Francis Bedford (1816-1894) Bibliography.

Francis Bedford was from an upper middle class professional family. His social status as a gentleman in Victorian England defined the range of opportunities available to him, and along with his undoubted talent and drive, structured the expansion and development of his career. Bedford, born in 1816, was the first son of the noted architect Francis Octavius Bedford, and he studied both architecture and lithography as a young man. He exhibited a drawing or painting of some architectural feature, such as “New Church at Turnstall,” (1833), “In Westminster Abbey,” (1846), ”Canterbury Cathedral,” (1847) “Magdalen Tower, Oxford,” (1848), “York Minster,” (1849), etc., in the annual exhibitions of the the Royal Academy at least nine times between 1833 and 1849. By the 1850s he had established himself as a lithographer skilled in illustrating books specializing in architectural subjects and he became widely regarded as a master in the chromo lithographic process. Bedford began to photograph as an amateur sometime around 1852, with the intent to aid himself in his lithographic work. His book, The Treasury of Ornamental Art, has been described as “probably the first important English work where photography was called into play to assist the draughtsman.”
But Bedford also began to pursue the creative aspects of photography as well.
The 1850s was a period of enormous growth for photography in England. Frederick Scott Archer had just perfected the wet-collodion process and photography, though still difficult to use, suddenly became both more accessible and far more useful in a wide variety of ways. Archaeologists, anthropologists, botanists, geologists, art and architectural historians, scientists and learned men of every stripe were realizing that photography not only facilitated their studies, but that accurate, exact, and exactly duplicatable visual records made it possible to expand the dimensions of their respective disciplines beyond levels impossible to reach before photography’s invention. Much of the leading research in chemistry and physics was being done by photographic scientists. Thus even conservative minds that could not decide whether photography was an art or merely a craft had to acknowledge that it certainly was a useful tool in the spread or diffusion of “useful knowledge” throughout the country, and agree in the role, both physically and metaphorically, that photographs played in support of the aims and needs of that generation.
The Great Industrial Exhibition held at the Crystal Palace in 1851, though considered a huge success, seems to have triggered a perception in England that it was in danger of losing its preeminent position as the greatest industrialized nation in the world. Driven by Prince Albert, and through the venue of the newly formed Society of Arts, a massive effort to improve the scientific, industrial, and artistic knowledge of the citizenry of Great Britain was launched in the 1850s. The Royal Society of London formed the armature that tied the local and regional organizations to a centralized national level institution that could provide communications and other links across the existing divisions of class, education and culture. The Society offered organizational guidelines, provided discounts for book purchases for club libraries, provided knowledgeable lecturers on a wide range of topics, and toured traveling exhibitions useful for publicity and fund-raising projects.
Photography, widely described as one of the keystone scientific/artistic inventions that defined the modern age, provided one very powerful tool in this program. The medium, combining attributes of both art and science, still held an undeniable glamour, and was one of the most accessible and approachable of the new technological marvels. And photography played an extremely important early role in the activities of this new Society and in its educational mission. The Society sponsored the first hugely publicized and highly popular photographic exhibition in England. And the Society then became the parent organization for the Photographic Society (later called the Royal Photographic Society). The Photographic Society’s first exhibition displayed 1500 prints by many photographers; and this exhibition became a popular annual event. In addition to the large annual exhibitions in London the Society of Arts also organized exhibitions of several hundred photographs which it traveled to many of the organizations of the Union, which, in turn, used these as a catalyst to organize lectures, or for fundraising soirees and fetes for the scores of Mechanic’s institutions and other adult educational organizations around Great Britain –and occasionally around the world.
Prince Albert and Queen Victoria played a leading role in supporting England’s arts, sciences and manufactures with their patronage and they supported the fledgling art/science of photography by purchasing creative photographs for their extensive art collections, by lending their public support to the newly formed Photographic Society, and by allowing access for selected photographers to their public lives. Francis Bedford learned the wet plate process in the early 1850s and then used it throughout his entire career, well after various dry plate processes were available to photographers. In 1854 Queen Victoria and Prince Albert commissioned Bedford to photograph art objects in the Royal Collection, an extensive task that Bedford performed admirably. Bedford exhibited some of these prints in the first exhibition of the Photographic Society, held in 1854. Bedford, who had taken up photography as a tool for accurate rendering of objects, soon began to investigate its creative aspects, and this led him to taking landscape views. In the second exhibition in 1855, Bedford exhibited “many views from Yorkshire, bright and sparkling bits most of them, which we are only sorry to find so small.” This was followed by “The Choir, Canterbury Cathedral,” in the 1856 exhibition; and then by many well-regarded architectural and landscape views almost every year for the next thirty-odd years.
