mosque of Soliman.

"895. Le Glacier de Gorner et le mont Rose (Suisse.)"

“895. Le Glacier de Gorner et le mont Rose (Suisse.)”

Swiss Alps. The Matterhorn in the background.

Unlabelled Swiss view. The Matterhorn in the background.

"No. 504. Panorama of Florence (No. 5)."

“No. 504. Panorama of Florence (No. 5).”

Roman Forum and Santa Maria Church, Rome, Italy.

Unlabelled view. Roman Forum and Santa Maria Church, Rome, Italy.

THE FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR of 1859
At the mid-point of the 19th century the Italian Peninsula was a loose collection of small kingdoms, principalities and provinces; many of them under the domination of the Austrian Empire. The third quarter of the century saw the piecemeal elimination of the Hapsburg rule and the gradual unification of Italy into a modern nation/state. The Franco-Austrian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, in a defensive alliance, against the Austrian Empire. France and Sardinia had signed a secret treaty which stated that France would help Sardinia fight against Austria if attacked, and Sardinia would then give Nice and Savoy to France in return. This secret alliance served both countries: it helped with the Sardinian (Piedmontese) plan of unification of the Italian peninsula under the House of Savoy, and weakened Austria, an adversary of Napoleon III’s French Empire. Provoked by demands for independence and Sardinian troop maneuvers in the Piedmont, the Austrians demanded that the Sardinians stand down and, when they refused, declared war on April 26, 1859. The Austrian plan was to use the Austrian 2nd Army of approximately 140,000 men to crush the Sardinian army of approximately 70,000 men before the French could intervene. But the Austrian 2nd Army advanced into Piedmont slowly and took almost ten days to travel the fifty or so miles to be within reach of the Sardinian capital of Turin. This delay enabled the French forces to enter Italy, as Marshal François Certain Canrobert quickly moved French forces into Piedmont by the first strategic massive use of railways. On May 20th the French infantry and Sardininan cavalry halted the Austrian army in a skirmish near Montebello, causing it to retreat and delay even more. Napoleon III, now in personal command of the Allied forces, again used the novel and daring tactic of moving his French troops by rail to circle the Austrian army to the north to cut off its lines of communication and supply. To cover this maneuver, he ordered the Sardinians to feint towards Palestro and there, on May 30th, when the Austrians responded with a reconnaissance in force, the first serious battle of the war was fought. Some 14,000 Austrians supported by 40 guns attacked a combined French/Sardinian force of 10,700 men and 18 guns: but were thrown back with heavy casualties. The Austrians retreated back across the river Ticino and dug in. Napoleon III, now ready to complete his northern thrust, left most of his men on the Sardinian side of the river, and took 30,000 troops across the Ticino heading for the village of Magenta where he intended to establish a bridgehead. There, however, he ran into significant numbers of Austrians and a battle developed between Napoleon’s vanguard and the Austrians on June 4th. The Allies won at Magenta as well, and, on June 6th, the Austrians abandoned Milan and retreated east. Another Allied victory at Melegnano kept them on the run until they arrived back in the Quadrilateral fortresses in the well-fortified Austrian territory in Eastern Lombardy. The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph himself then took control of the Austrian army in northern Italy. From there, and reinforced from Vienna, the Austrians sortied out from Solferino to attack the Allied Army. The Piedmontese-French army had taken Milan and then slowly marched further east to finish off Austria before Prussia could get involved. The Austrians found out that the French had halted at Brescia, and decided that they should attempt to surprise them by suddenly switching onto the attack The battle rapidly developed into a series of attacks and counter-attacks as the Austrians tried to crush the French right wing and the Allies tried to capture Solferino and pierce the Austrian center. It ranged over an enormous area, some sixty square miles, with the Allies committing their piecemeal forces to action as soon as they arrived on the field. The battle raged from June 21 to June 24 and eventually the Austrians were driven back into the Quadrilaterals. It had been, however, a bloody contest, with the Allies taking 17,000 casualties out of 137,000; and the Austrians taking 21,000 casualties out of 128,000. On July 11, the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef, defeated in battle and faced with the prospect of a revolution in Hungary, met with Napoleon III, who was badly affected by Solferino’s large number of casualties and fearful that a drawn-out campaign would allow Prussia to enter the conflict, and they together signed an armistice without consulting the Sardinian allies. The Franco-Austrian War, also known as the Second War for Italian Independence, began the unification of Italy, with Sardinia absorbing Lombardy and the Duchies of Parma and Magenta. The next year, in 1860, with French and British approval, the central Italian states — Duchy of Parma, Duchy of Modena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Papal Legations — would be annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia, and France would take its deferred reward, Savoy and Nice. This latter move was vehemently opposed by Italian national hero Garibaldi, a native of Nice, and directly led to Garibaldi’s expedition to Sicily, which would complete the preliminary unification of Italy.

COMBAT PHOTOGRAPHY DURING THE WAR
These scenes were taken by an unidentified French photographer who was following in the wake of the French army during its attempt to expel the Austrian army from the Italian peninsula during the Franco-Austrian War of 1859. When the war broke out a surprising number of semi-official and completely unofficial photographers wound up in the theatre of war and photographed around the edges of the conflict. Most of these individuals, even if mentioned at all, have remained unnamed in the histories of photography. This is, perhaps, not too surprising. There are still many gaps in our knowledge of the photography of the American Civil War, even though some serious attention has been directed towards its study during the past fifty years. And the Franco-Austrian conflict, though important to the history of the unification of Italy, was a great deal shorter, far smaller, and of less consequence to the theater of world history than the American Civil War. But this conflict did precede the Civil War by two years, and the patterns of usage for photography in the Franco-Austrian war were all repeated, on a larger scale, in America several years later.
When Roger Fenton took the wet-collodion process into the combat zone of the Crimea in 1854, the process was a still new, and in many ways untried, technology. But by 1859, when the armies of France and Austria began maneuvering against each other in Italy, the stereograph was a well-established format with strong production and marketing structures in place and operating broadly throughout the Western world. Two of the largest publishers of stereographic views in France, Ferrier & Soulier and the Gaudin Brothers, had been or had had operatives photographing extensively in Italy for several years. And of course, there were many excellent Italian photographers on hand as well. [“…Those who are fond of the stereoscope, and who possess a series of M. Gaudin’s stereoscopic slides, taken in Italy, would be able to follow the belligerent parties step by step; or, better still, perhaps, with the stereoscopic views of Genoa, Milan, Turin, and the whole of Piedmont and Lombardy, executed very beautifully by M. Ferrier, member of the Societe Française de Photographie. We may add that the views taken in Tuscany, Naples, Rome, Venice, &c., by MM. Alinari, Lorent, Naya, Bernard, &c., many of which figure in the present great Exhibition of Photographic Art, of which we have lately spoken, become interesting certainly at the present moment, on account of the unhappy events taking place, or about to take place, in these quarters….” “Correspondence: Foreign Science: Photography and War!” Photographic News 2:39 (June 3, 1859): 150-151.]
The French Army, aware of both the tactical implications and the propaganda value of the Crimean War photographs, had begun to train some of its officers in photography and would eventually develop a formal photographic corps as part of its everyday operations. [“…It appears that several months since photographic apparatus was sent to the Artillery in garrison, at Versailles, with proper persons to give instruction in the art. Laboratories were established, and good progress made by the military students in its practice, some of the prints they turned out being very creditable specimens of photography. The scene of their labours is now transferred to the plains of Italy, the Emperor being desirous of possessing pictures of those fields of action in which he so confidently expects to be victorious…” “Photography in the Camp.” Photographic News 2:37 (May 20, 1859): 121-122.]
Civilian individuals quickly travelled to the conflict. Among these were several photographers. Disderi, better known for perfecting the carte-de-visite format, followed the French army, taking portraits of officers and men. (This pattern would be followed by many photographers in the USA during the next few years.) [“…I met a good many well-known Parisians yesterday at Novara. Among them were M. Audigen, the correspondent of the Patrie, who was in company of M. Durand Brager, whose pencil rendered such valuable services in the Crimea. As regards photographers, I have only met Disderi; but I know that they are all along the line. You may believe me, photography will do its duty here bravely. From La Lumiere.” “Photography at the Seat of War.” Photographic News 2:41 (June 17, 1859): 172.] Some of these individuals were what we would today call war correspondents and they began sending back dispatches. One, a M. Berardy, was sent by the French photographic journal La Lumiere, to make photographs and to correspond back to the journal. And the most extensive reportage of the photographic coverage of the conflict that is in English came from a series of letters sent to the Photographic News by “J. L.,” a British amateur photographer who diverted from a photographic trip to the Alps to cover the war when it broke out. Frankly, in this more cynical and suspicious age, “J. L.” feels like a British secret agent to me, but I’m grateful for his detailed and anecdotal descriptions of his experiences.
So there are many individuals who might have been the authors of these glass stereographs depicting the aftermath of the Italian battles. Among these, my best guess would be that they were taken by Claude-Marie Ferrier, of the firm Ferrier & Soulier; but I would be pleased if someone could bring new information to either prove or disprove that supposition.

704. Vue du Champ de bataille de Melegnano, pris du Clocher.

“704. Vue du Champ de batalle de Melegnano, prise du Clocher.” [View of the battlefield of Melegnano, taken from a church steeple.” Melegnano, south of Milan. ca. June 6th.]

702. Vue du Cimetiere de Melegnano -- lendemain du Combat.

“702. Vue du Cimetiere de Melegnano – le lendemain du Combat.” [View of the Cemetery at Melegnano – the aftermath of combat.” ca. June 7th-8th.

Pont de Buffalora (sur le ???) Detrait par les Autrichiens.

“Pont de Buffalora (sur le ???) Detruit par les Autrichiens.” [“The bridge at Buffalora, destroyed by the Austrians.” Buffalora is near Brescia, where the opposing armies met at the beginning of the battle for Solferino.] possibly ca. June 21

727. Vue du Champ de bataille de Solferino, prise de la Cour de Govriuna.

“727.Vue du Champ de bataille de Solferino, prise de la [Cour de Govriuna?] [“View of the battlefield of Solferino, taken from the courtyard of Gioviana.” ca. June 24

724. Petite vu du Cimetiere de Solferino – pris du Mamelon en etait du Empereur le 24th Juin 1859.

“724. Petite vu du Cimetiere de Solferino – pris du Mamelon en etait du Empereur le 24th Juin 1859.” [“View of the cemetery at Solferino, taken from the knoll where the Emperor was on June 24th, 1859. ca. June 24th-26th

716. Vue de l'Avenue do Brescia avec convoi de blesses et de Vivres.

“Vue de l’Avenue do Brescia avec convoi de blesses et de Vivres.” [“View of the road to Brescia, with the convoy of the wounded and survivors.” Aftermath of the battle of Solferino. ca. June 24-June 26th.]

690. Hopital Militaire a Milan.

“690. Hopital Militaire a Milan.” [“Military hospital in Milan.” ca. June 6 to June 30.]

ARMEE D’ITALIE AT CAMP DE ST. MAUR BY THE GAUDIN BROTHERS, 1859.
Each summer the French army maneuvered and trained at St. Maur, in France, and there are records indicating that these annual exercises were photographed from at least the early 1850s, and that an interested public avidly purchased these photographs. There was, of course, an even larger interest in 1859, due to the heightened patriotic feelings caused by the current war. The Gaudin Brothers, members of a well-established photographic family, and proprietors of a large stereoscopic manufacturing firm, produced a series of views of the Army of Italy in camp. Again, these images of posed group portraits prefigure those camp scenes of the American Civil War.

[Pellerin, Denis. Gaudin frères : pionniers de la photographie, 1839-1872. Chalon-sur-Saône : Société des amis du Musée Nicéphore Niepce, 1997.]

French Army of Italy on manuevers at St. Maur, France.

Verso of stereo card.

French army in bivouac, 1859.

French army in bivouac, 1859.

French army in bivouac, 1859.

French army in bivouac, 1859.

French army in bivouac, 1859.

French army in bivouac, 1859.

French army in bivouac, 1859.

French army in bivouac, 1859.

French army in bivouac, 1859.

French army in bivouac, 1859.

French army in bivouac, 1859.

FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR BIBLIOGRAPHY, compiled by William S. Johnson.

DUPUIS, A.
Brewster, Sir David. “Account of a New Photographic Process by M. Dupuis, Officer of Health to the French Army of Occupation in Rome.” PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL 11:2 (Feb. 1858): 55-56. [From J. of Photo. Soc., London. Read before the Photographic Society of Scotland, Nov. 5, 1857. “When I was in Rome last winter I became acquainted with M. M. Dupuis, a celebrated amateur photographer, who had produced the finest binocular pictures of the public buildings in that city…” (Assuming that Dupuis, Officer of Health to the French Army of Occupation in Rome in 1856, was still with the army in Rome when the second war for Italian unification broke out in 1859, he then might possibly have been one of the unknown photographers who made stereo slides of the conflict.)]

BY COUNTRY: FRANCE: 1859 . [FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR]
“Photography in the Camp.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 2:37 (May 20, 1859): 121-122. [It appears that several months since photographic apparatus was sent to the Artillery in garrison, at Versailles, with proper persons to give instruction in the art. Laboratories were established, and good progress made by the military students in its practice, some of the prints they turned out being very creditable specimens of photography. The scene of their labours is now transferred to the plains of Italy, the Emperor being desirous of possessing pictures of those fields of action in which he so confidently expects to be victorious. There is thus a possibility that they may accomplish, on a more extended scale, that which our correspondent in Algeria has done on a lesser, and give to the world representations of a field of battle as it actually appears during an action. We have also received a letter informing us that experiments had been made, within the last few days, by some officers at Grenoble, with the view of testing the practicability of a suggestion put forth by us, and translated into the foreign papers, relative to the employment of microphotography in transmitting despatches from one part of an army to another, between which the communication is excessively dangerous or absolutely impossible. In the experiments alluded to, an imaginary despatch, containing fifty-two words, was written on a strip of thin paper in very small letters, and as closely as possible; this piece of paper was then rolled up tightly, and deposited in a conical ball, which had been hollowed at the core to the required depth. The open end was stopped up with wax, and the ball forced down into a rifle in the ordinary manner. Some thick planks were then reared on end, in the road which ascends the hill on which the fortress is built, and the bullet was fired into them from a distance of 150 metres, after which it was cut out and examined, when it was found that though the wax had been forced against the outer edge of the despatch in such a way as to glue the edges together, yet this was readily removed with a penknife, and the despatch itself was uninjured. This method of writing the despatches, instead of employing micro-photography, is so far an improvement on our suggestion, that it can be adopted under all circumstances, whatever the state of the weather may be.”]

BY COUNTRY. FRANCE. 1859.
“Epitome of News—Foreign and Domestic.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 34:974 (Sat., May 21, 1859): 502. [“It is said that a staff of photographers is about to be organized to join the French army in Italy.”]

BY COUNTRY: FRANCE: 1859. [FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR]
“Miscellaneous. Photographic Incidents.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 2:37 (May 20, 1859): 129. [“One of the spectacles appertaining to photography is that which the departure of our troops to Italy offers. There are parting scenes and enthusiasm which it is far from useless to reproduce. Over and above the interest they excite, one may thus collect almost officially documents which will be invaluable for the history of our times. Among the military baggage I have seen an object glass, which was likewise going to make the campaign. The example given by Mr. Fenton in the Crimea will not, therefore, want imitators in Italy. Thanks to photography, we may be able to get official portraits of all the personages who may be destined to play an important part in the moving drama about to commence, perhaps even now begun, on the banks of the Ticino. The greater part of the ateliers have already been put in requisition by a vast number of soldiers of every grade, who, before embarking for Genoa, or traversing the Alps, desired to exchange their portraits….'” — M. La Gavinie in La Lumiere.”]

BY COUNTRY: FRANCE: 1859 – 1860 [FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR]
“Correspondence: Foreign Science: Photography and War!” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 2:39 (June 3, 1859): 150-151. [“(From our Special Correspondent.) Paris, May 31, 1859. “Photography and War! Such has been the cry for some weeks past in Paris. How odd to see the beautiful and peaceful science of chemistry brought by photography into such near relationship with the horrible art of war! Yet, so it is, at least in France, where, at this moment war is the main topic of the day. One would imagine that even the women of Paris were in a fighting mood, to judge from a brochure just published by Madame Dudevant (Georges Sand), entitled “La Guerre;” but that is not the case. No doubt Georges Sand was simply inspired by the example of Miss Harriet Martineau, who has lately brought out a work called England and her Soldiers. Journalism, say some, is the offspring of war; for, according to Voltaire and some other writers, it was at Venice, during the war with the Turks, that despatches were published for the first time in the streets. The people assembled to hear them read, and paid for the intelligence a small piece of money called gaxtta: hence our word gazette. So, all the French papers teem with news of the war at the present moment, and photographic journals among the others. La Lumiere, a paper which gives now and then a little photographic news, has sent her “own correspondent,” M. Berardy, into Italy. Of course he got pretty well drenched by the incessant rain as soon as he touched Italian shores. If anything in the world is annoying to an enthusiastic photographer, it is bad weather. Clouds make him dull and hypochondriacal, fogs produce serious illness, and perpetual rain kills him outright. M. Berardy, as soon as a few glimpses of the sun had restored him again to life, shouldered his camera, and was immediately overwhelmed by the Italians with questions concerning ” the new instrument of war” he had brought with him — how far it would shoot, and how many men it would kill at a time! The want of supplies of photographic agents keeping him in pretty constant connection with the principal pharmacies of the different places he visited, M. B. was at last looked upon as a doctor in medicine, travelling with some newly invented surgical instruments. And, considered as such, he will, no doubt, be left unmolested, and quietly send up some interesting photographs before long. Those who are fond of the stereoscope, and who possess a series of M. Gaudin’s stereoscopic slides, taken in Italy, would be able to follow the belligerent parties step by step; or, better still, perhaps, with the stereoscopic views of Genoa, Milan, Turin, and the whole of Piedmont and Lombardy, executed very beautifully by M. Ferrier, member of the Societe Française de Photographie. We may add that the views taken in Tuscany, Naples, Rome, Venice, &c., by MM. Alinari, Lorent, Naya, Bernard, &c., many of which figure in the present great Exhibition of Photographic Art, of which we have lately spoken, become interesting certainly at the present moment, on account of the unhappy events taking place, or about to take place, in these quarters. Already, some months ago, the artillery officers of the guard of Versailles received photographic apparatus; laboratories have been organised for them in the French camp, and they will have orders to point their camera at the same time as their cannon. We understand that M. Porro, of Paris, the able astronomer and experienced photographer, is about to make known to the French government a new photographical apparatus, especially adapted for the present war. No one could better construct such an instrument, since M. Porro distinguished himself many years ago as colonel of an engineering corps. He will favour us with a description of it in a few days….”]

BY COUNTRY: FRANCE: 1859. [FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR]
“Photography at the Seat of War.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 2:41 (June 17, 1859): 172. [“Nadar has been sent for to head-quarters for a particular mission; and perhaps at the present moment photography, represented by him, floats in a balloon over the field of battle, for the purpose of depicting the manoeuvres of the enemy. Thus the bold attempt made by him some months since in the hippodrome, which was ridiculed at the time by certain strong-minded parties, has been, possibly, applied to an indisputably useful purpose, which may result in its author reaping a reward at which we shall greatly rejoice. At the same time, other of Niepce’s disciples are taking photographs of greater or less interest, and, thanks to these, we can follow the triumphal progress of our troops. We cannot say whether or not the generals and superior officers who died so gloriously in the combats at Montebello, Palestra, or in the great battle of Magenta had their portraits taken previously; but we know that most of the subaltern officers figure largely in the collections of portraits which have been made. It is the fashion to have one’s portrait taken in camp. The Turcos are especially and unexpectedly fond of submitting to the operation. One of them wished to be represented in the act of seizing an Austrian prisoner whom he had managed to get hold of in the night, and was overjoyed when the photographer handed him the desired picture. A Zouave waited on Disderi the evening previous to the fight at Palestra, and addressed him thus:— “Friend, perhaps to-morrow it may be my turn to mount guard in another world; but, previously, I should like to send my portrait to my birthplace.” “Nothing can be more easy, my fine fellow,” replied the artist; “we will operate directly, and the portrait will be ready for you when you call to-morrow.” The next day our Zouave returned, and the portrait was handed to him. He looked at it for some time, but appeared by no means over pleased with it. “Sapristi!” he exclaimed, “that is not like me now.” “What is wanting?” asked Disderi. “Nothing is wanting; on the contrary, there is too much,” replied the Zouave. “How too much?” “No doubt of it, you have represented me with two hands!” “Well, and are they not admirably brought out?” “Yes, indeed, but just look here, I have only one now.” He had had his hand taken off at the wrist. A photographer writes to us, under date the 8th June. . At Frecate two peasants stopped my mule as he was taking a run across the fields, with the whole of my apparatus. You should have seen the fright expressed in their faces at the sight of my camera, which they evidently supposed to be a gun of novel construction. Indeed, you may see the expression of their faces, for I was so amused by their attitude, that I took a picture of them there and then. I shall bring back in my portfolio photographs of all kinds, and which would be useful to a painter of battle scenes; some of them are dated from the cemetery at Montebello. That which I could not depict was the emotion I felt in this asylum of the dead, where corpses lay above and below the ground—where the soldiers came from amidst the horrors of the fight to breathe their last on the graves. A mournful spectacle I assure you, and one which was only softened bv the reflection that the cause for which they died was a just one. I am convinced, too, that the blessings of the Italian people must have alleviated their last agonies. You cannot conceive the extent to which our troops arc electrified by the enthusiastic reception they have met with. We are often requested to make double portraits consisting of one Zouave and a Sardinian rifleman—a great intimacy subsisting between these two corps. I met a good many well-known Parisians yesterday at Novara. Among them were M. Audigen, the correspondent of the Patrie, who was in company of M. Durand Brager, whose pencil rendered such valuable services in the Crimea. As regards photographers, I have only met Disderi; but I know that they are all along the line. You may believe me, photography will do its duty here bravely —La Lumiere.”]

BY COUNTRY: FRANCE: 1859. [FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR]
J. L. “Photography at the Seat of War.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 2:42 (June 24, 1859): 183-185. [We have been favoured with the following interesting letter from the seat of war by a correspondent who left England for a continental tour shortly before the active commencement of hostilities.] Casoslroso, May 8. Sir,—Having frequently seen, when in England, letters published in your paper written by photographers in foreign countries, it has occurred to me that you would be glad to receive a letter from a photographer at the seat of war, and I therefore avail myself of this day of rest to write you an account of what I have seen, and a little of what I have done, since I left England. When I left England my intention was to make a tour with the camera in Switzerland, but the exciting prospect of being able to get plates of battle-fields, sieges, and other incidental scenes, induced me to change my course, and, instead of remaining among the glaciers and ice-peaks, to make a journey to the sunny plains of Italy. After mature consideration as to the best way of reaching the scene of action, I decided on purchasing a mule as being likely to be on the whole more economical than hiring one whenever I required its services, especially as there would be a great difficulty in finding such an animal at the seat of war. It took me nearly three days at Martigny to prepare myself for a photographic pilgrimage which I estimated would last three months, during which time there would be very little chance of my being able to remedy any omission I might make at starting. Straps had to be made and fastened on to cases, so as to allow of their being balanced across the mule’s back in such a way as to leave me room to ride when I felt disposed, which I have not the heart to do very often, seeing how he is loaded. I started from Martigny at the end of last month, passed the Great St. Bernard, and, on arriving at Aosta, stayed there for a day to rest. Here I met with an American and a German, both of whom were going to Ivrea, so we decided on travelling together to that place. I need not give you all the details of our journey there, as I did not unpack my apparatus anywhere for the purpose of taking a picture—not because I saw no scene worth taking, but because of the .trouble it would involve. On arriving at Ivrea, I found the people in a state of great excitement. The Austrians had been beaten and driven back on two or three occasions by their troops, and they were sanguine that as soon as the French troops were in sufficient force, they and the Sardinians would drive the Austrians before them like a flock of sheep. I heard the most frightful rumours respecting the brutalities of the invaders, and it was not until I approached the district which they had occupied that I began to doubt the truth of these narratives, they were so circumstantially given. I expected to see the burning ruins of houses, fields laid waste, and villages abandoned by the men who had joined the army to revenge the outrages offered to their women, but I saw none of these things. I found the men going quietly to their work all day, and drinking much and talking loudly at the wineshops all the evening. I saw no despairing Lucretias—no smoking ruins, nor, I must add, many haystacks, or anything else in the way of forage. All the horrors I had heard on first entering Piedmont gradually dwindled away, until on reaching the actual place where they were said to have been committed, I could verify scarcely a single instance of violence having been offered by the Austrians, and I took some pains to ascertain the truth. I don’t mean to say that no case like that stated with respect to the women took place, but I do say that I could not find anybody who could relate any instance of the kind from his own knowledge; and my inquiries were made at the places where all rumours arrive—viz., at the wineshops. Of the truth of one of the rumours I heard at Ivrea, further inquiry convinced me. I allude to the exactions inflicted on the fanners and tradespeople in districts occupied by the Austrians. The same man who replied to my question, with a laugh, if personal violence such as I have alluded to had been offered, burst into a fit of what I have reason to believe was cursing and swearing, when I asked if they had been robbed to any extent. On several occasions I was shown papers which purported to be receipts for hay, or corn, or tobacco, and signed with some undecipherable German name. Some of the holders seemed to entertain the idea that the Austrian government might pay them some day, but such credulity is not common. I conceive the only use of these receipts to be to prove that the holder supplied mitnizione delta bocca to the enemy only in obedience to a requisition. It took me some days to find out in which direction I could proceed with safety, as I had no desire to fall in with a body of Austrians, although I do not suppose they would have captured me, I being an Englishman and a photographer, which I presume would be a sufficient protection in any civilised country. I availed myself of this delay to prepare a few plates by the Taupenot and Fothergill process, both of which processes I had tried in Switzerland, with very similar results; in fact, the advantages and disadvantages of the two processes seem to me so equally balanced that I cannot decide which to adopt. Even as regarded exposure, which, as you are doubtless aware, is always longer at high altitudes in Switzerland than in England, I found that at one time the Taupenot had the advantage, and at another the Fothergill. I have not had an opportunity of printing from either of the plates yet, and, until I do so, I shall not form a decided opinion on either process. I do not intend to adopt the dry process as a rule, as I am afraid to trust to it in cases where no second attempt to take a negative could be made; moreover, it is too slow to be employed where the exposure must only occupy a short time. In reference to the length of exposure, there is one curious circumstance I must mention. I imagined from the purity of the atmosphere here, and the clear bright sun, that a shorter exposure would be sufficient than would be requisite in England, but I found the contrary to be the case. For example, I coated a plate with some collodion which I had brought with me from England, and with which I had obtained an excellent negative of a Martello tower on the heights near Folkestone, with an exposure of five seconds, although the day was not the most favourable possible, yet under the bright clear sun we have here, I was obliged to expose twelve seconds, and even then the negative was rather under exposed. This is a very important fact to be borne in mind, because, in default of knowing it, an important picture might be spoilt, and there might be no possibility of making a second attempt. If I wished to obtain photographs of the people here, I should have no difficulty in obtaining sitters, and I think a photographic travelling van, such as you see in England sometimes, would not want for visitors in the more rural parts of this country. Not that either sex is at all remarkable for beauty, but plain looking people enjoy a peculiar faculty for self-admiration. You cannot conceive what a singular sensation is caused by the consciousness that one is within a few miles of two armies who may at any moment fall upon and butcher each other, for a cause of which nineteen-twentieths of them are profoundly ignorant. The parrot-cry of the liberation of Italy—Italy for the Italians—which is so prevalent among the Italians themselves, is not at all understood by the mass of the French soldiery, if I may judge of the mass by the detachments that have passed through here. They have a vague idea that they are delivering, or are supposed by the Italians themselves to be delivering them, from a grinding tyranny, but they do not appear to have anything like a clear idea of its nature; but the motive which inspires them, and gives them the energy and lightheartedness which they exhibit, is the honour and glory of France, and, of course, Frenchmen. The Austrian soldiery have no such stimulant. They are told to march into a country the inhabitants of which never did them any harm, and to rob and plunder them, and they do it. They can have no desire to kill Sardinians and Frenchmen for the mere sake of compelling the Italians to live under the rule of the Emperor Franz Joseph, still less can they be desirous of shedding their own blood in such a cause. What a satire it is on human nature that the very men who, ten years ago, were in arms to obtain self-government for themselves, are now slaughtering others with the view of forcing upon them the very government which they then fought against. You at home have not a thorough conception of the horrors of warfare, or of the injustice and cruelty it involves. If a man among us chooses to consent to kill or be killed for a mess of pottage, we cannot prevent him, nor is there any great reason perhaps; why we should; he voluntarily selects this method of getting his bread, and we are not unwilling that he should take the consequences; but with the people I am among, and, as you are aware, among all the nations of the continent, the case is totally different. A man may have the greatest horror of shedding blood, but if he is drawn in the Conscription, he must serve. The very family in which I am at present living furnishes an instance of the hardship of such a system. There is an old man who is just able to walk behind a cow and a couple of goats to the field where they get a miserable subsistence from the roots of the grass which was cut and sent to Vercelli in obedience to a requisition of the Austrians; there is an old woman who is almost blind, but whose health is otherwise good, and whose appetite is only too keen considering the small quantity of food she can get; and lastly, there is a girl about thirteen—the child of their old age, and who is consequently deficient in both bodily and mental vigour, but possesses that astonishing likeness to her mother which we only observe in cases where the mother is already advanced in years when the child is born. Six months ago these old people were happy and contented. They had spent their lives in labour, and now that they were old they were supported by the produce of their little farm, cultivated by two strong and healthy sons; but the fatal conscription put an end to their happiness; their two sons were both drawn, and the remainder of the family were reduced from modest poverty to a condition of absolute starvation. My coming to live among them has improved their condition a little; for, though I am anything but a rich man, such provisions as are to be had about here are cheap, the Austrian occupation notwithstanding, and it is no great sacrifice to give up a few luxuries now and then when it is to, give bread to a starving fellow-creature; but I don’t like to think of what may happen to them when I leave, which I must do in the course of a day or two, as it cannot be long before an action will take place between the Austrians and the allies, and painful as it may be, I should not like to miss an opportunity of getting a photograph of a field of battle. In this desire I am not actuated by mere curiosity, though, no doubt, the novelty of exhibiting such a picture at home may have something to do with it, but I should like people to have an illustration before their eyes of what a battle-field is really like, when the excitement of the conflict is past; they might not then perhaps talk so flippantly of war; and endeavour to use their reason in such matters instead of being swayed by their feelings. I will write you again when I have decided on my future movements. J. L.”]

BY COUNTRY: FRANCE: 1859. [FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR]
J. L. “Photography at the Seat of War.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 2:43 (July 1, 1859): 196-197. [“(from our Own Correspondent.) “Casastroso, May 13. Sir,—I was about to leave here, intending to make my way to Alessandria, when I heard of a great movement among the Austrians in Vercelli; at the same time that I was told by parties of Sardinian and French cavalry who come here from time to time, that they would soon be down in force to attack the enemy, consequently I determined on remaining where I was until something decisive took place. The distance from Casastroso to Vercelli is only about seven English miles, at least; judging by the time it took me to walk near enough to see the people moving about the streets with the aid of a reasonably good opera-glass, I should not think it more. I often see parties of Austrians, sometimes infantry, but generally cavalry, when I am out walking, and I take care to put myself out of their way until they have disappeared; but the Piedmontese do not seem to care for them: I have seen them go on with their work without hardly turning their heads round as the Austrian cavalry went tramping along the road beside them. There is none of that savage enmity between them which characterised the war between the French and Spaniards. It is not to be supposed that the Piedmontese have any partiality for the men who plunder them, that is hardly to be expected; you would be rather surprised yourself if you heard a man who had just had his watch stolen, profess a very lively interest in the welfare of the thief, even though he were one of his own countrymen; but barring these exactions, I don’t think the Piedmontese have much to complain of. Of one thing I feel pretty certain, that if the troops of almost any other country except Austria had invaded Piedmont, the people would have had much greater cause for complaint. As it is, I have heard frequent complaints of the French soldiers having deluded young women from their homes; but no official complaint can be made on this score, as there is no question whatever of violence; the women have acted of their own free will. On the 11th the Austrians sent out detachments of considerable force from Vercelli in this direction, some of whom passed on towards Desana, which is a rather larger place than this, and about two miles distant on the main road. As soon as it was pretty certain that they were coming here, my camera and tent were stowed away in a hiding place prepared for it at the back of an outhouse, where even a Croat would hardly think of looking for anything to take away with him. I walked into the fields smoking a cigar, feeling certain that they would not go out of their way to meddle with a single individual unless they had some special reason for so doing, but in getting out of the frying-pan I tumbled into the fire, for I had not gone very far before I saw a party of Austrians lying under the shade of a cluster of trees. As I had never thought of meeting any of them in this direction I had not kept a look out, and they saw me before I saw them. To go back would have looked suspicious, and there might have been the same objection to have gone direct to them, so I did neither, I turned aside and walked in the direction of Sali. Presently I heard loud shouts, and turning round I became conscious of a number of hands beckoning me to come back; a gesture I thought it prudent, under the circumstances, to obey. As soon as I was within a few yards, an officer stepped forward and addressed me in German. I know a little of this language, but I did not think it advisable to appear to do so, so I answered him in English, which I found he understood perfectly. He asked me some questions, which I answered freely; and ultimately I told him what my intentions were in coming to Piedmont. We parted very good friends after a short conversation, during which he told me he thought my desire to see a battle would be soonest gratified if I remained where I was. All that day I saw troops passing to and from Vercelli, but I fancy that many, if not all, of those who left returned the same evening “bringing their spoil with them.” The troops that continually pass and repass within a short distance prevented me from taking my camera out, as I am afraid they might imagine I had some sinister design against them, and it is even possible they might fancy it to be some new implement of war, and deprive me of it under that impression; but the greatest danger arises from the former reason, from their fancying that I may be taking plans of the Austrian positions in and about Vercelli for the benefit of the Allies. Consequently the time hangs heavily on my hands, in spite of the marchings and counter-marchings. Now and then we are roused by the report of guns at no great distance. Last night I heard reports of heavy guns and got up and dressed myself, and went along a bye-lane leading to the road which runs from Vercelli in the direction of Ivrea, and could distinctly see the flashes of cannon fired from a point I imagined to be about two miles from Vercelli, and pointed in the direction of that place. It did not last long, and no notice was taken of it by the Austrians as far as I could perceive, though a good number of them are camped outside the town. I could see the lights moving about among them, but, considering the distance from which the cannon were fired, none of the balls could have reached them, and the firing most have been out of mere bravado. I have been told this morning that it was a party of Sardinian artillerymen, but, –whether Sardinians or French, they have disappeared for the present. I was interrupted just as I had got thus far in my letter by the arrival of a party of French cavalry in the village. They stopped here to ask the old people some questions, and caught sight of me. As my appearance showed pretty plainly I was not a Piedmontese, the officer, I presume, thought I must be an Austrian, and began to catechise me rather roughly, but the sight of my passport with the visas upon it soon satisfied him. There is a striking difference in the manners of the French and Austrian officers, by no means in favour of the former. The latter were quiet, and though sometimes stern in their mode in speaking, there was no arrogant assumption of superiority such as that which I have observed to characterise the generality of the former, and which is so exceedingly offensive to Englishmen. The Frenchman is polite enough to those whose superiority he cannot dispute, but when it comes to dealing with poor people, the true nature of the man peeped out. I was talking to a priest the other day, and he told me that this assumption of superiority had given great offence to the Sardinian officers, by whom the French officers were very generally disliked. From what I hear from the detachments and the increased frequency with which they appear, I have no doubt that the French and Sardinian troops are collecting in the vicinity in force ; and as the Austrian officers told me, and it is common talk among them, that they will not abandon Vercelli, there can be no doubt that a few days will see a battle fought there, which will certainly be a very bloody one, as the Austrians are in considerable force and have strengthened the place very much with earth-works. I am very much surprised to find how quietly things go on, notwithstanding the excitement -which must naturally exist when we can almost see two hostile armies in presence of each other. From what I had read of war I fancied that everybody must live in fear and trembling who happened to be in the vicinity of an hostile army, and so no doubt your readers imagine, but this is not so. I see the people about me get up at daybreak and go out to their work in the fields, as, I suppose, they always have done, and in the evening they assemble at the wineshop, or form a group where the streets cross in the middle of the village, to talk over the chances of the war. Among these assemblages the women are very conspicuous, not only by their numbers but by their volubility. Their opinions are not of much value, of course, but, I must say, they have a very low estimate of the result to be derived from the Tedeschi being driven out of Italy and curse the war in very energetic though a very barbaric kind of Italian. It would be very strange if it were otherwise; most of them have lost more by the invasion than they can recover for a long time; and it is the nature of man to feel more acutely his own material losses than any imaginary grievances under which men with whom he has no connection may happen to labour. I must confess that I entertain their views to a great extent, although I look upon the war and the results it may lead to with greater knowledge of the subject than they possess. “What,” I have heard them ask, “have we, Sardinians, to do with freeing the Italians? We are overwhelmed with taxes ourselves. We have nothing to gain by war, while we lose everything, even our children. If the Emperor of France wanted to give the Italians liberty, why didn’t he do it himself, without drawing us into the matter? The French say they are more than a match for the Austrians, so they did not want our help.” Such is the kind of language I hear everywhere about here. Possibly it may be different in Turin, where the people are far removed from requisitions and so forth. Before I came here I used to hear it said, and to read in newspapers, that the Sardinians were most enthusiastic on the subject of war; but I suspect now that the enthusiasm was confined to the people about the court, and the press which they inspired. The latter being perhaps the most unprincipled press of any State in Europe; making statements, which it knows to be false, at the bidding of this or that individual. As an illustration of the reliance that may be placed on assertions made by the Turin newspapers, I will just mention a fact which may place your readers on their guard in future. It was stated in the Turin newspapers, and among others, in the Piedmontese Gazette, that Count Cavour’s reception on his return to Turin was of the most enthusiastic kind; that he was publicly serenaded, and that a magnificent procession, with lighted torches, marched to his house, &c. Now, I have been told by a priest and two other persons since I came here, that the whole thing was a farce, and was a most ridiculous affair from beginning to end. These persons assured me they were present and saw it, and I have no doubt whatever that they told me the truth. The fact is, the Turin newspapers are mostly conducted by foreigners, who have their own purposes to serve. All this is not very photographic, is it? but photographers are men, and have the same interest in learning what is going on in the world as others; and if what I have heard be true, that no newspaper correspondents are to be allowed to travel in Piedmont, they will thank me for writing and you for publishing my letters. Besides what I have been told, I can see signs myself of something important being about to take place, the Austrians are hurrying towards Vercelli from different points. J. L.”]