Queen Victoria purchased several of Bedford’s photographic landscapes from the Photographic Society exhibitions. Then in 1857 the Queen commissioned Bedford to secretly travel as her agent to Prince Albert’s birthplace in Coburg, Bavaria, to make a group of some sixty views as a surprise birthday present for the Prince Consort. Documents make it clear that Bedford was treated throughout this event as a favored guest of the most powerful monarch in the world and not as commercial tradesman performing a task. At this time Bedford also photographed the important “Art Treasures Exhibition” in Manchester to provide sources for his chromolithograph illustrations for Treasures of the United Kingdom, published in 1858. This entire project had been fostered by Prince Albert as part of his ongoing support for contemporary arts and crafts practice in England.
By 1857 Bedford began to be mentioned by various critics as one of the premier landscape photographers in England, a reputation he maintained throughout his lifetime. In 1859 Bedford traveled through North Wales making landscape photographs and stereo views, which he released commercially in the spring of 1860 through the publisher Catherall and Prichard, of Chester. “…The series of the latter is large, and comprehends a considerable number of the leading objects which excite the wonder and admiration of tourists, and have been the special delights of artists time out of mind. The photographs are of good size, and it is scarcely requisite to say, are of the highest possible merit,— the name of Mr. Bedford will sufficiently guarantee their excellence. …The stereoscopic views are certainly among the best that have been produced, supplying a rich intellectual feast: to us they have given enjoyment of the rarest character—and so they may to our readers, for they are attainable at small cost. We name them at random, but they are all of famous places—Pont Aberglaslyn, Capel Curig, Llyn Ogwen, Bettys-y-coed, Beddgelert, Pont-y-gilli, Trefriew, Llanberis, Pen Llyn, with views also of the Britannia Bridge, Carnarvon Castle, &c.” (Art Journal, Apr. 1860). Bedford continued making views throughout the British Isles into the early 1860s.
In 1862 Bedford’s strong position with the Royal Family was demonstrated again when he was “one of only eight gentlemen” invited to join the Prince of Wales (the future king of England) on a four month tour of the Near East. Bedford made about 210 views on this trip. The trip was followed avidly by the British press and Bedford and a number of his photographs were published (in woodcut form) in the London Illustrated News and elsewhere throughout 1862 and later. Bedford also had a one-man exhibition (Still an unusual event at the time.) upon returning to London, and also published the photographs, first in serial form, then as an album of original prints. The immense prestige garnered by Bedford through these activities established him firmly as one of the leading landscape photographers of the day, both within the photographic community and in the minds of the general populace. It also placed his family company on a solid financial footing for the remainder of the century.
Francis returned from the Near Eastern tour to again begin photographing landscape views in England, focusing his interest in the south-west of England and the West Midlands, while going again and again to his favorite sites in North Wales and Devonshire, which he photographed almost annually from 1863 until at least 1884.
Throughout the 1860s the many large national or international exhibitions, (Some displaying thousands of photographs and seen by scores of thousands of visitors.) provided a major venue for photographers. Bedford diligently participated in the annual Photographic Society exhibitions, the Edinburgh Photographic Society exhibitions, the international expositions in London in 1862 and in Paris in 1867, and in many other regional exhibitions in Great Britain and in Europe, winning awards and the usual degree of high praise or his landscapes. By 1865 “Bedford” is one of a handful of names that is routinely used by critics or writers as an example to denote high-quality and creative landscape views in photography. And as the British were believed to excel in the genre of landscape views, this made him considered to be one of the best and certainly one of the best-known photographers of the day.
Francis Bedford was elected to the London Photographic Society (now the Royal Photographic Society) and then elected a member of Council to that organization in 1857. In 1861 he was elected Vice President of the Photographic Society, a position of great prestige. He was active in that organization, periodically serving as an officer on the Council or as a Vice-President off and on for the next thirty years. For example, during 1867 Francis Bedford, serving as a Vice-President, chaired two of the monthly meetings, provided the negative for the annual “presentation print” which was distributed to the membership, and participated in the RPS annual exhibition. In December he resigned from the Vice-Presidency (Possibly because it was a rotating position, or possibly because his son William was elected to the Council that year and Francis didn’t want to create any sense of dynasty-building among the society’s membership.) But by 1876 Francis is back on the Council again. This is the year when William seems to blossom, winning a great deal of praise for his landscape views in the annual exhibition, including the statement that his work “…shows that the mantle of the father has fallen upon the son.” In 1878 both father and son were still active participants in the Society, the son, on the Council again, organizing many of the tasks of that group, and the father again elected to a Vice-Presidency to fill a sudden vacancy in the organization. Both Francis and his son William were still displaying landscape views in the annual exhibition in 1878, but by the late 1870s, with Francis reaching into his sixties and having achieved universal acclaim, the weight of the activity seems to have shifted from the father to the son. Both Francis and William Bedford had also been members in the North London Photographic Association, and equally active in both organizations during the 1860s. Francis also contributed liberally to local photographic societies exhibitions and events throughout the United Kingdom during these years. In 1884, at age 68, Francis relinquished full operation of his business to his son William. William Bedford, who had also been photographing landscapes from at least the early 1860s, actively assumed the operations of the family business and continued making many of the architectural views and landscapes of British scenery. Tragically, William Bedford died of typhoid fever in 1893, preceding his father by about eighteen months. Francis Bedford died in 1894, leaving a will worth £18,000.