BY COUNTRY: FRANCE: 1859. [FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR]
J. L. “Photography at the Seat of War.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 2:44 (July 8, 1859): 207-209.
[(Original copy damaged.) “(From our Own Correspondent.) “The priest came in to tell me that the Austrians were in motion, and proposed that we should go together, as he had a brother at Torrione, about whom he was in some alarm, and with whom he proposed we should stay a few days, as we should not be farther away, in the event of a. fight, than if we remained where we were, and would, besides, be in all probability out of the line of march of the troops. I was so tired of the idle life I had been leading, that I gladly accepted his proposal; disinterred my camera and other impedimenta, and packed them on my mule, and found it viciously restive from its long rest in the priest’s stable. I may mention as a rather curious fact, that in all the requisitions made by the Austrians, the priest’s house and property were spared. Whether they acted on the supposition that a priest could have nothing to be deprived of, or on superior orders to respect the clergy, I can’t say, but, certainly, the effect was advantageous as far as I was concerned, for had it been otherwise, I should most assuredly have lost my mule. Having finished strapping on my packs we mounted on our respective animals, and commenced our journey to Torrione. We were a good while on the road, in consequence of being obliged to make a circuitous route so as to avoid passing through Vercelli, and at the same time not to cross the line of troops. There was one advantage attending this, however, which was, that it enabled me to see the condition of the country on three sides of the town, and to judge for myself whether there was any truth in the statements made by the Piedmontese newspapers—for I see these, although I cannot by any possibility meet with an English one—and I am bound to say that it is using too mild a term to say that these statements are gross exaggerations. Some of the fields very close to the town appeared barren of crops, but I could only see them from a distance with my glass, and it is possible that this may not be caused by troops—but farther away the crops looked as flourishing as in any English county, and everything appeared as orderly as in a Yorkshire vale; and little children oiling about in front of the cottages, and, although so talking the mongrel kind of Italian, which they call language, with a fluency which it would have led Mrs. Farlington to hear; and not a single pin visible that an enemy had been or was near. The next day, when it was certain that the Austrians evacuated Vercelli, I, my friend the priest, and his brother, resolved on paying the place a visit. We found streets filled with litter of all sorts: dirty straw, pieces of bottles, broken and otherwise, bits of leather, and garbage abounded; in fact, they were in a very dirty state indeed; a slight aggravation, probably, of their normal condition. A good many of the windows of the houses were broken, and the general appearance of the houses themselves suggested the idea that they had been out on the loose for some time and had not yet recovered ; that they were a kind of architectural prodigals, who had been indulging in riotous living and had become considerably dilapidated in consequence; otherwise, they presented no appearance which would induce me to suppose that they had been recently occupied by a hostile army. As we rode along the street the people who were indoors came out, and those who were lying about on the ground got up and looked at us with great curiosity. I imagine they took me for one of the enemy, and had doubts whether my presence did not indicate their return, for I heard several of them asking questions of the priest as to who I was. The respectable portion of the people were indoors I imagine, for those I saw in the streets were very far from inspiring confidence by their appearance. The faces of the men generally had a dissolute, unsettled expression, and I remarked a peculiar, bold expression in the eyes of the women, which struck me as having been possibly communicated to them from the residence of the troops in the town. We dismounted in an inn yard, which under ordinary circumstances would, I dare say, have been respectable looking enough, but at present had the same disreputable look as the other houses. The landlord was sitting on the step with his hands in his pockets, and puffing away at a fat cigar with all his might, the thing, I suppose, being home-made, and difficult to draw. He was a black-bearded, swarthy fellow, and seemed good-natured and obliging. As soon as we entered his yard he got up and shouted for somebody, and then, with our assistance, put the mules in the stable. While we were in the room I took up a Turin newspaper, and from it I learnt for the first time that at least one English newspaper had got a correspondent with the Austrian army, but the paragraph which conveyed the information was not very gratifying to me as an Englishman ; it began:—”Ecco che abbiamo un inglese, il quale pensa che i poiveri piemontisi non sono abbastanza spogliati dagli Austriaci senza la sua assistenza;” and went on to refer to the said correspondent having taken a private carriage for his own use by force to convey his luggage from Vercelli, and of what he would receive for such an action if he got his deserts, and a good deal more besides. I felt sure when I read it that the charge could not be fairly stated, so I called to the landlord and asked him if he had heard anything about it, and found that the carriage was actually his property, and the account he gave me of the affair threw a very different colour on the transaction. His statement was rather a long one, but in substance it amounted to this:— “That he was asked in the first place to lend the carriage, but fearing that if it left the town with the Austrians there would be very little chance of his seeing it again, he refused ; that, thereupon, it was taken against his will, but was afterwards sent back, together with a very fair price for the hire of it.” Such is the true history of a transaction which may have been translated from the Sardinian papers into the English journals in all its original blackness. We wandered all over the place during the remainder of the day, I marking the places of which I proposed taking a picture, and which were chiefly interesting as memorials of a town which had just been abandoned by the enemy. These negatives, I mention by the way, were almost failures; they are not so bad as to prevent my using them, but the prints will be indifferent; I can detect specks in the deep shadows, and a want of definition in the half-tones. I attribute this to the agitation which the collodion and other chemicals had undergone during the journey, and I am sorry that I did not use the dry plates on this occasion. I am not very strongly attached to the dry process, and would never adopt it while I could use the wet, because I have never been able to obtain as good results by its means as with the wet collodion; but at the same time I can readily believe that the prepared plates have an actual advantage when one wants to take a picture immediately after or during a rapid journey on a mule’s back. A journey by railway does not improve the working properties of collodion, but such travelling is perfect immobility as compared with the trot of a mule ; and on this occasion we had pushed along pretty sharply in spite of the heat, in. consequence of the padre’s anxiety on account of his brother Inzuglio.
I have just returned with my camera and three negatives from Palestro. I had taken five, but a stupid Piedmontese soldier came and lifted up my tent, and thrust his head and shoulders in, knocking down a couple of them which I had stood up to drain, and completing their destruction by laying hold of them with his clumsy paws and rubbing away half the film. I will send you proofs of these as soon as I have an opportunity of printing some. They will not be quite like what I hoped to send you. You will see many dead bodies scattered about among the trees, and many lying side by side ready to be thrown into the hole in which they will be interred as soon as it has been dug, but no bodies of men in actual conflict; I felt it would be absolutely impossible to get near enough to pitch my .camera, though I was myself able to see the fight distinctly from beginning to end. At Torrione the night preceding the battle, nearly everybody was in the street expecting every minute to hear the report of guns, as we knew that the French and Sardinians had got as far as Vercelli in considerable numbers, and also that the Austrians were in the immediate neighbourhood, at the place in which I am concluding this letter among others, and which is not more than four miles from Vercelli. Every now and then one or two would get so impatient that they would walk in the direction of the town to see if they could hear anything of what was going on. I tried to get some sleep, intending to start as soon as it was light to see if there was any sign of a battle being fought, or if the Austrians had continued their retreat. There was no time lost after the sun rose in preparing to get away. I threw my glass over my shoulder, put a piece of bread in my pocket, and was off with the padre, his brother, and four or five others. We took the direction of Palestro, and pursuing our way across the fields, it was not until we had got near it that we approached at all closely the allied troops. We first came upon a strong force of Sardinians marching along the road towards Confienza, and remained standing in the field beside the road until these had passed. The appearance of the men and their bearing were such as to inspire confidence in them. The expression of their faces was resolute and determined, though different. Some were smiling, and stepped out with an air of eagerness, as if they were going to a dance instead of a fight; others seemed deadly pale by comparison with the swarthy faces about them, and these were not the least resolute looking. It sent a thrill through me as they went marching by, entirely silent as regards voices, and giving no sound but the regular tramp, tramp, mixed with the rattling of the scabbards of the cavalry, and the jingling of the accoutrements of the horses. There is something wonderfully impressive in the sound of the marching of a body of armed men, and yet it is not because they are armed, for I afterwards saw bodies of men moving towards each other to engage in actual combat without any similar feeling, but they were at a distance, and I could only see and not hear anything beside the reports of the guns; but to return. As soon as the road was sufficiently clear, we crossed over and continued our way across the fields, regulating our progress by the march of the troops, which we could now see moving towards Palestro in considerable numbers. With my glass I could distinctly see the Austrians in the last-named place, and as it was evident that the battle was to be fought there, we made our way to a little group of tall trees, up which we climbed, perching ourselves on the branches and waiting for the commencement of the slaughter. It was the most exciting time I ever spent in my life. My heart beat at a tremendous rate, not from fear, for there really was nothing to fear beyond the exceedingly improbable event of a shell bursting among us, but there was something terrible in the spectacle of bodies of men preparing to kill each other. The Austrians were the first to begin. I happened to be looking in their direction at the moment and saw the bright flash, and at the same time that I heard the roar of the gun I saw a slight movement among a body of soldiers who were ascending the slope, and then the dirt fly up in little columns behind them until the ball came to a stop in the field. Another report followed, the troops increased their speed, and soon the air was filled with a confused sound of reports of small arms, the booming report of cannon, and the shouting of the men engaged. I was so near that I could see with my glass each individual soldier, but to describe what took place over the whole scene of the fighting is out of my power. My attention was so engrossed on one point or another that I was unable to pay attention to what was passing elsewhere at the same time. There was a large body of Piedmontese, who halted when within a short distance of the Austrians, and fired, and then dashed forward to charge with the bayonet. I could see an officer a little in advance of the foremost rank waving his sword, and his face turned rather towards them, I suppose urging them on, who was struck to the ground as if by a flash of lightning. Another dark-looking figure appeared immediately in his place; the goal was gained, there was a concussion, a confused waving of arms, mingled with rapid flashes from concealed individuals who seemed to be firing among the attacking party, who were forced back in a mass, and retired for some distance; the Austrians following them but a little way and then going back and giving place to the artillery, which re-commenced firing, and the first few balls making a complete line through the mass of troops who were mixed up together in confusion. This was the most painful spectacle that met my eye during the whole of the battle. While they were in actual conflict there was something, stirring and exciting, which made one feel a longing to be among them, but to see men struck, beaten, and torn to pieces when they were in a perfectly helpless condition made my blood run cold. Fortunately this did not last long. A fresh body of troops advanced to the attack as confidently as if nothing had happened to their comrades. There was the same scene, but instead of their following the downward course of those who had preceded them, I could see them pressing closely upon the Austrians in a dense mass. The Austrians held their ground firmly and tried to force them back, but not succeeding they began to give way, very slowly at first, for those behind pressed those in front forward, but gradually the backward movement was communicated to those in the rear, and they receded more and more rapidly before the pressure of the allied troops until they were hidden from my sight by intervening objects. It turn the old tale of the Chinaman—”Suppose you must come in and we must go out.” Looking to another part of the field, I was surprised a body of Austrians almost close to our post of observers advancing at quick step in the direction of a body of troops, who were facing about, and in two minutes were rushing to meet them at a kind of trot. Several fell on both sides when they came into collision, and were forced into their places; those who had fallen trampled upon by both parties alternately. Some hand fighting ensued, the French fighting with the force of tiger cats, and gradually compelling the retreat, not in a broken and disorderly manner, in a compact mass, which rendered it difficult to do them harm with the bayonet, but rendered them an easy target for the French rifles. The French troops scattered t a little and fired into the retreating Austrians as fast as they could load, apparently without any orders, and fighting the simple principle of doing the enemy as much bad as possible. Two or three times when the French soldiers approached very closely, a portion of the Austrian army turned at bay and drove them back a little, but the moment they resumed their retreat they were harassed anew. As far as I could judge they lost ten times as many in this way as in the actual conflict. It was a horrible sight; the contending parties were so close to me that I could distinguish the cries of the wounded mingled with French oaths, and the rattling sound of the guns as they came in contact. It was during this part of the battle that I and those with .me had a narrow escape of being shot like so many rooks. A thick-headed Sardinian peasant, whose patriotism exceeded his discretion, had managed to get hold of a gun somewhere, and thought it an excellent opportunity of getting a shot at the Tedeschi. He was perched on a branch in the tree next the one in which I was, and had just got the gun to his shoulder when the padre’s brother, who was a little above him in the same tree, caught sight of his operations, and, with an instinctive sense of the danger he was about to bring upon us, gave him a tremendous kick on the side of the head which sent him tumbling from branch to branch almost to the ground. There was a good deal more fighting than that I have endeavoured to describe, but it was not so closely under my eyes, and by slow degrees the firing ceased altogether, and we concluded the battle was at an end. As soon as we descended to the ground, the priest proposed that we should if we could do anything for the wounded, and of course we were all willing to adopt his suggestion; Their groans could have directed us to where they were lying, even if we I not been able to see them. You can form no concept of the sickening sensation I felt when I found myself in the midst of pools of blood, which splashed about at every step spreading a sickening smell in the atmosphere. The bodies of the slain were lying pell-mell among the wounded, very few of whom were able to withdraw themselves from the horrible contact. We moved each in succession, and laid them gently on their backs—the dead, dying, and wounded side by side, leaving them thus until the men who had gone to get some water returned with the patrols who were out collecting the wounded. No time was lost in selecting those who were placed in the ambulance first; they were taken pretty much at random, only those who led actually dying were passed over in favour of those whose wounds seemed slighter. One of those so passed over was, I think an Englishman. He had all the appearance of one, though he was dressed in the Sardinian uniform. I moistened his face with water, and poured some in his mouth, but he had not strength to swallow it. I had him carried down to a tent where the surgeon was operating, who was kind enough to see to him at once, but could do nothing to save him. A bullet had passed through his thigh, severing the artery, and he had bled to death. I did all I could to make his last moments easy by bathing his face with water He had five Napoleons and a few francs in his pocket, and round his neck there was a portrait of an extremely pretty English girl, on the back of which was written, in a female hand, the initials ?? and the date December 14, ’58. J. L. (From the abrupt manner in which this letter concludes, ??? it must have been sent to Turin by some unexpected opportunity.—Ed.)]

BY COUNTRY: FRANCE: 1859. [FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR]
Malakoff. “Closing Scenes of the Italian War.” From Our Own Correspondent. NEW YORK TIMES (NEW YORK, NY) (Sat. July 30, 1859): 1. [“Head Quarters of the Army of Italy, Valeggio, Tuesday, July 5, 1859. (Follows a long, detailed and powerful description of the final days of the war, from the New York Times Paris correspondent, now in the train of the French army in Italy.) “…The Prince arrived the evening before at Valeggio, in his traveling carriage, and stopped at one of the municipal palaces in the main street. As soon as he alighted from his carriage a crowd collected and commenced to gaze in the windows of the carriage at something which appeared unusual. …I approached and discovered that in the front of the carriage and facing the Prince as he sat, were fixed two daguerreotypes, one to the right, that of the Princess Clothilde, the other to the left, that of his father the Prince Jerome, while in the middle there was an ornamented something which might have been a prayer book, a memorandum-book or a tobacco box…”]

GAUDIN BROTHERS.
Lacan, Ernest. “Le Camp de Saint-Maur au Stéréoscope.” 9:36 (Sept. 10, 1859): 144. [“MM. Gaudin frères viennent d’éditer une intéressante collection de vues prises au camp de Saint-Maur. Cette vie intime da soldat en campagne, dont le spectacle a attiré de tous les points de la France tant de visiteurs curieux, la photographic la retrace tout entière. Aucune scène de cette existence mouvementée n’a échappe à l’indiscretion de l’objectif. Si vous etes du nombre des privilégiés qui ont pu visiter le camp, vous reconnaitres en considérant ces épreuves que, si longue qu’ait été votre visite, ella était incomplète, et si vous avez dù, vous en rapporter aux récits plus ou moins exacts des journaux ou des voyageurs, vous serez convaincu de Ieur insufflsance, et quand vous serez examine un à un ces tableaux si animés, vous aurez vu mieux et plus que personne sans quitter votre fauteuil….”]

BY COUNTRY: FRANCE: 1859. [FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR]
Lacan, Ernest. “Foreign Correspondence.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 7:122 (July 16, 1860): 212-213. [This issue of this regular column is concerned with the use of photography by military forces, which they were doing, although primarily for mapmaking and surveying. Mentions a Capt. Laussedat, in the Engineer Corps, French Army, the “War Ministry in Brussels in 1856, Mons. Libois, a staff officer.” A Mons. Riffaut in France at the same time. That Russian and Sardinian officers had trained with Niepce de Saint Victor, etc.]

BY COUNTRY: FRANCE: 1859. (FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR)
Laussedat, M. A. “Photography and Its Applications. On the Employment of Photography in Surveying and Military Reconnoitering.” PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL 13:8 (Aug. 1860): 226-227. [From Photo. News, in turn from “The Paris Academy of Science.” Capt. Laussedat, apparently in the French military, seems to have been working on this topic since 1851.]

BY COUNTRY. FRANCE. 1861.
Seely, Charles. “Editorial Miscellany.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE ALLIED ARTS & SCIENCES n. s. 3:20 (Mar. 15, 1861): 320. [“Louis Napoleon has decided that a movable photographic establishment shall be attached to each regiment in the French army,…”]

BY COUNTRY. FRANCE. 1861.
“Note.” SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN n. s. 4:14 (Apr. 6, 1861): 215. [“Louis Napoleon has decided that a movable photographic establishment shall be attached to every regiment in the French army, under an officer versed in all the details of the art. During battles, their duties will consist of painting blood and thunder with sunlight.”]

BY COUNTRY: FRANCE: 1861.
Lacan, Ernest. “Foreign Correspondence.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 8:140 (Apr. 15, 1861): 153-154. [Lacan reports that twenty-five officers in the French Army have been studying photography with M. Disderi, and that preparations to establish either an official photographic organization within the army were either underway or at least under discussion by the Minister of War.]

BY COUNTRY. FRANCE. 1861.
“Miscellaneous.” LONDON JOURNAL 34:855 (June 29, 1861): 15. [“Photography is being introduced into the French army as a branch of education.” (This is the complete statement.)]

BY COUNTRY. FRANCE. 1861.
“To Correspondents. Artist.” FLAG OF OUR UNION 16:37 (Sept. 14, 1861): 4. [“We see it stated that photography is being introduced into the French army as a branch of education.”]

XXX

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PHOTOGRAPHIC BIBLIOGRAPHY 1835 – 1869.

In 1990 I published a book titled Nineteenth Century Photography. An Annotated Bibliography 1839 – 1879, by William S. Johnson. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co. The book consisted of 962 pages containing approximately 21,000 bibliographic references drawn from 69 American and British periodicals published during that time, plus a sprinkling of references to more contemporary articles about the photographers already listed in the book. The book was published in a very limited edition and went out of print within a year. Subsequently it has been considered by some photographic historians and listed by several sources as an essential reference source to that period.

Photography was from the first considered as one of the four or five major inventions that brought about the truly modern age. I have always wanted to attempt to trace the large and small impacts which the invention of photography had upon the Anglo-American society and its various cultures during the first few decades of the medium’s existence. The 1990 book did that to some extent, but I was never really completely satisfied with it. So, during the past few years I began utilizing the expanded resources which the computer and the internet made available to scan more than 800 magazines and newspapers of every type, from photographic journals to farmer’s journals to women’s magazines to literary magazines to illustrated weekly newspapers and so on, which were published in the United States and in Great Britain from the late 1830s through 1869 for references to photographic practice. I made a good-faith effort to provide a reasonably complete survey of the uses, impacts and influences of photography upon the published periodical literature of America, England, and to some extent elsewhere, from about 1835 to 1869; and thus, hopefully, to provide an outline of the impacts of the medium upon the culture and society of that period of history which played such a critically important role in the development of our own society and culture.

The approximately 450 magazines and newspapers listed below contained articles in which photography was featured, discussed or mentioned in some illuminating manner, or which acknowledged the use of the medium in the creation of at least some of their illustrations. But because it was the custom and practice of many magazines during this time to reprint translations, excerpts, and even entire articles from other magazines, this list of titles fails to actually delineate the exact range of coverage of this project; and articles about individuals and events from French, German and other periodicals do appear in this bibliography as well.

The project is almost done. I am still cleaning up odds and ends, locating missing issues, attempting to correct errors, etc., but essentially this bibliographic project is complete – or at least finished. I feel that this bibliography is far more than a simple listing of published articles and I hope that it does achieve something of what I had wanted to accomplish; by providing any reader with a specific but focused view into the heart of the mid-nineteenth century culture’s ideas and ideals. It certainly provides a richer context and a more complete outline of the dimensions and scope of the uses of the photography of that time than is commonly available at the present.

In the first bibliography, I occasionally included brief excerpts or annotations for those references in which the citation was unclear by itself. But in this project, with so many highly diverse sources, context is a large part of the significant content of the reference. I therefore frequently included larger excerpts or more extensive annotations for each reference. At this point this work, if it were printed today, set in a 10 point Arial typeface, single spaced, with minimum spacing breaks, etc., (In other words, as tight as reasonably possible) the work would run to something over 8000 pages in length.

Now I find myself with something of a problem. As I said, the scale has gotten out of hand. Publishing anything of 8000 pages in hardcopy would be awkward at best. The finished product will have some tighter editing, but, in a very real way, the discursive nature of the project is the project, and I am certainly reluctant to trim titles or references based on their “importance” or alleged “centrality” to photographic history.

At this time in my life I have been working as what is euphuistically known as an “independent scholar.” In other words, without the support structure of any academic institution or within the purview of any academic systems. Although many kind individuals have been most helpful with advice or solutions to some problem or other, there has never been any formal support for this project from any institution or organization. What that means realistically is increased difficulty in accessing resources, and little or no opportunities for research grants, travel grants, sabbaticals, or other means of funding support. At a more subtle level it means that access to individuals with areas of technical expertise or specific skills that might aid the project is also often far more difficult to obtain. The Web is an extraordinary resource tool, but it isn’t everything. At this point this bibliography exists in the form of a Microsoft Word document. I’ve been mulling over the best and most useful way to publish this work and I am asking for suggestions from any interested parties about preferred formats, publication strategies, and the like.

My best idea at the moment is to self-publish the work in hard copy in six or more volumes. These would be divided, with two (or more, if size necessitates) volumes for each decade: 1839-1849 Part A and Part B, 1850-1859 Part A and Part B and 1860-1869 Part A and Part B.

1839-1849 Part A would consist of the journals arranged alphabetically by title, with the citations arranged chronologically under each title. (This is how the samples below are arranged.) This Part would also include brief essays about each magazine’s use of photography, so that the total would constitute an overview of the impacts of photography on the periodical literature of the decade and would provide, in a very minor way, a supplement to Frank Luther Mott’s magnificent multi-volume A History of American Magazines.

1839-1849 Part B would consist of the same materials arranged by subject. Each reference has a subject heading (Most often the name of an artist or an author, or of a photographic organization, an exhibition, or other very simple, limited  subject categories — such as “History: USA: 1861-1865 (US Civil War” and so on.) so, for example, this arrangement would bring all the Mathew B. Brady references for that decade together. (This is the organization followed in the 1990 book.)

Thus 1839-1849 Part A and 1839-1849 Part B together provide two separate modes of access to the materials, and also two ways of viewing the photographic activity (And, incidentally, the publishing activity on this topic.) of each decade. The following decades would be treated similarly, although as the number of references increases throughout each decade, it may become necessary to publish more than two volumes per decade – thus splitting that period up even more.

I will be able to have the first two volumes ready for printing within the year, and will be investigating publishing costs and trying to establish a reasonable price structure and sales strategy for the work. And then if I sell enough to finance the remainder, the other volumes would follow in succession.

I am not completely pleased with this strategy, as it limits key-word access and other possiblities that contemporary electronic systems make available to researchers. I’ve considered publishing in some electronic format, but my expectation is that libraries – which I assume would be the major market for this reference work– would resist publication in any cd or dvd format, as that format will undoubtedly become obsolete in the (near) future. And I simply don’t have the level of expertise necessary to control the product to publish it on-line, so I hesitate there as well.

I WOULD APPRECIATE ANY COMMENTS OR SUGGESTIONS ABOUT POSSIBLE WAYS OF PROCEEDING FROM THIS POINT –ADVICE ON USEFUL WAYS OF MANIPULATING THE INFORMATION IN WAYS MOST USEFUL FOR OTHER SCHOLARS, ISSUES OF IMPLEMENTING PUBLICATION, POSSIBLE MARKETING STRATEGIES, ETC.

THANK YOU.

BELOW IS A LIST OF THE MAGAZINES AND JOURNALS INDEXED IN THIS DATABASE AS WELL AS A SMALL SAMPLE OF REFERENCES DRAWN FROM TWO OF THE MAGAZINES, WHICH WERE SELECTED AT RANDOM.

LIST OF INDEXED TITLES

The dates following a title listed below correspond to the run of that title only as they fall within the period of coverage of the project (1835-1869), and thus correspond to a record of the coverage of the bibliography—not of the complete run of the periodical.

ABSTRACTS OF THE PAPERS COMMUNICATED TO THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (1851-1854) London, England

ACADEMY (1869) London, England.

ADVOCATE OF PEACE AND UNIVERSAL BROTHERHOOD (1846) Washington, DC  title change to  ADVOCATE OF PEACE (1847-1869) Washington, DC

AFRICAN REPOSITORY (1850-1869) Washington, DC

ALBION, A JOURNAL OF NEWS, POLITICS AND LITERATURE (1822-1869) New York, NY

ALTA CALIFORNIA (1850-1861) San Francisco, CA

AMARANTH, OR TOKEN OF REMEMBRANCE FOR 18__. (1847-1855) Ashland, OH

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, BOSTON. MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS  AND SCIENCES. (1839-1869) Boston, MA

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST (1842-1851) New York, NY

AMERICAN ALMANAC AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE (1830-1861) Boston, MA

AMERICAN ART JOURNAL. A WEEKLY RECORD OF MUSIC, ART AND LITERATURE (1866-1867) New York, NY

AMERICAN ECLECTIC; OR, SELECTIONS FROM THE PERIODICAL LITERATURE OF ALL FOREIGN COUNTRIES  (1839-1843) see ECLECTIC MAGAZINE OF FOREIGN LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ART (1833-1869) New York, NY

AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY (1864-1867). New York, NY   title change to   AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY, AND NEW YORK TEACHER (1867) New York, NY   title change to   NEW YORK TEACHER AND AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY

AMERICAN FARMER, AND SPIRIT OF THE AGRICULTURAL JOURNALS OF THE DAY (1839-1869) Baltimore, MD

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION (1855-1869) Hartford, CT

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MUSIC & MUSICAL VISITOR (1844-1846) Boston, MA

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY (1835-1869) Philadelphia, PA

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE ALLIED ARTS & SCIENCES (1858-1867) New York, NY

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ARTS (1859-1869) New Haven, CT

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF THE MEDICAL SCIENCES (1827-1869) Philadelphia, PA

AMERICAN LAW REGISTER (1852-1869)

AMERICAN LAW REVIEW (1866-1869). St. Louis, MO

AMERICAN LITERARY GAZETTE AND PUBLISHERS CIRCULAR (1855-1869) Philadelphia, PA

AMERICAN LITERARY MAGAZINE (1847-1849) Hartford, CT

AMERICAN MASONIC REGISTER AND LITERARY COMPANION (1839-1847) Albany, NY

AMERICAN NATURALIST (1867-1869) Salem, MA

AMERICAN PEOPLE’S JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND ART (1850) New York, NY

AMERICAN PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL AND MISCELLANY (1839-1850) Philadelphia, PA   title change to   AMERICAN PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL: A REPOSITORY OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND GENERAL   INTELLIGENCE (1851-1860) Philadelphia, PA   title change to   AMERICAN PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL AND LIFE ILLUSTRATED: A REPOSITORY OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE,   AND GENERAL INTELLIGENCE (1861-1869) Philadelphia

AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN AND THEOLOGICAL REVIEW (1863-1868). New York, NY   title change to   AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN REVIEW (1869-1871). New York, NY

AMERICAN PUBLISHERS’ CIRCULAR AND LITERARY GAZETTE (1855-1862) Philadelphia, PA

AMERICAN QUARTERLY CHURCH REVIEW AND ECCLESIASTICAL REGISTER (1858-1870) New Haven, CT

AMERICAN RAILWAY TIMES (1849-1859) Boston, MA   title change to   RAILWAY TIMES (1860-1872) Boston MA

AMERICAN REPERATORY OF ARTS, SCIENCES AND MANUFACTURES (1840-1842) New York, NY

AMERICAN REVIEW: A WHIG JOURNAL OF POLITICS, LITERATURE, ART AND SCIENCE (1845-1852) New York, NY

AMERICAN THEOLOGICAL REVIEW (1859-1862). New York, NY

ANALYST: A QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE, NATURAL HISTORY, AND THE FINE ARTS   (1834-1840) London, England

ANGLO AMERICAN, A JOURNAL OF LITERATURE, NEWS, POLITICS, THE DRAMA, FINE ARTS, ETC (1843-1847)   New York, NY

ANNUAL OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY, OR YEAR-BOOK OF FACTS IN SCIENCE AND ART (1850-1870) Boston, MA

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK, FOR THE  YEARS …. (1840-1869)   New York, NY

ANTHROPOLOGICAL REVIEW (1863-1869) London, England

ANTI-TEAPOT REVIEW (1864-1869) London, England

APPLETON’S JOURNAL OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ART (1869) New York, NY

ARCTURUS. A JOURNAL OF BOOKS AND OPINION (1840-1842) New York, NY

ARGOSY: A MAGAZINE OF TALES, TRAVELS, ESSAYS, AND POEMS (1865-1869) London, England

ARISTIDEAN: A MAGAZINE OF REVIEWS, POLITICS, AND LIGHT LITERATURE (1845) New York, NY

ARMY AND NAVY CHRONICLE (1839-1842) Washington, DC

ART-UNION: MONTHLY JOURNAL OF THE FINE ARTS AND THE ARTS DECORATIVE, ORNAMENTAL (misc)   (1839-1848) London, England   title change to   ART JOURNAL (1849-1869) London, England

ARTIST: A MONTHLY LADY’S BOOK (1842-1843) New York, NY

ARTHUR’S HOME MAGAZINE (1852-1898)   title change to ARTHUR’S LADY’S HOME MAGAZINE (1857-1860)   title change to   ARTHUR’S HOME MAGAZINE (1861-1869) Philadelphia, PA

ARTHUR’S LADIES’ MAGAZINE OF ELEGANT LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS (1844-1845) Philadelphia, PA

ATHENAEUM (LONDON) (1830-1869) London, England

ATHENAEUM (BOSTON) (misc) (1832-????) Boston, MA

ATLANTIC MONTHLY: A MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE, ART AND POLITICS (1857-1865) Boston, MA   title change to   ATLANTIC MONTHLY: A MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ART AND POLITICS (1865-1969) Boston, MA

BALLOU’S DOLLAR MONTHLY MAGAZINE (1855-1862) Boston, MA   title change to   DOLLAR MONTHLY MAGAZINE (1863-1865) Boston, MA   title change to   BALLOU’S MONTHLY MAGAZINE (1866-1869) Boston, MA

BALLOU’S PICTORIAL DRAWING-ROOM COMPANION (1855-1859) see GLEASON’S

BALTIMORE LITERARY MONUMENT (1838-1839) Baltimore, MD

BALTIMORE PHOENIX AND BUDGET (1841-1842). Baltimore, MD

BANKERS’ MAGAZINE AND STATE FINANCIAL REGISTER (1846-1849) Baltimore, MD

BANKERS’ MAGAZINE AND STATISTICAL REGISTER (1849-1869) New York, NY

BEADLE’S MONTHLY, A MAGAZINE OF TODAY (1866-1867) New York, NY

BEAUX-ARTS. L’INDUSTRIE (misc)

BELGRAVIA: A LONDON MAGAZINE (1866-1869) London, England

BELLE ASSEMBLEE; OR COURT AND FASHIONABLE MAGAZINE (1823-1837) London, England   title change to   COURT MAGAZINE AND BELLE ASSEMBLEE (July 1832-Jan. 1837)   title change to   THE COURT MAGAZINE AND MONTHLY CRITIC (Feb. 1837-Dec. 1837)   title change to   THE COURT MAGAZINE AND MONTHLY CRITIC, AND THE LADY’S MAGAZINE AND MUSEUM (Jan. 1838-Dec.   1838)   title change to COURT AND LADY’S MAGAZINE, MONTHLY CRITIC AND MUSEUM (1839-1848) London, England

BENTLEY’S QUARTERLY REVIEW (1859-1860) London, England

BIBLICAL REPERTORY AND PRINCETON REVIEW see PRINCETON REVIEW

BLACKWOOD’S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE (1839-1869) Edinburgh, Scotland

BLACKWOOD’S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE (NY) (misc) (1839-1869) New York, NY

BOSTON CULTIVATOR (1839-1850) Boston, MA

BOSTON DAILY EVENING TRANSCRIPT (misc) Boston, MA

BOSTON EVENING TRANSCRIPT (misc) Boston, MA

BOSTON HERALD (misc) Boston, MA

BOSTON MEDICAL AND SURGICAL JOURNAL (1828-1851) Boston, MA

BOSTON MISCELLANY OF LITERATURE AND FASHION (1842-1843) Boston, MA

BOSTON RECORDER (1830-1849) Boston, MA

BOSTON WEEKLY MAGAZINE. DEVOTED TO MORAL AND ENTERTAINING LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND THE   FINE ARTS (1838-1841) Boston, MA

BRADSHAW’S MANCHESTER JOURNAL (1841) London, England   title change to   BRADSHAW’S JOURNAL: A MISCELLANY OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND ART (1842-1843) London, England

BRITISH AND FOREIGN REVIEW; OR, EUROPEAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL (1835-1844) London, England

BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY (1860-1869) Liverpool, London, England

BROADWAY JOURNAL (1845-1846) New York, NY

BROTHER JONATHAN. A WEEKLY COMPEND OF BELLES LETTRES AND THE FINE ARTS, STANDARD   LITERATURE, AND GENERAL INTELLIGENCE (1842-1843) New York, NY

BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN ART-UNION (1848-1853) New York, NY

BULLETIN DE L’AMI DES ARTS (misc)

BURTON’S GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE AND AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW (1839-1840) Philadelphia, PA   see also GRAHAM’S MAGAZINE (1840-1856)

CALIFORNIA CULTURIST: A JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, MECHANISM AND MINING   (1859-1860) San Francisco, CA

CAMPBELL’S FOREIGN MONTHLY MAGAZINE; OR, SELECT MISCELLANY OF THE PERIODICAL LITERATURE OF   GREAT BRITAIN (1842-1843) Philadelphia, PA

CASSELL’S MAGAZINE

CATHOLIC TELEGRAPH (1831-1846) Cincinnati, OH

CATHOLIC WORLD, A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND SCIENCE (1865-1869) New York, NY

CHAMBERS’S EDINBURGH JOURNAL (1832-1853) London, England   title change   CHAMBERS’S JOURNAL OF POPULAR LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ARTS (1854-1869)

CHEMIST; OR, REPORTER OF CHEMICAL DISCOVERIES AND IMPROVEMENTS, AND PROTECTOR OF THE   RIGHTS OF THE CHEMIST AND CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERAND CHEMICAL MANUFACTURER.   title change to   CHEMIST; A MONTHLY JOURNAL OFCHEMICAL PHILOSOPHY. AND OF CHEMISTEY APPLIED TO THE ARTS,   MANUFACTURES, AGRICULTURE, AND MEDICINE, AND RECORD OF PHARMACY. (  ) London, England

CHARLESTON MERCURY (1861-1865 only) Charleston, SC

CHICAGO MAGAZINE. THE WEST AS IT IS (1857) Chicago, IL

CHICAGO MEDICAL EXAMINER (1860-1869) Chicago, IL

CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE AND JOURNAL (1839-1865) Chicago, IL

CHRISTIAN EXAMINER AND RELIGIOUS MISCELLANY (1844-1857) New York, NY

CHRISTIAN INQUIRER (1846-1864) New York, NY

CHRISTIAN OBSERVATORY: A RELIGIOUS AND LITERARY MAGAZINE (1847-1850) Boston, MA

CHRISTIAN OBSERVER (1840-1860) Louisville, KY

CHRISTIAN PARLOR MAGAZINE (1844-1855) New York, NY

CHRISTIAN RECORDER (1861-1869) Philadelphia, PA

CHRISTIAN REFLECTOR (1838-1848) Boston, MA

CHRISTIAN REGISTER AND BOSTON OBSERVER (1835-1843) Boston, MA   title change to   CHRISTIAN REGISTER (1843-1850) Boston, MA

CHRISTIAN REVIEW (1836-1863) Boston, MA

CHRISTIAN WATCHMAN (1839-1848) Boston, MA

CHURCH REVIEW, AND ECCLESIASTICAL REGISTER (1848-1858) New Haven, CT

CINCINNATI DAILY CHRONICAL (misc) Cincinnati, OH

CINCINNATI WEEKLY HERALD AND PHILANTHROPIST (1843-1846) Cincinnati, OH

CLASSICAL MUSEUM: A JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY, AND OF ANCIENT HISTORY AND LITERATURE (1844-1850)   London, England

COLMAN’S RURAL WORLD (1865-1869) St. Louis, MO

COLORED AMERICAN (1837-1841) New York, NY

COLUMBIAN LADY’S AND GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE, EMBRACING LITERATURE IN EVERY DEPARTMENT:   EMBELLISHED WITH THE FINEST STEEL AND MEZZOTINT ENGRAVINGS, MUSIC, AND COLORED FASHIONS   (1844-1849) New York, NY

COMMERCIAL REVIEW OF THE SOUTH AND WEST (1846-1850) New Orleans, LA

CONGREGATIONAL QUARTERLY. CONDUCTED UNDER THE SANCTION OF THE CONGREGATIONAL LIBRARY   ASSOCIATION AND THE AMERICAN CONGREGATIONAL UNION. (1859-1869)

CONNECTICUT COMMON SCHOOL JOURNAL AND ANNALS OF EDUCATION, (1851-1866) Hartford, CT

CONTINENTAL MONTHLY: DEVOTED TO LITERATURE AND NATIONAL POLICY (1862-1864) New York, NY

CORSAIR: A GAZETTE OF LITERATURE, ART, DRAMATIC CRITICISM, FASHION & NOVELTY (1839-1840)   New York, NY

COSMOPOLITAN ART JOURNAL (1856-1861) New York, NY

CRAYON (1855-1861) New York, NY

CRITERION. LITERARY AND CRITICAL JOURNAL. (1855-1856) New York, NY

CRITIC, LONDON LITERARY JOURNAL (1851) London, England

CULTIVATOR (1834-1865) Albany, NY

DAGUERREIAN JOURNAL (1850-1851) New York, NY   title change to   HUMPHREY’S JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY, AND THE ALLIED ARTS AND SCIENCES (1852-1862) New York, NY

DAGUERREOTYPE: A MAGAZINE OF FOREIGN LITERATURE AND SCIENCE: COMPILED CHIEFLY FROM THE   PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS OF ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND GERMANY (1847-1849). Boston, MA

DAILY SCIENTIFIC PRESS (   ) ??

DEBOW’S REVIEW, AGRICULTURAL, COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS AND RESOURCES (1846-1869)   New Orleans, LA

DIAL: A MAGAZINE FOR LITERATURE, PHILOSOPHY, AND RELIGION (1840-1844) Boston. MA

DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK (1840-1852) Albany, NY

DOLLAR MAGAZINE (1851) see HOLDEN’S DOLLAR MAGAZINE

DOLLAR MAGAZINE; A MONTHLY GAZETTE OF CURRENT LITERATURE, MUSIC AND ART (1841-1842) New York,   NY

DOLLAR MONTHLY MAGAZINE (1863-1865) see BALLOU’S DOLLAR MONTHLY MAGAZINE

DOUGLASS’ MONTHLY (1859-1862) Rochester, NY

DRAMATIC MIRROR AND LITERARY COMPANION (1841-1842) New York, NY

DUBLIN REVIEW (1839-1869) London, England

DUBLIN SATURDAY MAGAZINE: A JOURNAL OF INSTRUCTION AND AMUSEMENT, COMPRISING IRISH   BIOGRAPHY AND ANTIQUITIES, ORIGINAL TALES AND SKETCHES, POETRY, VARIETIES, ETC. (1865-1867)   Dublin, Ireland

DUBLIN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE (1839-1869) Dublin, Ireland

DUBUQUE DAILY EXPRESS AND HERALD (misc) Dubuque, IA

DUFFY’S HIBERNIAN MAGAZINE: A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF LEGENDS, TALES, AND STORIES, IRISH   ANTIQUITIES, BIOGRAPHY, SCIENCE, AND ART (1860-1864) Dublin, Ireland.