Bedford exhibited his landscapes and architectural studies in the various annual exhibitions and by 1857 he was considered by critics to be one of the best landscape photographers in England. In 1859 Bedford traveled through North Wales making landscape photographs and stereo views, which he released commercially in the spring of 1860 through the publisher Catherall and Prichard, of Chester. Bedford focused his interest in the south-west of England and the West Midlands, going again and again to his favorite sites in North Wales and Devonshire, which he photographed almost annually until at least 1884. These stereo views were issued in series , “North Wales Illustrated Series,” “Devonshire Illustrated Series,” etc., throughout his lifetime, and in some cases these series consisted of two to three hundred images. As new images were added or replaced older images in these series, all attributed dates are approximate.








[From the book Bedford, Francis. The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople, Athens, etc, etc. A series of forty-eight photographs taken by Francis Bedford for H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East, in which, by command, he accompanied his Royal Highness, with descriptive letterpress and interp. by W. M. Thomson. London: Day & Son, 1866. 2 vol. 48 I. of plates. 48 b & w. ]


FRANCIS BEDFORD BIBLIOGRAPHY, by William S. Johnson. (Please credit the blog if you use this bibliography.) (REVISED MARCH, 2013)
This bibliography is composed from a key-word search of my current bibliographic project, to which is added some references from Nineteenth-Century Photography. An Annotated Bibliography 1839-1879, by William S. Johnson. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1990, plus a few searches of the current literature. The end date for my current bibliographic project is 1869. After 1869 additional references were drawn from other random projects or sources that I had on hand and thus should not be considered an exhaustive survey of the literature published after that date. At this time a number of the British photographic journals have not been indexed to the same depth as the American journals, thus a detailed search in that venue will turn up many more Bedford citations. For example, Francis Bedford was elected to the London Photographic Society and then elected a member of its Council in 1857. He was active in that organization for the next thirty years. Thus he is mentioned frequently in the reports and activities of the Society, which were reported in, among other journals, The British Journal of Photography. A random sampling of the BJP through the following decade shows that Francis Bedford is mentioned or briefly discussed at least eighteen times in vol.10 (1863), thirteen times in vol. 14 (1867), and his son William is also mentioned four or five times during that year. In vol. 21 (1874) both men are mentioned twenty-one times. In vol. 23 (1876) Francis and William are mentioned or discussed fourteen times. In vol. 25 (1878) Francis Bedford is mentioned fourteen times and William is mentioned twelve times. And so on through the 1880s at least until their deaths.Bedford is not mentioned in the Art Journal reviews of the annual photographic society exhibitions for 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883 or 1885 – which is as far as my forty-year old xeroxes go in this instance.