DWIGHTS AMERICAN MAGAZINE, AND FAMILY NEWSPAPER, FOR THE DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE   AND MORAL AND RELIGIOUS PRINCIPLE (1845-1851) New York

EAST ANGLIAN, OR, NOTES AND QUERIES ON SUBJECTS CONNECTED WITH THE COUNTIES OF SUFFOLK, CAMBRIDGE, ESSEX AND NORFOLK

ECLECTIC MAGAZINE OF FOREIGN LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ART (1833-1869) New York, NY   first published as   MUSEUM OF FOREIGN LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ART (1839-1842)   title change to   AMERICAN ECLECTIC AND MUSEUM OF FOREIGN LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ART (Jan. 1843–Jan. 1844)   title change to   ECLECTIC MAGAZINE OF FOREIGN LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ART (1844–1869) New York, NY

ECLECTIC REVIEW (1839-1868) London, England

EDINBURGH REVIEW, OR CRITICAL JOURNAL (1830-1869) Edinburgh, Scotland

EDINBURGH REVIEW (AMERICAN EDITION) (    ) New York, NY

EMANCIPATOR AND REPUBLICAN (1844-1850) BOSTON, MA

EMERSON’S MAGAZINE AND PUTNAM’S MONTHLY see PUTNAM’S MONTHLY

EPISCOPAL RECORDER (1831-1851) Philadelphia, PA

EVANGELICAL MAGAZINE AND GOSPEL ADVOCATE (1830-1848) Utica, NY

EVERGREEN: A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF NEW AND POPULAR TALES AND POETRY (1840-1841) New York, NY

EVERY SATURDAY: A JOURNAL OF CHOICE READING, SELECTED FROM FOREIGN CURRENT LITERATURE   (1866-1874) Boston, MA

EXPOSITOR, A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE, LITERATURE (1838-1839)   New York, NY

FAMILY CIRCLE & PARLOR ANNUAL (misc.) New York, NY

FAMILY MAGAZINE; OR, MONTHLY ABSTRACT OF GENERAL KNOWLEDGE (1833-1841) New York, NY

FARMER’S MAGAZINE (1840-1869) London, England

FARMERS’ REGISTER: A MONTHLY PUBLICATION (1833-1843) Shellbanks, VA

FLAG OF OUR UNION (1854-1869) Boston, MA

FINE ARTS ALMANACK, OR, ARTIST’S REMEMBRANCER FOR THE YEAR (1850-1852) London, England

FINE ARTS QUARTERLY REVIEW (1863-1867) London, England

FINE ARTS’ JOURNAL; A WEEKLY RECORD OF PAINTING, SCULPTURE, ARCHITECTURE, MUSIC, THE DRAMA,   AND POLITE LITERATURE. (1846-1847) London, England

FOEDERAL AMERICAN MONTHLY (1865) New York, NY

FOREIGN AND COLONIAL QUARTERLY REVIEW (1843-1844) London, England   title change to   NEW QUARTERLY REVIEW; OR, HOME, FOREIGN AND COLONIAL JOURNAL (1844-1847) London, England

FOREIGN QUARTERLY REVIEW (1827-1846) London, England   title change to   WESTMINSTER AND FOREIGN QUARTERLY REVIEW. (1846-1847)

FORRESTER’S BOYS’ AND GIRLS’ MAGAZINE, AND FIRESIDE COMPANION (1851-1857) Boston, MA

FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW (1865-1869) London, England

FRANK LESLIE’S ILLUSTRATED NEWSPAPER (     ) New York, NY

FRANK LESLIE’S NEW YORK JOURNAL (     ) New York, NY

FREDERICK DOUGLASS’ PAPER (1851-1860) Rochester, NY

FREED-MAN: A MONTHLY MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS OF THE FREED COLOURED PEOPLE   (1866-1868) London, England

FRIEND; A RELIGIOUS AND LITERARY JOURNAL (1839-1869) Philadelphia, PA

FRIENDS’ REVIEW; A RELIGIOUS, LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL (1847-1869) Philadelphia, PA

FRIENDS’ WEEKLY INTELLIGENCER (1844-1853) Philadelphia, PA   title change to   FRIEND’S INTELLIGENCER (1853-1869) Philadelphia, PA

GALAXY. A MAGAZINE OF ENTERTAINING READING (1866-1869) New York, NY

GENESEE FARMER (1845-1865) Rochester, NY

GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (1830-1869) London, England

GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (1837-1839) Philadelphia, PA

GERMAN REFORMED MESSENGER (1851-1867) Philadelphia, PA

GLASGOW MECHANICS’ MAGAZINE  (    ) Glasgow, Scotland

GLEASON’S PICTORIAL DRAWING-ROOM COMPANION (1851-1854) Boston, MA   title change to   BALLOU’S PICTORIAL DRAWING-ROOM COMPANION (1855-1859) Boston, MA

GODEY’S LADY’S BOOK (1840-1858) New York, NY   title change to   GODEY’S LADY’S BOOK AND MAGAZINE (1859-1869) New York, NY

GOLDEN HOURS: AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINE FOR FAMILY AND GENERAL READING (1868-1869)   London, England

GOOD WORDS (1860-1869) London, England

GRAHAM’S MAGAZINE (1840-1858) Philadelphia, PA   continues BURTON’S GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE AND AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW (1839-1840)   suffered many title and subtitle changes throughout its run   GRAHAM’S LADY’S AND GENTLEMEN’S MAGAZINE (1841-1842, 1843-1844)   to   GRAHAM’S MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE AND ART (1843)   to   GRAHAM’S AMERICAN MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE, ART, AND FASHION (1844-1856)   to   GRAHAM’S ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE (1856-1858) Philadelphia, PA

GREAT REPUBLIC MONTHLY (1859) New York, NY

GREEN MOUNTAIN GEM; A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND THE ARTS (1843-1849) Bradford

HARBINGER: DEVOTED TO SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROGRESS (1845-1849) New York, NY

HARPER’S BAZAAR (1867-1869) New York, NY

HARPER’S NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE (1850-1869) New York, NY

HARPER’S WEEKLY: A JOURNAL OF CIVILIZATION (1857-1869) New York, NY

HERALD OF HEALTH AND JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CULTURE (1864-1869) New York, NY

HERALD OF TRUTH, A MONTHLY PERIODICAL DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS OF RELIGION (1847) Cincinnati, OH

HESPERIAN: A MONTHLY MISCELLANY OF GENERAL LITERATURE, ORIGINAL AND SELECTED (1838-1839)   Cincinnati, OH

HISTORICAL MAGAZINE, AND NOTES AND QUERIES CONCERNING THE ANTIQUITIES, HISTORY, AND   BIOGRAPHY OF AMERICA (1857-1869) Boston, MA

HOGG’S WEEKLY INSTRUCTOR (1845-1849) Edinburgh, Scotland   title change to   HOGG’S INSTRUCTOR. (1849-1856)   title change to   TITAN. A MONTHLY MAGAZINE (1856-1859)

HOLDEN’S DOLLAR MAGAZINE OF CRITCISMS, BIOGRAPHIES, SKETCHES, ESSAYS, TALES, REVIEWS,   POETRY, ETC., ETC. (1848-1851) New York, NY   title change to   DOLLAR MAGAZINE (1851) New York, NY

HOME FRIEND (1852-1856) London, England

HOME JOURNAL: FOR THE CULTIVATION OF THE MEMORABLE, THE PROGRESSIVE, AND THE BEAUTIFUL   (1846-1869) New York, NY

HORTICULTURIST AND JOURNAL OF RURAL ARTS AND RURAL TASTE (1846-1869) Albany, NY

HOURS AT HOME; A POPULAR MONTHLY OF INSTRUCTION AND RECREATION (1865-1869) New York, NY

HOUSEHOLD WORDS CONDUCTED BY CHARLES DICKENS (1850-1859) London, England

HUMPHREY’S JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY see DAGURREIAN JOURNAL

HYGIENIC TEACHER AND WATER-CURE JOURNAL (1862) New York, NY

ILLUMINATED MAGAZINE (1843-1845) London, England

ILLUSTRATED AMERICAN NEWS (    ) New York, NY

ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS (1842-1869) London, England

ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE OF ART (1853-1854) New York, NY

ILLUSTRATED NEWS (LONDON) (1848?-1869?) London, England

ILLUSTRATED NEWS (NEW YORK) (1853) New York, NY

ILLUSTRATED NEWS OF THE WORLD AND DRAWING ROOM PORTRAIT GALLERY OF EMINENT PERSONAGES ()   London, England

IMPERIAL MAGAZINE (1826) London, England

INDEPENDENT (1848-1869) New York, NY

INTELLECTUAL OBSERVER: REVIEW OF NATIONAL HISTORY, MICROSCOPIC RESEARCH AND RECREATIVE   SCIENCE (1862-1868) London, England

INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE, ART, AND SCIENCE (1850-1852) New York, NY

IMPERIAL MAGAZINE; OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, & PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE (1819-1834)   London, England

JOHN – DONKEY (1848) New York, NY

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL SOCIETY (1859, 1870) New York, NY

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY (1843-1869) Boston, MA

JOURNAL OF BELLES LETTRES (1832-1842) Philadelphia, PA

JOURNAL OF CLASSICAL AND SACRED PHILOLOGY (1854-1856) Cambridge, England

JOURNAL OF SACRED LITERATURE (1848-1855) London. England   title change   JOURNAL OF SACRED LITERATURE AND BIBLICAL RECORD (Apr. 1855-Jan. 1868) London, England

JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE, CONTAINING THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION (1869)   New York, NY

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL SOCIETY (1859, 1870) New York, NY

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY (1843-1869) New Haven, CT

JOURNAL OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (1864-1870) London, England

JOURNAL OF THE ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (1848-1856) London, England   Continued by   TRANSACTIONS OF THE ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (1861-1869   Continued by   JOURNAL OF THE ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (1869) London, England

JOURNAL OF THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE, OF THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA, FOR THE PROMOTION OF THE   MECHANIC ARTS; DEVOTED TO MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE, CIVIL ENGINEERING, THE ARTS AND   MANUFACTURES, AND THE RECORDING OF AMERICAN AND OTHER PATENT INVENTIONS (1828-1851)   Philadelphia, PA

JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY (    ) London, England

JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF LONDON (    ) London, England

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (1832-1869) London, England

JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS (LONDON) London, England

JOURNAL OF THE STATISTICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (1838-1869) London, England

KALEIDOSCOPE; OR, LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC MIRROR (1820-1831) Liverpool, England

KIDD’S LONDON JOURNAL (1852) London, England   title change to   KIDD’S OWN JOURNAL [with vol. 1:9 (Feb. 28, 1852)] (1852-1854) London, England

KNICKERBOCKER; OR NEW YORK MONTHLY MAGAZINE (1833-1862) New York, NY   title change to

KNICKERBOCKER MONTHLY; A NATIONAL MAGAZINE (1863) New York, NY

LADIES’ COMPANION, A MONTHLY MAGAZINE; DEVOTED TO LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS (1834-1843)   title change to   LADIES’ COMPANION, AND LITERARY EXPOSITOR; A MONTHLY MAGAZINE EMBRACING EVERY DEPARTMENT   OF LITERATURE (1843-1844) New York, NY

LADIES’ GARLAND AND FAMILY WREATH (1837-1850) Philadelphia, PA

LADIES’ PEARL (1840-1842) Lowell, MA

LADIES REPOSITORY, AND GATHERINGS OF THE WEST (1841-1848) Cincinnati,OH   title change to   LADIES REPOSITORY: A MONTHLY PERIODICAL DEVOTED TO LITERATURE, ARTS AND RELIGION (1849-1871)   Cincinnati, OH

LADIES’ WREATH, A MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO LITERATURE, INDUSTRY AND RELIGION (1846-1859) New York, NY

LADY’S HOME MAGAZINE (1857-1860) Philadelphia, PA   see also ARTHUR’S HOME MAGAZINE

LADY’S WESTERN MAGAZINE AND GARLAND OF THE VALLEY (1849) Cincinnatti, OH

LANCET (1839-1869) London, England

LEISURE HOUR: A FAMILY JOURNAL OF INSTRUCTION AND RECREATION (1852-1869) London, England

LIBERATOR (1831-1865) Boston, MA

LIBERTY BELL. BY FRIENDS OF FREEDOM (1839-1858) Boston, MA

LIPPINCOTT’S MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND EDUCATION (1868-1869) Philadelphia, PA

LITERARY GAZETTE, AND JOURNAL OF THE BELLES LETTRES (     ) ??

LITERARY UNION; A JOURNAL OF PROGRESS, IN LITERATURE AND EDUCATION, RELIGION AND POLITICS,   SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE (1849-1850). Syracuse, NY

LITERARY WORLD (1847-1853). New York, NY

LITTELL’S LIVING AGE (1844-1869) Boston, MA

LIVERPOOL & MANCHESTER PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL [BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY] (   )

LONDON AND EDINBURGH PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE (1832-1840) London, England   title change to LONDON, EDINBURGH AND DUBLIN PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE (1840-1869) London, England

LONDON JOURNAL AND WEEKLY RECORD OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND ART (1845-1869) London, England

LONDON JOURNAL OF ARTS, SCIENCES, & MANUFACTURERS & REPERTORY OF PATENT INVENTIONS   (1839-1854)   title change   NEWTON’S LONDON JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES (1855-1866) London, England

LONDON POLYTECHNIC MAGAZINE, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND THE FINE ARTS (1844)   London, England

[LONDON] QUARTERLY REVIEW (1838-1869) London, England

LONDON QUARTERLY REVIEW (Sept. 1853-Jan. 1858)   title change   LONDON REVIEW (Apr. 1858-July 1862)   title change   LONDON QUARTERLY REVIEW (Oct. 1862-Jan. 1932) London, England

LONDON READER: OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ART AND GENERAL INFORMATION (1863-1869) London, England

LONDON SATURDAY JOURNAL (1839-1842) London, England

LOWELL OFFERING (1840-1845) Lowell, MA

MACMILLAN’S MAGAZINE (1859-1869) London, England

MAGAZINE FOR THE MILLION (1844) New York, NY

MAGAZINE OF ART (    )  ???

MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND SCHOOL OF ARTS (1839-1849)   title change   MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE, AND ARTISTS’, ARCHITECTS’ AND BUILDERS’ JOURNAL (1850-1852) London, England

MAGNET: DEVOTED TO THE INVESTIGATION OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY (   ) ??

MAGNOLIA; OR, SOUTHERN APALACHIAN (1842-1843) Charleston, SC

MAINE FARMER AND JOURNAL OF THE USEFUL ARTS (1833-1842) Augusta, ME   title change to   MAINE FARMER AND MECHANICS ADVOCATE (1842-1843) Augusta, ME   title change to   MAINE FARMER: A FAMILY NEWSPAPER, DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, MECHANIC ARTS, LITERATURE,   GENERAL INTELLIGENCE, &C., &C. (1844-1869) Augusta, ME

MARYLAND MEDICAL AND SURGICAL JOURNAL, AND OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF   THE ARMY AND NAVY OF THE UNITED STATES (1840)

MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOCIETY. MEDICAL COMMUNICATIONS (1839-1869) Boston, MA

MASSACHUSETTS PLOUGHMAN AND NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE (1840-1869) Boston, MA

MASSACHUSETTS QUARTERLY REVIEW (1847-1850) Boston, MA

MASSACHUSETTS TEACHER (1848-1855)   title change   MASSACHUSETTS TEACHER AND JOURNAL OF HOME AND SCHOOL EDUCATION (1856-1871). Boston, MA

MATHEMATICAL MONTHLY (1858-1861) Cambridge, MA

MECHANICS’ MAGAZINE, MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE (1838-1858) London, England

MEDICAL AND SURGICAL REPORTER: A WEEKLY JOURNAL (1858-1869) Philadelphia, PA

see NEW JERSEY MEDICAL REPORTER AND TRANSACTIONS OF THE NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY

MEDICAL EXAMINER (1838-1842) Philadelphia, PA   title change to   MEDICAL EXAMINER AND RECORD OF MEDICAL SCIENCE (1844-1853) Philadelphia, PA   title change to   MEDICAL EXAMINER (1854-1856) Philadelphia, PA

MEDICAL NEWS (1843-1869) New York, NY

MERCERSBURG REVIEW (1849-1852) Lancaster, PA   title change to   MERCERSBURG QUARTERLY REVIEW (1853-1856) Lancaster, PA   title change to   MERCERSBURG REVIEW (1857-1869) Lancaster, PA

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE AND COMMERCIAL REVIEW (1839-1870) New York, NY

MERRY’S MUSEUM (1841-1851) Boston, MA   title change   MERRY’S MUSEUM AND PARLEY’S MAGAZINE (1852-1857)   title change   MERRY’S MUSEUM, PARLEY’S MAGAZINE, WOODWORTH’S CABINET, AND THE SCHOOLFELLOW (1858-1866)   title change   MERRY’S MUSEUM AND WOODWORTH’S CABINET (1867-1867)   title change MERRY’S MUSEUM FOR BOYS AND GIRLS (1868-1869). Boston, MA

METHODIST QUARTERLY REVIEW (1841-1869) New York, NY

MICHIGAN FARMER (1843-1869) Detroit, MI

MIRROR OF LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION (1822-1847) London, England   title change to   MIRROR MONTHLY MAGAZINE (1847-1849) London, England

MISSIONARY HERALD, CONTAINING THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR   FOREIGN MISSIONS FOR THE YEAR . (1839-1869) Boston, MA

MISSIONARY MAGAZINE (BAPTIST) (1850-1872) Boston, MA

MONTHLY CHRONICLE OF EVENTS, DISCOVERIES, IMPROVEMENTS, AND OPINIONS. INTENDED FOR THE   POPULAR DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE, AND AN AUTHENTIC RECORD OF FACTS FOR FUTURE   REFERENCE (1840-1842) Boston, MA

MONTHLY LAW REPORTER (1848-1866) Boston, MA

MONTHLY RELIGIOUS MAGAZINE (1844-1856) Boston, MA   title change to   MONTHLY RELIGIOUS MAGAZINE AND INDEPENDENT JOURNAL (1856-1861) Boston, MA   title change to   MONTHLY RELIGIOUS MAGAZINE (1861-1869) Boston, MA

MORRIS’S NATIONAL PRESS, A JOURNAL FOR HOME (1846) New York, NY

MUSICAL MAGAZINE; OR, RESPOSITORY OF MUSICAL SCIENCE, LITERATURE AND INTELLIGENCE (1839-1842)   Boston, MA

MUSICAL TIMES AND SINGING CLASS CIRCULAR (1844-1869) London, England NAUSSAU MONTHLY (1842-1847) Princeton, NJ   title change ..NASSAU LITERARY MAGAZINE (1848-1869). Princeton, NJ

NATION (1861-1869) New York, NY

NATIONAL ERA (1847-1860). Washington, DC

NATIONAL MAGAZINE; DEVOTED TO LITERATURE, ART, AND RELIGION (1852-1858) New York, NY

NATIONAL POLICE GAZETTE (1845-1869) New York, NY [INCOMPLETE]

NATIONAL PREACHER AND VILLAGE PULPIT (1858-1866) New York, NY

NATIONAL REVIEW (1855-1864) London, England.

NATURAL HISTORY REVIEW, AND QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. (1854-1865) London, England

NEW ENGLAND FAMILY MAGAZINE (1845) Boston, MA

NEW ENGLAND FARMER; A MONTHLY JOURNAL (1848-1869) Boston, MA

NEW-ENGLAND HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL REGISTER (1847-1869) Boston, MA

NEW ENGLANDER (1843-1869) New York, NY

NEW JERSEY MEDICAL REPORTER AND TRANSACTIONS OF THE NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY (1847-1854)   title change to   NEW JERSEY MEDICAL REPORTER (1855) Burlington, VT

NEW MIRROR (1843-1844) New York, NY

NEW PATH (1863-1865) New York, NY

NEW SPORTING MAGAZINE (1839-1869) London, England

NEW WORLD; A WEEKLY FAMILY JOURNAL OF POPULAR LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ART AND NEWS (1840-1845)   New York, NY

NEW YORK DAILY CHRONICAL (misc) New York, NY

NEW YORK EVANGELIST (1830-1869) New York, NY

NEW YORK EVENING POST (misc) New York, NY

NEW YORK HERALD (1861-1865 only) New York, NY

NEW YORK ILLUSTRATED ANNUAL (1847) New York, NY

NEW YORK ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE AND ART (1845-1847) New York, NY

NEW YORK ILLUSTRATED NEWS (misc) New York, NY

NEW YORK JOURNAL OF MEDICINE AND COLLATERAL SCIENCES (1843-1856) New York, NY   title change to   NEW YORK JOURNAL OF MEDICINE (1856-1860). New York, NY

NEW YORK OBSERVER AND CHRONICLE (1840-1869) New York, NY

NEW YORK REVIEW (1837-1842) New York, NY

NEW YORK STATE MECHANIC, A JOURNAL OF THE MANUAL ARTS, TRADES, AND MANUFACTURES (1841-1843)   Albany, NY

NEW YORK TEACHER AND AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY (1868-1869) New York, NY see AMERICAN   EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY (1864-1867). New York, NY

NEW YORK TIMES (1851-1869) New York, NY [INCOMPLETE]

NEW YORK WEEKLY HERALD (1840-1857) New York, NY

NEW-YORK LEGAL OBSERVER, CONTAINING REPORTS OF CASES DECIDED IN THE COURTS OF EQUITY AND   COMMON LAW, AND IMPORTANT DECISIONS IN THE ENGLISH COURTS; ALSO, ARTICLES ON LEGAL   SUBJECTS, WITH A TABLE OF CASES, A GENERAL INDEX, AND A DIGEST OF THE REPORTS (1842-1854)   New York, NY

NEW-YORK MIRROR: A WEEKLY GAZETTE OF LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS (1839-1842) New York, NY

NEW-YORKER. A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF LITERATURE, POLITICS, STATISTICS AND GENERAL INTELLIGENCE   (1836-1841) New York, NY

NEWTON’S LONDON JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES (1855-1866) London, England

see LONDON JOURNAL OF ARTS, SCIENCES, & MANUFACTURERS & REPERTORY OF PATENT INVENTIONS

NILES’ NATIONAL REGISTER (1837-1849) Baltimore, MD

NORTH AMERICAN MISCELLANY; A WEEKLY MAGAZINE OF CHOICE SELECTIONS FROM THE CURRENT   LITERATURE OF THIS COUNTRY AND EUROPE (1851). New York,   title change to   NORTH AMERICAN MISCELLANY AND DOLLAR MAGAZINE (1851-1852). New York, NY

NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW (1839-1869) Boston, MA

NORTH BRITISH REVIEW (1844-1871) Edinburgh, Scotland

NORTH STAR (1847-1851) Rochester, NY

NOTES AND QUERIES (1849-1869) London, England

OHIO CULTIVATOR (1845-1866) Columbus, OH

OHIO FARMER (1856-1869) Cleveland, OH

OHIO MEDICAL AND SURGICAL JOURNAL (1848-1869) Columbus, OH

OLD GUARD: A MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE PRINCIPLES OF 1776 AND 1787 (1863-1870) New York, NY

OLIVER OPTIC’S MAGAZINE. OUR BOYS AND GIRLS (1867-1869) Boston, MA

ONCE A WEEK (1859 – 1869) London, England

ONEIDA CIRCULAR (1851-1869) Brooklyn, NY

ORION, A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE AND ART (1842-1844) Penfield, GA

OUR YOUNG FOLKS. AN ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE FOR BOYS AND GIRLS (1865-1873) Boston, MA

OVERLAND MONTHLY AND OUT WEST MAGAZINE (1868-1869) San Francisco, CA

PALLADIUM: A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF LITERATURE, POLITICS, SCIENCE AND ART (1850-1851)   Edinburgh, Scotland

PATHFINDER (1843) New York, NY

PENNY ILLUSTRATED NEWS (1849-1850) London, England

PENNY MAGAZINE OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE (1832-1845)   London, England

PEOPLE’S JOURNAL (1846-1847) London, England

PEOPLE’S MAGAZINE AN ILLUSTRATED MISCELLANY FOR ALL CLASSES (1867-1869) London, England

PETERSON’S MAGAZINE (1849-1869) Philadelphia, PA

PHILADELPHIA ART-UNION REPORTER (1851) Philadelphia, PA

PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER (1864-1869) Philadelphia, PA

PHILANTHROPIST (1836-1843) Cincinnati, OH

PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (1666-1869) London, England

PHOTOGRAPHIC ART JOURNAL (1851-1853) New York, NY   title change to   PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL (1854-1860) New York, NY

PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS (1858-1859, 1860-1865) London, England

PIONEER; OR, CALIFORNIA MONTHLY MAGAZINE (1854-1855) San Francisco, CA

PLOUGH, THE LOOM AND THE ANVIL (1848-1857) Philadelphia, PA

POPULAR SCIENCE REVIEW (1861-1869) London, England.

POUGHKEEPSIE CASKET: A SEMI – MONTHLY LITERARY JOURNAL, DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO THE   DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF POLITE LITERATURE (1836-1841) Poughkeepsie, NY

POWDER MAGAZINE (1868-1869) London, England

PRACTICAL MECHANIC’S JOURNAL (    ) London, England

PRAIRIE FARMER (1843-1869) Chicago, IL

PRINCETON REVIEW (1837-1869)

PRISONER’S FRIEND. A MONTHLY MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO CRIMINAL REFORM, PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE,   LITERATURE, AND ART (1845-1857) Boston, MA

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA (1842-1869) Philadelphia, PA

PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY (1838-1869) Philadelphia, PA

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (1855-1869) London, England

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (1855-1869) London, England

PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF LONDON (1843-1864) London, England

PROVIDENCE JOURNAL (misc) Providence, RI

PROVINCIAL FREEMAN (1854-1857) Chatham, Canada West

PUTNAM’S MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ART (1853-1857) New York, NY   title change to   EMERSON’S MAGAZINE AND PUTNAM’S MONTHLY (1857-1858) New York, NY   title changed to   PUTNAM’S MAGAZINE. ORIGINAL PAPERS ON LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ART AND NATIONAL INTERESTS   (1868-1870). New York, NY

QUARTERLY REVIEW (    ) ??

QUARTERLY STATEMENT OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND (1869) London, England

RADICAL (1865-1872). Boston, MA

RAGGED SCHOOL UNION MAGAZINE (1849-1869) London, England

RAILWAY TIMES (1860-1872) Boston MA see AMERICAN RAILWAY TIMES

RECREATIVE SCIENCE: A RECORD AND REMEMBRANCER OF INTELLECTUAL OBSERVATION (1859-1862) ..title change to   THE INTELLECTUAL OBSERVER. REVIEW OF NATURAL HISTORY MICROSCOPIC RESEARCH, RECREATIVE   SCIENCE (1862-1868)   title change to   THE STUDENT AND INTELLECTUAL OBSERVER (1868-1869) London, England

REFORMED CHURCH MESSENGER (1867-1874) Philadelphia, PA

REPORT OF THE NINTH MEETING OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.   PART 2. NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS OF COMMUNICATIONS (    ) London, England

REYNOLD’S MISCELLANY OF ROMANCE, GENERAL LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND ART (1846-1869)   London, England

RIVERSIDE MAGAZINE FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY (1867-1870) New York, NY

ROBERT MERRY’S MUSEUM (1841-1850) Boston, MA   title change to   MERRY’S MUSEUM AND PARLEY’S MAGAZINE (1852-1857) Boston, MA   title change to   MERRY’S MUSEUM, PARLEY’S MAGAZINE, WOODWORTH’S CABINET, AND THE SCHOOLFELLOW (1858-1866)   title change to   MERRY’S MUSEUM AND WOODWORTH’S CABINET (1867-1867) Boston, MA   title change to   MERRY’S MUSEUM FOR BOYS AND GIRLS (1868-1869) Boston, MA

ROSE, THE SHAMROCK AND THE THISTLE (1862-1865) Edinburgh, Scotland.

ROUND TABLE. A SATURDAY REVIEW OF POLITICS, FINANCE, LITERATURE, SOCIETY AND ART   (1863-1869). New York, NY

ROVER: A WEEKLY MAGAZINE OF TALES, POETRY, AND ENGRAVINGS, ALSO SKETCHES OF TRAVEL, HISTORY   AND BIOGRAPHY (1843-1845). New York, NY

RUSSELL’S MAGAZINE (1857-1860) Charleston, SC

SAN FRANCISCO ALTA (misc) San Francisco, CA

SARGENT’S NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE, OF LITERATURE, FASHION, AND THE FINE ARTS (1843) New York, NY

SARTAIN’S UNION MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE AND ART (1849-1852) Philadelphia, PA   previously UNION MAGAZINE (1847-1848) New York, NY

SATURDAY EVENING POST (1839-1869) Philadelphia, PA

SATURDAY MAGAZINE (1838-1844) London, England

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN (1845-1869) New York, NY

SCOTTISH REVIEW. A QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PROGRESS & GENERAL LITERATURE (1853-1863)   Glasgow, Scotland

SHARPE’S LONDON MAGAZINE, A JOURNAL OF ENTERTAINMENT AND INSTRUCTION FOR GENERAL READING   (1845-1849) London, England

SILLIMAN’S JOURNAL see AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ARTS

SOUTHERN AGRICULTURIST AND REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIRS (1828-1839) Charleston, SC   title change   SOUTHERN CABINET OF AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, RURAL AND DOMESTIC ECONOMY (1840)   Charleston, SC

SOUTHERN AND WESTERN LITERARY MESSENGER AND REVIEW (1846-1847) Richmond, VA

SOUTHERN AND WESTERN MONTHLY MAGAZINE AND REVIEW (1845) Charleston, SC

SOUTHERN LITERARY MESSENGER (1834-1845) Richmond, VA title change to   SOUTHERN LITERARY MESSENGER; DEVOTED TO EVERY DEPARTMENT OF LITERATURE, AND THE FINE   ARTS (1848-1864) Richmond, VA

SOUTHERN PLANTER (1841-1866) Richmond, VA   title change to   SOUTHERN PLANTER AND FARMER (1867-1869) Richmond, VA

SOUTHERN QUARTERLY REVIEW (1842-1857) New Orleans, NO

SPECTATOR (misc) London, England

SPHINX (1868-1869) Manchester, England

SPIRIT OF THE TIMES; A CHRONICLE OF THE TURF, AGRICULTURE, FIELD SPORTS, LITERATURE AND THE   STAGE (1835-1861) New York, NY

STRYKER’S AMERICAN REGISTER AND MAGAZINE (1850-1851) Philadelphia, PA

SUNDAY AT HOME (1854-1869) London, England

TAIT’S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE (1839-1860) Edinburgh, Scotland

TEMPLE BAR: A LONDON MAGAZINE FOR TOWN AND COUNTRY READERS (1860-1869) London, England

THEOLOGICAL AND LITERARY JOURNAL (1848-1861) New York, NY

TRAIN: A FIRST-CLASS MAGAZINE (1856-1858) London, England

TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY (1839-1869) Philadelphia, PA

TRANSACTIONS OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (1863) London, England (1863) see JOURNAL OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON .(1864-1870) London, England

TRANSACTIONS OF THE HISTORIC SOCIETY OF LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE. (1849-1869) Lancashire, England.

TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, MANUFACTURES, AND COMMERCE (1839-1843/44) London, England

TRUMPET AND UNIVERSALIST MAGAZINE (1839-1851) Boston, MA

TWICE A WEEK: AN ILLUSTRATED LONDON JOURNAL OF ENTERTAINING LITERATURE AND USEFUL   INFORMATION (1862-1862) London, England

UNION MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE AND ART (1847-1848) New York, NY   see SARTAIN’S UNION MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE AND ART (1849-1852). Philadelphia, PA

UNITED STATES CATHOLIC MAGAZINE AND MONTHLY REVIEW (1844-1848). Baltimore, MD

UNITED STATES MAGAZINE & DEMOCRATIC REVIEW (1837-1851) New York, NY   title change to   DEMOCRATIC REVIEW (Jan.–Dec. 1852) New York, NY   title change to   THE UNITED STATES REVIEW (1853-1856) New York, NY   title change to   UNITED STATES DEMOCRATIC REVIEW (1856-1859) New York, NY

UNITED STATES MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE, ART, MANUFACTURES, AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE AND TRADE   (1854-1856) New York, NY   title change to   UNITED STATES MAGAZINE (1856-1857) New York, NY

UNITED STATES SERVICE MAGAZINE (1864-1866) New York, NY

UNIVERSAL REVIEW (1859-1860) London, England

UNIVERSALIST QUARTERLY AND GENERAL REVIEW (1844-1869) Boston, MA

UNIVERSALIST WATCHMAN, REPOSITORY AND CHRONICLE (1831-1847) Woodstock, VT

VALLEY FARMER (1849-1864) St. Louis, MO

VANITY FAIR (1859-1863) New York, NY

VILLAGE RECORD (1860-1867) West Chester, PA

VIRGINIA HISTORICAL REGISTER, AND LITERARY NOTE BOOK (1850-1851) Richmond, VA

WATER-CURE JOURNAL (1845-1861) New York, NY

WELLMAN’S LITERARY MISCELLANY (1849-1851) Detroit, MI

WESLEYAN-METHODIST MAGAZINE (1835-1869) London, England

WESTERN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, MECHANIC ARTS, INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT,   COMMERCE, AND GENERAL LITERATURE (1848-1851) St. Louis, MO   title change to   WESTERN JOURNAL AND CIVILIAN; DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, MECHANIC ARTS,   INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT, COMMERCE, PUBLIC POLICY, AND POLITE LITERATURE (1851-1856) St. Louis, MO

WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY (1840-1855). Louisville, KY

WESTERN LAW JOURNAL (1843-1853) Cincinnati, OH

WESTERN LITERARY CABINET (1853-1854) Detroit, MI

WESTERN LITERARY MESSENGER. A FAMILY MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ART, MORALITY, AND   GENERAL INTELLIGENCE ( 1847-1857) Buffalo, NY

WESTERN QUARTERLY REVIEW (1849). Cincinnati, OH

WESTMINSTER REVIEW (1839- 1869) London, England

YALE LITERARY MAGAZINE. CONDUCTED BY THE STUDENTS OF YALE UNIVERSITY (1836-1851) New Haven, CT

YANKEE DOODLE (1846-1847). New York, NY

YEARBOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC (1864-1869) London, England

YOUNG AMERICA! ORGAN OF THE NATIONAL REFORM ASSOCIATION (1845-1848) New York, NY

YOUTH’S COMPANION (1827-1869) Boston, MA

ZION’S HERALD (1839-1841) Boston, MA   title change to   ZION’S HERALD AND WESLEYAN JOURNAL (1842-1867) Boston, MA   title change to   ZION’S HERALD (1868-1869)

@@@

BELOW ARE A COUPLE OF PAGES TAKEN FROM THE EXISTING FILE – WHICH NEEDS PROOFING – BUT WHICH SHOWS SOMETHING OF THE MATERIALS….

GENESEE FARMER: A MONTHLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE & HORTICULTURE, DOMESTIC AND RURAL ECONOMY (1845-1865) Rochester, NY

Edited by Daniel Lee and D. D. T. Moore. Rochester, NY Publisher and Proprietor.

For the type of publication, profusely illustrated with woodcuts, a very occasional steel engraving tipped –in.

indexed

[1845-1865 all?]

HALL, H. P. (SARATOGA SPRINGS, NY) see also EXHIBITIONS. 1847. NEW YORK STATE FAIR. (GENESEE FARMER, Nov. 1847)

EXHIBITIONS. 1847. SARATOGA. NEW YORK STATE FAIR.

“Premiums Awarded at the New York State Fair, 1847.” GENESEE FARMER 8:11 (Nov. 1847): 262-265. [Awards, organized by classes—“Cattle,” “Fat Cattle,” “Horses,” “Domestic Manufactures,” “Needle, Shell, and Wax Work,” “Flowers,” etc. Discretionary Premiums were awarded to, among others, “…H. P. Hall, Saratoga Springs, Daguerreotype,…” p. 265.]

UNKNOWN. USA. 1849.

1 b & w (“G. Pratt.”) GENESEE FARMER 10:2 (Feb. 1849): frontispiece. [“Engraved by T. I. Roy.” Not credited, but from a daguerreotype.]

MCDONALD, ALEXANDER. (BUFFALO, NY)

“Editor’s Table. Daguerreotypes of Devon Cattle.” GENESEE FARMER 10:4 (Apr. 1849): 96. [“We are indebted to Wm. Garbutt, Esq., of Wheatland, for Daguerreotypes of a pair of four year old Steers, and a two year old Heifer, (Devons,) owned by E. P. Beck, of Sheldon, Wyoming county. The animals represented received the first premium (in each class, as grass fed animals,) at the State Fair at Buffalo, in September last. The “counterfeit presentments” are quite natural and life like, and creditable to the artist— Alex. McDonald, of Buffalo. The likenesses can be seen at our office.”]

EXHIBITIONS. 1849. SYRACUSE, NY. NEW YORK STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.

“Agricultural Societies. New York State Agricultural Society. Judges on the Premium List”. GENESEE FARMER 10:6 (June 1849): 148. [“At a meeting of the Executive Committee of this Society, held in Syracuse on the 10th of May, the following Judges were appointed for the Annual Show,—to be held in that city on the 11th, 12th and 13th days of September next:—… Animal Paintings, Paintings And Daguerreotypes.— T. R. Walker, Utica; E. P. Prentice, Albany; A. Stevens, New York….”]

BROWN & HOWARD. (ROCHESTER, NY)

[Advertisement.] “Daguerreotypes that are Daguerreotypes.” GENESEE FARMER 11:8 (Aug. 1850): 199. [“Brown & Howard’s Emporium Daguerrean Gallery, No. 9, second floor Gould Buildings. Having opened a splendid Gallery in the Gould Block, would respectfully invite the public and all those wishing good likenesses, to give us a call, and we will assure them they will not waste time and money, as is often the case. Our Gallery is furnished in a style of unusual splendor, equal to any in the State. The walls are adorned with some of the finest works of Art, both of pencil and the engraver. Strangers visiting the city, and having a few leisure hours, will be simply rewarded by a visit to our Gallery, which will be kept open during all business hours. Please call and examine for yourselves. Wm. Brown, John Howard. The undersigned takes this method of informing the citizens of Rochester and vicinity that by the solicitations of many citizens, he has been induced to return to the city for the purpose of making it a place of permanent location. Having been absent from the city for one year, and in constant practice, experimenting in the above named Art, has now returned better qualified than ever, not only to sustain, but to excel my former reputation as an Artist., being well known in this city and vicinity, as formerly principal operator in Mercer’ & Co.’s Gallery, corner of Main and St. Paul streets, would now respectfully invite my old friends, and the public generally, to call on No. 9 Gould Buildings, where you can see likenesses that will speak for themselves. W. Brown.” (This ad ran several times in 1850.)]

UNKNOWN. USA. 1852.

Campbell, George, of West Minister, Vt. “French Merino Sheep.” GENESEE FARMER 13:8 (Aug. 1852): 247-249. 2 b & w. [Illustrated with portraits of two herds of sheep, engraved from daguerreotypes. “I send you a wood cut, engraved from a Daguerreotype, of a group of French sheep imported by Wm. Chamberlain, Esq., of Red Hook, of your state, and myself, one year since…” ]

BOOKS. 1858. see also BY COUNTRY. USA. 1858. (GENESEE FARMER, Sept. 1858)

BY COUNTRY. USA. 1858.

“Notices of Books, Pamphlets, &c.” GENESEE FARMER 19:9 (Sept. 1858): 291. [Book review. The New American Cyclopedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1858. “It is nearlt thirty years since a complete Cyclopedia was published in this country; since that time we have doubled both our population and our area—peopled the Gold Regions—discovered a new Continent—gone through a war—buried our third generation of great Statesmen, in Clay, Calhoun, Webster and Benton—built towns like Chicago, all our Railways, our Ocean Steamers, our Iron Houses (sic Horses]—invented the Photograph, the Electric Telegraph, and the Lightning Press—introduced cheap Postage, steel Pens, gummed Envelopes, Lucifer Matches, Ice, Omnibuses, Chloroform, etc., etc. These matters are all dealt with in this work…”]

UNKNOWN. GREAT BRITAIN. 1860.

“White Sprouting Broccoli.” GENESEE FARMER 21:2 (Feb. 1860): 64-65. 1 b & w. [From London Gardner’s Chronicle. “…The annexed representation of an individual of the present season, and therefore of the fourth generation, engraved from a photograph, will show what the new race has become…”]

UNKNOWN. USA. 1861.

Presbrey, Otis. F. “The Ontario Grape.” GENESEE FARMER 22:4 (Apr. 1861): 121. 1 b & w. [“Eds. Genesee Farmer:–Knowing the interest taken by your journal in Grape culture, I send you for insertion a cut from a photograph of a cluster of the Ontario Grape. This new variety originated in Canada, near Lake Ontario, from which it was named….”]

UNKNOWN. AUSTRIA. 1860.

“The Cultivation of a Grape Vine.” GENESEE FARMER 24:4 (Apr. 1863): 122-123. 1 b & w. [From the Journal d’Agriculture Pratique. Full-page engraving “A Grape Vine, Engraved after a Photograph made at Chateau Mornay (Vienna,) bearing 30 Bunches of Grapes on the ‘Fruit’ Canes and 6 on the ‘Wood’ Canes.”]

BY COUNTRY. USA. 1863.

“Miscellaneous.” GENESEE FARMER 24:9 (Sept. 1863): 288. [“Why are photographers the most uncivil of all trades-people? Because when we make application for a copy of our portrait the always reply with a negative.”]

BY COUNTRY. USA. 1861-1864 (US CIVIL WAR)

[Advertisement.] “Just What Everybody Wants.” GENESEE FARMER 25:3 (May 1864): 99. [Our New Pocket Album. [For Soldier and Civilian.] Holding sixteen pictures, is the cheapest and the best Pocket Album ever offered to the public. Sent by mail to any address, post paid, on receipt of Seventy-five cents. It can be filled with pictures (16) and sent by mail to soldiers in the army, or friends anywhere in Uncles Sam’s dominions, at the very trifiling sum of Thirty Cents postage. Orders promptly filled by Samuel Bowles & Company, Photograph Album Manufacturers, Springfield, Mass.”]

BY COUNTRY. USA. 1865.

[Advertisement.] “100 Photographs of Union Generals.” GENESEE FARMER 26:11 (Nov. 1865): 358. [“…sent postpaid for 25 cents; 100 Photographs of Handsome Ladies for 25 cents; 100 Photographs of Actors for 25 cents; 50 photographs of Rebel Officers for 25 cents. Address C. R. Seymour, Holland, Erie Co., N. Y.”]

ZZZ

GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (1830-1869) London, England

Previous Title(s): the Gentleman’s Magazine: or, Monthly Intellegencer / Jan. 1731-Dec. 1735

Originally Published: London: Chatto & Windus, 1731-1907. The Gentleman’s Magazine: continues the Gentleman’s Magazine: and historical review (1856-1868), the Gentleman’s Magazine: and historical chronicle (1731-1833) and the Gentleman’s Magazine: or monthly intelligencer (1731-1735).

Mitford, John, editor, 1834-1850; Nichols, John Gough, editor, 1851-1856; Parker, John Henry, editor, 1857-1865; Hatton, Joseph, editor, 1868-1873.

Description: 123 v. bill., chart, facsims., maps, plans, plates (part col.), ports., tables. 22cm.

Fearful of losing the lead in technological innovation and industrialization to other European rivals, and under Price Albert’s goading, a major effort was extended throughout Great Britain during the 1850s-1860s to encourage the diffusion of knowledge in the arts and sciences throughout all segments of British society. One facet of this effort was the establishment and growth of numerous organizations or societies, established and fostered by the literate professional classes, and tied to the encouragement of learning in specific disciplines or fields of study. Antiquities research and archaeological studies held an active interest among the educated and leisured class in Britain during the 1850s-1860s. The Gentleman’s Magazine, whose demographic was drawn from this group, became the journal of record for a number of these local and national organizations; which met regularly—often on a monthly schedule. Often the same individuals who perused these studies throughout the 1850s also practiced amateur photography in order to use this vital new tool for their research. The reports of many of these meetings frequently includes notations of the use of photographs for research and reporting of the discoveries in these disciplines, and therefore provides an indicator of the increasing reliance that these sciences placed upon photography.

The journal was reorganized with both a new publisher and a new editor in 1866. “For, whilst The Gentleman’s Magazine will continue to preserve its high antiquarian character, it is the intention of its new managers, in concert with a large circle of able and accomplished friends on whose aid they can rely, to include, as far as may be, matters of present interest, and to secure for its readers all necessary information respecting the chief subjects of the day as they arise. In the New Series a much larger space will be devoted to current literature than has of late years been the case; and its reviews will embrace a wider range of subjects, including not only History, Antiquities, and Architecture, but also Art and Science, Biography, Personal Memoirs, Philology, Music and the Drama, Natural History, and Theology in its uncontroversial aspects. Fiction and Politics alone will be excluded. ‘Svlvanus Urban ‘ also desires to lay open his columns much more extensively than hitherto to Original Correspondence, especially on matters of genealogy, topography, heraldry, local antiquities, personal and family history, folk-lore, philology, &c. ” Increased care will be taken to make the ‘ Monthly Intelligence,” Gazette Appointments,’ &c.,’ Births, Marriages, and Obituary ‘ (including authentic Memoirs), as perfect a record as possible of the changes that are being daily worked by the silent hand of Time among the upper and middle classes of society;…” (Gentleman’s Magazine ns 1 (Jan. 1866): iv.) The effect was to present a more modern magazine, dealing with a larger range of contemporary issues, while retaining much of the concerns and feel of the traditional contents. Reports of the activities of the existing antiquarian and anthropological societies were broadened to include even more organizations. For example, the July 1866 issue devoted eighteen pages of texts to reports of the meetings of twenty-one national and four local societies –ranging from the Royal Asiatic Society to the Zoological Society; from the Royal Society (London) to the Yorkshire Philosophical Society and including such diverse interests as Astronomy, Horticulture, Literature, Geology, Geography, Numismatics, and Statistics. In fact, a major new contributor publicly proclaimed a sustained amateur interest in photography, and he always included information about photography in his new column, “Scientific Notes of the Month”as well as publishing several well-informed articles which display the reach and impact of the medium on contemporary society.

In 1868 the magazine was revamped again, following guidelines set down in its “Preface” “…But if the man who is not educating himself to the last hour of his life is a fool, the magazine whose life has doubled the allotted span of man’s, will, in refusing to obey the signs of the times which it records, display that which is not wisdom. It is no longer desirable, it is indeed scarcely possible, for a monthly magazine to comprise the features which, when periodical literature was scant and bad, the promoters of The Gentleman’s Magazine not unsuccessfully sought to present. Politics, Science, Art, have been beckoned to more removed ground, each has its many able organs, and each requires a diffuseness and an exactitude which are impossible in a miscellany…. The learned societies are admirably attended to by learned editors with special endowments, and that department of literature which is called criticism is represented almost to excess. Therefore we abandon work which we could not perform to advantage. But we believe that we see plenty of other work ready to our hand….” (entirely new series vol. 1 (June 1868): 2-3.)

From the 1850s on the Gentleman’s Magazine was well-illustrated, usually by engravings from drawings of archeological items or topographical views of architectural structures. These illustrations were occasionally credited to be from photographic sources. As the editors prided themselves in the accuracy of their scientific renderings and they wished to duplicate the original artist’s work with the least amount of transcription distortions from drawing to engraving; the magazine used early photoengraving techniques as soon as they became available in the early 1860s in order to reproduce some or all of these hand-drawn illustrations. By the end of the decade, shifts in editorial policy to popularize the magazine had decreased this emphasis and more general illustrations began to appear, including even some narrative scenes or portraits to illustrate fictional stories.

Two vols. per year. Volume numbers never given in the magazine, and often applied erratically in the volume title page, so I have just used the date, which was always on the title-page of the issue.)

indexed

vol. 100 (Jan 1830) – vol. 103 (Dec. 1833)

ns vol. 1 (Jan. 1834) – ns vol. 45 (June 1856)

vol. 201 (July 1856) – vol. 207 (Dec. 1859)

vol. 208 (Jan. 1860) – vol. 219 (Dec. 1865)

ns vol. 1 (Jan. 1866) – ns vol. 3 (Jan. –May 15, 1868) [vol. 224 (May 1868)]

entirely ns 1 (June – Nov. 1868) ns 2 (Dec. 1868 —  May 1869) –entirely ns 3 (June –Nov. 1869) [vol. 225 — vol. 227.] (Dec. 1869)

 

1832

DAGUERRE.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. The Diorama, Regent’s Park.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (July 1832): 63-64. [“The Diorama has opened with two new views—a landscape and an interior. The former is of Paris, taken from the heights of Montmartre, and has been painted by Daguerre with fidelity and care, but without any aim at fine effect. In the foreground, however, the windmills of Montmartre are painted with great power. The second view ii of a gallery in the singular and celebrated Campo Santo at Pisa. ‘The Campo Santo is an enclosure planted with Cyprus trees and myrtles, surrounded by sixty arcades of white and black marble, horizontally laid, and forming a rectangular parallelogram. Its longest sides are erected on twenty-seven pillars, and admit the light through semicircular arches in the galleries, which are ornamented with paintings in fresco, upon sacred subjects, by the oldest Tuscan masters, and are further adorned by upwards of 600 sepulchral monuments, belonging to the most illustrious families in Pisa, and by magnificent sarcophagi, mostly of Parian marble, brought from Constantinople and Greece, besides a great number of other interesting monuments.’ It is one of those long galleries that the present picture represents; the heavy beams of its roof are uncovered; through the orifices in one of its walls the light is admitted; on the opposite one are the fresco paintings; below, and along each side, are arranged the monuments and relics of antiquity. The painting of this curious subject is by Bouton.”]

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Domestic Occurrences. Alphabetical List of the New House of Commons, Appointed to Meet Jan. 29, 1833. England and Wales.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE. (Dec. 1832): Supplement pp. 641-643. [“…All those places marked thus *, being forty-two in number, are newly-created Boroughs. Where there are two or more Members, they are placed according to the order in which they stood on the poll at the time of election. …Chippenham — —J. Neeld, W. H. F. Talbot….”]

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Domestic Occurrences. Promotions, Preferements, &c. Marriages.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE. (Dec. 1832): Supplement p. 644. [“…Dec… 20. At All Souls, Langham-place, Henry Fox Talbot, esq. M.P. of Lacock Abbey, co. Wilts, to Constance, youngest dau. of F. Mundv, esq. of Markeaton, co. Derby….”]

1835

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Domestic Occurrences. Births.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE. (June 1835): 654. [“…Apr.   25. In Sackville street, the wife of H. Fox Talbot, esq., of Lacock Abbey, Wilts., a dau.–…”]

1836

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. Royal Society.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE. (Apr. 1836): 411. [“March 10. F. Bailey, esq. Treas. V.P. Edw. John Johnson, esq. Commander R.N. was elected Fellow. Read, Researches on the Integral Calculus, by Henry Fox Talbot, esq.; and Report of Magnetic Experiments tried on board a steam vessel, made by order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, by Commander E. J. Johnson, R.N….”]

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. British Association for the Advancement of Science.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Oct. 1836): 409-413. [“…Section A, for Mathematical and Physical Science… Thursday, Aug. 25… On the Integral Calculus, by H. Fox Talbot, esq.;…” p. 409.]

1837

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. Royal Society.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE. (Jan. 1837): 78. [“…Nov. 30. This was the anniversary meeting; his Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, Pres. in the chair…. The election of Council and officers for the ensuing year then took place:—… Other Members of the Council.—G. B. Airy, esq. A.M.; W. Allen, Esq.; J. Bostock, M.D.; the Earl of Burlington; S. H. Christie, esq.; Vise. Cole, M.P.; J. H. Green, esq.; G. B. Greenough, esq.; W. Lawrence, esq.; J. Lindley, Ph.D.; J. W. Lulibock, esq. M.A.; Rev. G. Peacock, M.A.; W. Hasledine Pepys, esq.; Rev. A. Sedgwick, M.A.; W. H. Smyth, Capt. R.N.; W. H. Fox Talbot, esq.” “…Dec. 15. W. Lawrence, esq. in the chair. A paper was read, entitled, “Further Observations on the Optical Phenomena of Crystals,” by W. H. F. Talbot, esq.”]

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Births and Marriages. Births.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE. (Apr. 1837): 423. [“….Mar.    16 …, the wife of H. Fox Talbot, esq., of Lacock Abbey, Wilts., a dau.–…”]

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Obituary. Rear-Admiral Fielding.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE. (Oct. 1837): 425. [“Sept. 2. At Richmond, aged 57, Rear- Admiral Charles Fielding, R.N. He was a great-grandson of Basil fourth Earl of Denbigh, being the only son of Commodore Charles Fielding, R. N. (younger son of Col. The Hon. Charles Fielding, brother to William fifth Earl), by Frances, daughter of the Rt. Hon. William Finch, and sister to George Earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham. He attained post rank in the West Indies, Jan. 15, 1802; and returned home in the Andromeda frigate on the 24th Sept. following. He subsequently commanded the Circe of 28 guns, which was wrecked on the Lemon and Ower, whilst in chase of an enemy, Nov. 16, 1803. His next appointment was to the Sea Fencibles at Queenborough; and he afterwards commanded the Revolutionnaire frigate. He was promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral in the present year. He married, April 24, 1804, Lady Elizabeth-Theresa, widow of William Davenport Talbot, esq. of Lacock Abbey, Wilts, and sister to the present Earl of Ilchester and the Marchioness of Lansdowne. By that lady, who survives him (and who was mother, by her first marriage, of the present William Henry Fox Talbot, esq. F.R.S. of Lacock Abbey, late M.P. for Chippenham) he had issue two daughters: 1. The Right Hon. Caroline Viscountess Valletort, who was married in 1831 to Ernest-Augustus Viscount Valletort, heir apparent to the Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe, and has issue a son and heir, born in 1832; and 2. Horatia, who is unmarried.”]

1838

BREWSTER, SIR DAVID. see also HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN. (GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE, Oct. 1838)

WHEATSTONE, PROF. see also HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN. (GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE, Oct. 1838)

HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. British Association for the Advancement of Science.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Oct. 1838): 419 -431. [“The Eighth meeting of this Association was opened at Newcastle on Saturday the 18th of August. The Earl of Burlington, the President of last year, being absent on the continent, Professor Whewell, V. P. took the chair; when the Secretary, the Rev. J. Yates, read the Report of the Council. …The following list of the officers of sections, recommended by the Council, was approved of by the meeting:— Section A.—Mathematics and Physics; meeting in the Lecture-room of the Philosophical Society. President, Sir John Herschel; Vice-Presidents, Sir David Brewster, Sir William Hamilton, Rev. Dr. Robinson, and Mr. F. Baily, Secretaries, Major Sabine, Rev. Professor Chevalier, and Professor Stevelly…. Sir John Herschel laid before the Section, — 1. ” Reduced Observations of 1232 Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, made in the years 1834, 5, G, 7, 8, at the Cape of Good Hope, with the 20-feet reflector; 2. Reduced Observations of 1192 Double Stars of the Southern Hemisphere; 3. Micrometrical Measures of 407 principal Double Stars of the Southern Hemisphere, made at the Cape, with a 7-fect achromatic equatorial telescope; 4. A list of the approximate places of 15 Planetary and Annular Nebulae of the Southern Hemisphere, discovered with the 20-feet reflector; and 5. Drawings illustrative of the appearance and structure of:i principal Nebulee in the Southern Hemisphere.”… Wednesday… Sir David Brewster read a paper on some Preparations of the Eye, by Mr. Clay Wallace, of New York; and another on a new kind of Polarity in Homogeneous Light, by himself; Sir W. R. Hamilton made a communication relative to the Propagation of Light in vacua; Sir J. Herschel, a Note on the structure of the vitreous humour of the Eye of the Shark; and Mr. Ball, of C. C. Cambr. a paper, On the meaning of the arithmetical symbols for Zero and Unity, when used in general symbolical algebra…. Thursday. On Subterranean Temperature; and a notice of a Brine Spring, near Kissingten, Bavaria, which emits carbonic acid gas, by Prof. Forbes; A description of a Substitute for the Mountain Barometer in measuring Heights, by Sir John Robison; A communication respecting Halley’s Comet, by Sir John Herschel; On a new phenomenon of colour in certain specimens of Fluor Spar, by Sir D. Brewster; On the Helm Wind of Crossfell, by the Rev. J. Watson; On the variation of the quantities of Rain which falls in different pads of the Earth, by Dr. Smith; On Binocular Vision, and on the Stereoscope, an instrument for illustrating its phenomena, by Prof. Wheatstone (whose invention was highly commended by Sir D. Brewster and Sir John Herschel); and on a general Geometric Method, by the Rev. Charles Graves, F.T.C.D….…. Friday… four distinct papers on Vision, Light, and Diffraction, by Sir D. Brewster,…”]

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. New Publications. Antiquities.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Nov. 1838): 526. [Book notice. Hermes; or, Classical and Antiquarian Researches. By H. F. Talbot, esq….”]

1839

HENRY FOX.

“Literary and TALBOT, WILLIAM Scientific Intelligence. Royal Society.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Jan. 1839): 80. [“…Nov. 30. The anniversary meeting took place, when the Marquis of Northampton was elected President, (vice the Duke of Sussex; resigned); John William Lubbock, eta,. M. A. Treasurer…; H.R.H. The Duke of Sussex, … Thomas Graham, esq., Sir John F. W. Herschel, bart. M.A.,…., and Rev. Robert Willis, M.A., Members of the Council. (The names printed in Italics, were not members of the last Council.) A Copley medal was awarded to M. Faraday, esq., and another to Prof. Gauss of Gottingen; the Rumford medal to Professor Forbes; and the Royal Medals to H. Fox Talbot, esq. and Professor Graham….”]

DAGUERRE.

“Fine Arts. The Daguerotype.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Feb. 1839): 185-186. [“A very extraordinary and important Invention has been made by M. Daguerre, one of the painters of the Diorama. It is a method of fixing the images which are represented at the back of a camera-obscura; so that these images are not the temporary reflection of objects, but their fixed and durable impress, which may be removed from the presence of those objects like a picture, and will multiply impressions as an engraving. M. Daguerre requires a plate of polished metal; he places it in his apparatus, and, in three minutes, if there is a bright summer sun, and a few more, if autumn or winter weaken the power of its beams, he takes it out, covered with a charming design, representing the object towards which the apparatus was turned. Nothing remains but a short chemical operation, and the design, which has been obtained in so few moments, remains unalterably fixed, so that the hottest sun cannot destroy it. The invention has been submitted to M. Arago, and he has made a report upon it to the Academy of Sciences, from which the following are extracts: “In the camera-obscura the image is perfectly defined when the lens is achromatic; the same precision is seen in the images obtained by M. Daguerre, which represent all objects with a degree of perfection which no designer, however skilful, can equal, and finished, in all the details, in a manner that exceeds belief. It is the light which forms the image, on a plate covered with a particular coating. The length of time required to execute this operation is, in our climate, and in ordinary weather, eight or ten minutes; but, under a pure sky, like that of Egypt, two, perhaps one minute, might suffice to execute the most complex design. “M. Daguerre has found a substance infinitely more sensible to the light than the chlorure of silver, which is altered in an inverse manner, that is to say, which leaves on the several parts of the plate, corresponding to the several parts of the object, dark tints for the shadowy, half tints for the lighter parts, and no tint whatever for the parts that are quite luminous. When this action of the light on the different parts of the plate has produced the desired effect, M. Daguerre stops it at once, and the design, which he withdraws from the camera-obscura, may be exposed to the full light of day without undergoing any alteration. “If we consider M. Daguerre’s discovery with respect to the utility which it may have in the sciences, it is evident that so sensible a re-agent as that which he has found, may enable us to make photometrical experiments, which have hitherto been reputed impossible. Such,” said M. Arago, ” are experiments on the light of the moon; which the Academy bad deemed of sufficient importance for it to appoint a committee, composed of M. de Laplace, M. Mains, and myself, to make them. The light of the moon is known to be 300,000 times weaker than that of the sun; yet we did not despair of obtaining some sensible effects, by means of a lens of very large dimensions. We made use of a very large lens, brought from Austria; and having placed some chlorure of silver in the focus, that being the most sensible re-agent known, not the slightest discolouration was perceptible. It occurred to me, that M. Daguerre might have more success with his new reagent; and, in fact, he obtained, in twenty minutes, on his dark ground, a white image of the moon, with a lens far less powerful than ours.” M. Biot has also added his testimony to the value of this discovery to the philosopher; and the celebrated artist, M. Paul Delaroche, has expressed his opinions that views taken in this manner, though destitute of colour, may give useful hints to the most skilful painters, in the manner of expressing by light and shade, not only the relief of objects, but the local tint; the same bas-relief in plaster and in marble will be differently represented in the two designs, and one can tell, at the first glance, which is the image of the plaster. The smallest folds of drapery are perceptible, as are the lines of a landscape invisible to the naked eye. With the aid of a glass we bring the distances near. In the mass of buildings, of accessories, of imperceptible traits, which compose a view of Paris taken from the Pont des Arts, we distinguish the smallest details; we count the paving stones; we see the humidity caused by the rain; we read the inscription on a shop sign. The effect becomes more astonishing if a microscope is employed. An insect of the size of a pea, the garden spider, enormously magnified by a solar microscope, is reflected in the same dimensions by the marvellous mirror, and with the most minute accuracy. It is manifest how useful M. Daguerre’s discovery will be in the study of natural history. In one instance three views of the same monument are taken; one in the morning, one at noon, and the other in the evening; and nobody will mistake the effect of the morning for that of the evening, though the sun’s altitude, and, consequently, the relative lengths of the shadows, are the same in both.”]

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. Royal Society.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Mar. 1839): 294-296. [“Jan. 31. J. W. Lubbock, esq. V.P. and Treas. in the chair. John Wesley Williams, esq. and James Yates, esq. were elected Fellows of the Society. The paper read was entitled ‘ Some account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing,’ by H. F. Talbot, esq. F.R.S. In this communication, the author states, that during the last four or five years .he has invented and brought to a considerable degree of perfection a process for copying the forms of natural objects by means of solar light, which is received upon paper previously prepared in a particular manner. He observes, that a prior attempt of this kind is recorded in the Journal of the Royal Institution for 1802; by which it appears, that the idea was originally suggested by Mr. Wedgwood, and afterward experimented on by Sir Humphry Davy. These philosophers found, that their principle, though theoretically true, yet failed in practice, on account of certain difficulties; the two principal of which were—first, that the paper could not be rendered sufficiently sensible to receive any impression whatever from the feeble light of a camera obscura; and secondly, that the pictures which were formed by the solar rays could not be preserved, owing to their still con- tinning to be acted upon by the light, Mr. Talbot states, that his experiments were begun without his being aware of this prior attempt; and that in the course of them he discovered methods of overcoming the two difficulties above related. With respect to the latter, he says, that he has found it possible, by a subsequent process, so to fix the images or shadows formed by the solar rays, that they become insensible to light, and consequently admit of being preserved during any length of time: as an example of which he mentions, that he has exposed some of his pictures to the sunshine for the space of an hour without injury. With respect to the other point, he states that he has succeeded in discovering a method of preparing the paper, which renders it much more sensitive to light than any which had been used previously, and by means of which he finds that there is no difficulty in fixing the pictures given by the camera obscura and by the solar microscope. In the summer of 1835 he made a great number of portraits of a house in the country, of ancient architecture (his own residence, Lacock Abbey), several of which he exhibited to the Society. After some speculations on the possibility of discovering a yet more sensitive paper, the author mentions, that the kind employed by him may be rendered so much so, as to become visibly affected by the full light of the sun in the space of half a second. The rest of this paper contains an account of various other ways in which this method may be employed in practice, according to the kind of object which it is required to copy; also, a brief mention of the great variety of effects resulting from comparatively small differences in the mode of preparing the paper; and of certain anomalies which occur in the process, the cause of which has not hitherto been rendered distinctly manifest. From this paper it appears that Mr. Talbot’s researches have brought him to a discovery almost identical with that of M. Daguerre, of which we gave some particulars in our last Number, p. 185. (We may here mention that we were not correct in one particular; M. Daguerre’s plates are mere pictures, not engravings.)” pp. 294-295.  “Feb. 21. J. G. Children, esq. V.P. Captain Arthur Conolly, and Lieut-Col. W. Reid, C.B. were elected Fellows. Three papers were read: 1. ‘An account of the processes used in Photogenic Draw, ing,’ by H. Fox Talbot, esq. F.R.S.; 2. ‘A description of an Hydropneumatic Baroscope,’ by J. T. Cooper, esq.; 3. The continuation of Mr. Darwin’s paper on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy and other parts of Lochabar. In Mr. Talbot’s second paper, he has disclosed the whole of his interesting secret, with regard to the two important points, the preparation of photogenic paper, and the means of fixing the design. The paper selected for the purpose is of good quality and smooth, surface. Mr. Talbot dips it into a weak solution of common salt, and wipes it dry, by which the salt is uniformly distributed throughout its substance. He then spreads a solution of nitrate of silver on one surface only, and dries it at the fire. The solution should not be saturated, but six or eight times diluted with water. When dry, the paper is fit for use. He his found, by experiment, that there is a certain proportion between the quantity of salt and that of the solution of silver which answers best, and gives the maximum effect. If a sheet of paper, thus prepared, be taken and washed with a saturated solution of salt, and then dried, it will be found (especially if the paper has been kept some weeks before the trial is made) that its sensibility is greatly diminished, and, in some cases, seems quite extinct. But if it be again washed with a liberal quantity of the solution of silver, it becomes again sensible to light, and even more so than it was at first. In this way, by alternately washing the paper with salt and silver, and drying it between times, Mr. Talbot has succeeded in increasing its sensibility to the degree that is requisite for receiving the images of the camera obscure. With regard to the second object—that of fixing the images—Mr. Talbot observed, that, after having tried ammonia, and several other re-agents, with very imperfect success, the first which gave him a successful result, was the iodide of potassium, much diluted with water. If a photogenic picture is washed over with this liquid, an iodide of niter is formed, which is absolutely unalterable by sunshine. This process requires precaution: for, if the solution is too strong, it attacks the dark parts of the picture. It is requisite, therefore, to find, by trial, the proper proportions. The fixation of the pictures in this way, with proper management, is very beautiful and lasting. The specimen of lace, which Mr. Talbot exhibited to the Society, and which was made five years ago, was preserved in this manner. But his usual method of fixing is different from this, and somewhat simpler—or, at least, requiring less nicety. It consists in immersing the picture in a strong solution of common salt, and then wiping off the superfluous moisture, and drying it. It is sufficiently singular that the same substance which is so useful in giving sensibility to the paper, should also be capable, under other circumstances, of destroying it; bet such is, nevertheless, the fact. Now, if the picture which has been thus washed and dried, is placed in the mm, the white parts colour themselves of a pale lilac tint, after which they become insensible. Numerous experiments have shown the author that the depth of this lilac tint varies according to the quantity of salt used, relatively to the quantity of silver: but by properly adjusting these, the images may, if desired, be retained of an absolute whiteness. He mentions, also, that those preserved by iodine are always of a very pale primrose yellow, which has the extraordinary and very remarkable property of turning to a full gaudy yellow, whenever it is exposed to the beat of a fire, and recovering its former colour again, when it is cold.” pp. 295-296.]

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX. see also HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN. (GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE, Apr. 1839)

HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. Royal Society.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Apr. 1839): 413. [“…March 14. J. W. Lubbock, esq. V.P. … Read, 1. An experimental Inquiry into the formation of Alkaline and Earthy bodies, with reference to their presence in plants, the influence of carbonic acid in their generation, and the equilibrium of this gas in the atmosphere, by Robert Rigg, esq.; 2. Note on the art of Photography, or the application of the chemical rays of light to the purposes of pictorial representation, by Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. The subject was discussed in its chemical relations; and, after noticing various promising experiments, the writer states that confining his attention, in the first instance, to the employment of chloride of silver, he proceeded to inquire into the methods by which the blackened traces can be preserved. This may be effected, he observes, by the application of any liquid capable of dissolving and washing off the unchanged chloride, but of leaving the reduced, or oxide of silver, untouched. These conditions are best fulfilled by the liquid hyposulphites. Pure water will fix the photograph, by washing out the nitrate of silver, but the tint of the picture resulting is brick-red; but the black colour may be restored, by washing it over with a weak solution of hyposulphite of ammonia. The author found that paper impregnated with the chloride of silver was only slightly susceptible to the influence of light; but an accidental observation led him to the discovery of other salts of silver, in which the acid, being more volatile, adheres to the base by a weak affinity, and which impart much greater sensibility to the paper on which they are applied—such as the carbonate, the nitrate, and the acetate. The nitrate requires to be perfectly neutral; for the least excess of acid lower*, in a remarkable degree, its susceptibility. In the application of photographic processes to the copying of engravings or drawing, many precautions are required. In the first transfers, both light and shadow, <is well as right and left, are the reverses of the original; and to operate a second transfer, or by a double inversion to reproduce the original effect, is a matter of great difficulty. He noticed a curious phenomenon respecting the action of light on nitrated paper; namely, its great increase of intensity under a certain kind of glass strongly pressed in contact with it it —an effect which cannot be explained either by the reflection of light, or the presence of moisture, but which may possibly be dependant on the evolution of heat. Twenty-three specimens of photographs made by Sir John Herschell accompanied this paper; one a sketch of his telescope at Slough, fixed from its image in a lens, and the rest copies of engravings and drawings, some reverse, or first transfers, and others second transfers, or re-reversed pictures.” “March 21. The President in the chair. Read, An account of the fall of a meteoric star, on the 13th of October last; An account of a barometer constructed by S. B. Hewlett, esq.; And a further communication from H. T. Talbot, esq. F. S. A. describing a new kind of sensitive paper for photogenic drawing. Mr. Talbot mentioned, in his memoir read lately before the Society, he had omitted to give the details of a method by which etchings on copper might be successfully imitated. This may be done by covering a sheet of glass with a solution of resin in turpentine, and afterwards smoking it by the flame of a candle; and upon the blacked surface the drawing is made with a needle, or other fine-pointed instrument. A sheet of the sensitive paper being placed under it, a perfect copy is obtained.”]

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Domestic Occurrences. Births.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Apr. 1839): 427-428. [“…Feb. … 24. In Queen Ann st. The wife of H. E. Talbot, esq. of Lacock Abbey, a dau….” p. 428.]

DAGUERRE.

“Foreign News. France.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Apr. 1839): 424-425. [“The result of the elections in France having been decidedly against the Ministers, they all resigned, and Marshal Soult was sent for by the King, and entrusted with the power to negotiate with the Coalition…” “…A fire broke out in the Paris Diorama on the 8th March; and, notwithstanding an abundant supply of water, it was soon evident that there was no chance of stopping the force of the conflagration. The paintings on exhibition were the Sermon, the Temple of Solomon, and the Valley of Golclau, which, with another nearly ready to be put up, were all destroyed. A wall, eighty feet high, fell on the buildings of a waggon-office, burying in a cloud of dust and smoke three firemen who were on the roof. Two of them came out of the ruins unhurt; but a third had his leg broken, and a waggon-man was wounded at the same time. The fire is supposed to have originated in the room called the Salle de Boulevart, where M. Daguerre was preparing another painting for exhibition, representing the interior of the church of Santa Maria Maggiora. Notwithstanding all the exertions made, three houses adjoining the Diorama were partially destroyed. This disaster will impede M. Daguerre’s experiments on his new discovery.”]

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. New Publications. Divinity.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (May 1839): 523. [Book notice. The Antiquity of the book of Genesis, illustrated by some new Arguments. By H. Fox Talbot, Esq., F. R. S.”]

HAVELL, J. F. & WILLMORE.

“Fine Arts. The Photogenic Art.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (June 1839): 631. [“Mr. J. F. Havell and Mr. Willmore (engravers) have, by covering glass with etching ground and smoke, sketched designs upon it. Through the glass thus exposed by the scratch, the photogenic paper receives the light, and the design, which the sun may be said to print, may be multiplied with perfect identity! The size of designs thus produced need no longer be kept down by that of the printing-press, as the glass can alone limit the size of the design. It is reported that Mr. Havell and his brother have succeeded in giving same true colours, also, to their productions, by the action of light. Beautiful imitations of washed bistre drawings may be produced by slopping out the light on the glass by black varnish, which will obstruct the transmission of light in proportion to the thickness with which the varnish is laid on; and specimens like fine mezzotinto prints have been produced by this process.”]

BY COUNTRY. 1839.

Jackson & Chatto. “Treatise on Wood Engraving.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Aug. 1839): 107-125 . 9 illus.[(Background.) Book review . A Treatise on Wood Engraving, Historical and Practical. With upwards of three hundred Illustrations, engraved on wood. By John Jackson, Royal 8vo. pp. 750.]

DAGUERRE.

“Fine Arts. The Daguerrotype” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Sept. 1839): 289-290. [“We have given as full an account as our space would allow of the progress of the Photogenic art, both in France and England. In our Feb. number,* (* In page 185, near the foot of the first column, erase the words, “and will multiply impressions as an engraving.”) p. 185, is an abstract of M. Arago’s first memoir, read before the Academy of Sciences at Paris, on the invention of M. Daguerre. Since that period the invention has been purchased by the French Government; a yearly pension of (6000 francs having been settled on M. Daguerre, and another of 4000 francs on M. Niepce, the son of the gentleman (deceased) by whose experiments the invention was originally suggested. On the 19th Aug. M. Arago at length divulged the secret in a very crowded meeting of the Academic des Sciences. The process is as follows: a plate of copper thinly coated with silver is washed with a solution of nitric acid, for the purpose of cleansing its surface, and especially to remove the minute traces of copper, which the layer of silver may contain. This washing must be done with the greatest care, attention, and regularity. M. Daguerre has observed, that better results are obtained from copper plated with silver, than from pure silver; whence it may be surmised, that electricity may be concerned in the action. After this preliminary preparation, the metallic plate is exposed, in a well-closed box, to the action of the vapour of iodine, with certain precautions. A small quantity of iodine is placed at the bottom of the box, with a thin gauze between it and the plate, as it were, to sift the vapour, and to diffuse it equally. It is also necessary to surround the plate with a small metallic frame, to prevent the vapour of iodine from condensing in larger quantities round the margin than in the centre; the whole success of the operation depending on the perfect uniformity of the layer of ioduret of silver thus formed. The exact time to withdraw the sheet of plated copper from the vapour, is indicated by the plate assuming a yellow colour. M. Dumas, who has endeavoured to ascertain the thickness of this deposit, states that it cannot be more than the millionth part of a millimetre. The plate thus prepared is placed in the dark chamber of the camera dbscura, and preserved with great care from the faintest action of light. It is, in fact, so sensitive, that exposure for a tenth of a second is more than sufficient to make impression on it. At the bottom of the dark chamber, which M. Daguerre has reduced to small dimensions, is a plate of ground glass, which advances or recedes until the image of the object to be represented is perfectly clear and distinct. When this is gained, the prepared plate is substituted for the ground glass, and receives the impression of the object. The effect is produced in a very short time. When the metallic plate is withdrawn, the impression is hardly to be seen, the action of a second vapour being necessary to bring it out distinctly: the vapour of mercury is employed for this purpose. It is remarkable, that the metallic plate, to be properly acted upon by the mercurial vapour, must be placed at a certain angle. To this end, it is enclosed in a third box, at the bottom of which is placed a small dish filled with mercury. If the picture is to be viewed in a vertical position, as is usually the case with engravings, it must receive the vapour of mercury at an angle of about 45″. If, on the contrary, it is to be viewed at that angle, the plate must be arranged in the box in a horizontal position. The volatilization of the mercury must be assisted by a temperature of 60° of Reaumur (or 167° of Fahrenheit). After these three operations, for the completion of the process, the plate must be plunged into a solution of hypo-sulphite of soda. This solution acts most strongly on the parts which have been uninfluenced by light j the reverse of the mercurial vapour, which attacks exclusively that portion which has been acted on by the rays of light. From this it might perhaps be imagined, that the lights are formed by the amalgamation of the silver with mercury, and the shadows by the sulphuret of silver formed by the hypo-sulphite. M. Arago, however, formally declared the positive inability of the combined wisdom of physical, chemical, and optical science, to offer any theory of these delicate and complicated operations, which might be even tolerably rational and satisfactory. The picture now produced is washed in distilled water, to give it that stability which is necessary to its bearing exposure to light without undergoing any further change. The art of fixing the colours of objects has not hitherto been accomplished; and another important desideratum is, the means of rendering the picture unalterable by friction. The substance of the pictures executed by the Daguerrotype is, in fact, so little solid—is so slightly deposited on the surface of the metallic plate, that the least friction destroys it, like a drawing in chalk: and at present, it is necessary to cover it with glass.”]

DAGUERRE.

J. R. “The Historian Gibbon.—His Autobiography.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Nov. 1839): 465-482. [“…In respect to Carnot, Lord Brougham particularly refers to the “Eloge Historique de Carnot,” by M. Arago, which, however, from its professed purpose, can hardly be an impartial record. Yet, with the exception of the two circumstances, which, like Nelson’s abberrations at Naples, are indelible spots on his life, he was fully entitled to the high praise bestowed on him by the distinguished academician who, like Footenelle and Bailly, accumulate and so ably executes such a variety of scientific functions. Of this eminent man, whom I have heard, both at the Chamber of Deputies, and the Institute, I recollect a saying, generally allusive to those who” write and do not publish, but especially pointed «t his colleague, M. Royer Collard, the chief of the Doctrinaires, who has seldom appeared in print, though known to have composed much, ” Je n’aime point les auteurs en poche.” His recent “Eloge Historique” of Watts is an admirable homage to our great countryman, while he does not appear quite so equitable in adjudicating the respective claims of England and France to the photographic discovery, as his Report to the Chamber of Deputies in support of a demand for pensions to M. Daguerre and M. Niepce, may show. At an after period, Carnot published his own defence:—Response de L. N. M. Carnot au Rapport de J. C. Dallieul. Paris, an. 6 (1798).* (*I cannot conceive a more appropriate designation for our national Bard than that of “The Photographic Painter of Nature;” to borrow an image and apply it in analogy of character, to Nature’s best interpreter, from the great discovery, Which, like him, traces with unerring delicacy of transcript, and perfect accuracy of delineation, her minutest, and, to the ordinary eye, imperceptible workings.”]

DAGUERRE.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. New Publications. Fine Arts” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Nov. 1839): 521. [Book notice. History and Description of the Processes of the Daguerreotype and Diorama, illustrated with Plates by the Author, M. Daguerre, with M. Arago’s Report to the Chamber of Deputies. Translated by John S. Memes, LL.D. 8vo. 3s. 6d.]

1840

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Promotions, Preferments, &c. Sheriffs Appointed For 1840.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Mar. 1840): 312. [“…Wilts-W. H. F. Talbot, Lacock Abbey, esq….”]

HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. Royal Society.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Apr. 1840): 407. [“…Feb. 27. The Marq. of Northampton, Pres.—William Jory Henwood, esq. was elected Fellow.—A paper was partly read, entitled, On the chemical action of the rays of the Solar Spectrum on preparations of Silver, and other substances, both metallic and non-metallic; and on some Photographic processes; by Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart….”]

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Miscellaneous Reviews.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (June. 1840): 622. [Book review. Hermes; or, Classical and Antiquarian Researches. By Henry Fox Talbot, Esq. F.R.S. 1838.— The Antiquity of the Book of Genesis. By the same. 1839.—The former of these works contains some very curious and learned disquisitions and ingenious conjectures on the origin of various words and names in the Latin language. The object of the latter is to show that the knowledge of the book of Genesis existed among nations that are commonly believed to have been ignorant of it, especially the Phrygians. We have received both pleasure and instruction from it, and we recommend both these tracts to the consideration of scholars.

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. Horticultural Society.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (June 1840): 630. [“…Both Reports were unanimously adopted; and the meeting then proceeded to the election of officers for the ensuing year, when his Grace the Duke of Devonshire was re-elected President, T. Edgar, Esq. Treasurer, and G. Bentham, Esq. Secretary; and E. Foster, Esq. J. Rogers, Jan. Esq. and W. H. F. Talbot, Esq. were elected into the Council, in the room of Sir O. Mosley, Bart. E. Barnard, Esq. and H. Bevan, Esq. retiring.”]

1841

BIOT. see also HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN.. (GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE, Jan. 1841)

WHEATSTONE, PROF. see also HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN.. (GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE, Jan. 1841)

HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN..

“Literary and Scientific Intelligence. Royal Society.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Jan. 1841): 78. [“The following distribution of medals took place at the Anniversary Meeting on the 30th Nov.—One of the royal medals was awarded to Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. V.P.R.S., for his paper, entitled, “On the Chemical Action of Rays of the Solar Spectrum, on preparations of Silver and other substances, both metallic and non-metallic, and on some Photogenic Processes,” published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1840. The other royal medal was awarded to Charles Wheatstone, Esq. F.R.S., for his paper, entitled, “Contributions to the Physiology of Vision,” published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1838. The Rumford medal was awarded to M. Biot, of Paris, For. Mem. R. S., for his researches in and connected with the Circular Polarization of Light….”]

HAVELL, JOHN. (d. 1841)

“Deaths.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Mar. 1841): 327-335. [“…Mr. John Havell, the engraver, who has been long a respected and distinguished member of his profession. On the first announcement of Daguerre’s discovery, Mr. Havell was so forcibly struck by the photogenic effects, that he applied himself with much assiduity to effect improvements on the discovery. With a view of exhibiting some successful experiments he invited to his house a limited circle of friends, in the midst of whom he was surprised by the fearful visitation of the loss of his reason, which he never fully recovered.”]

HUNT, ROBERT.

“New Publications. Fine Arts.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (July 1841): 73. [Book notice. Popular Treatise on the Art of Photography, including Daguerreotype, and all the New Methods of producing Pictures by the Chemical Agency of Light. With 30 Engravings. By Robert Hunt. 3s. 6d.]

1842

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX.

“Promotions and Preferments. Births.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Mar. 1842): 320-321. [“…Feb… 5. At Lacock Abbey, Wilts, the wife of H Talbot, esq. a son and heir,…” p. 321.]

COLLEN.

“Photographic Portraiture on Paper.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (May 1842): 526. [“Through the calotype process likenesses are now produced by the camera obscura, upon paper prepared with chemical combinations of silver. The lightest part of the object is thus represented by black on the paper in the camera, whilst the darkest part makes no impression on the paper. This reversed picture (for such it is) is laid on another prepared paper, and is submitted to the influence of light, which passing through the first, blackens the paper underneath in those parts which had not been affected in the camera operation, and the result obtained is an exact reverse of effect. These likenesses, which are produced by Mr. Collen, of Somerset-street, may be multiplied to any extent.”]

Etc., Etc.