The Francis Bedford collection (purchased by the Birmingham (England) Public Libraries in 1985) consists of more than 2700 glass negatives and almost 2050 prints, and the manuscript catalogue of his negatives. In 2011 the Birmingham Library and Archive Services purchased an additional collection of 172 photographs from the ‘Tour in the East’ made in 1862 by the Prince of Wales, (the late Edward VII), which covered Athens, Corfu, Constantinople, Tripoli, Egypt, Syria and the Holy Land. Bedford’s photographs are also held in the National Maritime Museum, London, the George Eastman House, Rochester, NY, and in many art museums and galleries.


Bedford, Francis. A Chart Illustrating the Architecture of Westminster Abbey. London: W. W. Robinson.



Monkhouse, W. and Francis Bedford. The Churches of York; by W. Monkhouse and F. Bedford, junr; with historical and architectural notes by the Rev. Joshua Fawcett. York: H. Smith, 1843. 3 pp. 43 I. of plates. 48 b & w.


Bedford, Francis. Sketches of York. York, England: H. Smith, 1843. n. p.


Bedford, Francis. A Chart of Anglican Church Architecture: Arranged chronologically with examples of the different styles. “5th ed.” York: R. Sunter, 1844. n. p., folded pp. illus.


Wyatt, Matthew Digby, Sir. Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century at the Great Exhibition. London: Day & son, 1851-1853. n. p. illus. [158 of the colored lithographic illustrations for this work were created by Bedford.]


Bedford, Francis. The Architecture of York Cathedral, Arranged chronologically. York: W. Hargrove, Oxford: J. W. Parker, London: Hamilton Adams & Co., 1845. n. p., folded pp. illus.


Examples of Ornament. Selected chiefly from Works of Art in the British Museum, Museum of Economic Geology, the Museum of Ornamental Art in Marlborough House, and the new Crystal Palace. Drawn from Original Sources, by Francis Bedford… and edited by Joseph Cundall. London: Bell & Daldy, 1855. 7 pp. 24 I. of plates, illus. [“Consisting of a Series of 220 Illustrations (69 of which are richly coloured), classified according to Styles, and chronologically arranged: commencing with the Egyptian and Assyrian, and continued… These Illustrations have been selected by Joseph Cundall from existing specimens, and drawn by Francis Bedford, Thomas Scott, Thomas MacQuaid, and Henry O’Neill.”]


Views of the Crystal Palace and Park, Sydenham. From Drawings by eminent Artists, and Photographs by P. H. Delamotte. With a Title-page, and Literary Notices by M. Digby Wyatt. Lithographed, Printed and Published by Day & Son, London, 1855. [“…How easy it would have been for the artists who have otherwise so well done their work, Messrs. Delamotte, Bedford, &c, to have enlivened their subjects with a few figures of the respective nations of antiquity, …”]


Jones, Owen. The Grammar of Ornament… Illus. by examples from various styles of ornament. One hundred…plates, drawn on stone by Francis Bedford, and printed in colours by Day and Son. London: Day & Son, 1856. pp. 100 I. of plates. [Essays on the ornament of the Renaissance and the Italian periods by M. D. Wyatt, etc.]


The Photographic Album for the year 1856; being contributions from the members of the Photographic Club. Printed for the Members of the Photographic Club by Charles Whittingham, London, 1856. [(This is the second album produced by the Photographic Exchange Club; the first, published in 1855, consisted of 43 photos by 23 members. Bedford was not in the first publication.) “A folio volume of fifty photographs by fifty different hands, and those of eminence, to which Mr. Whittingham, of Chiswick, has attached fifty pages of letterpress of corresponding beauty. The volume is a present to her Majesty, and is one of fifty-two copies of a series of photographs made by members of the Photographic Club—a newly-established club akin to the old Etching Club, and instituted to advance and record the progress of the art of photography. This is their first volume, [Not true.] and most wonderfully does it exhibit the progress which photography has made in England during the past year. Each of the fifty members sends fifty-two impressions of what he considers to be his best photograph with a description of the process used in obtaining it. Fifty copies are distributed among the fifty; the fifty-first is offered to her Majesty, and the fifty-second presented to the British Museum. Very wonderful, indeed, are some of the photographs in this very beautiful volume. We would especially point out as perfect in their truth to nature and adherence to art Mr. Batson’s “Babblecombe Bay,” Mr. Henry Taylor’s “Lane Scene,” Mr. Llewellyn’s “Angler,” Mr. Bedford’s “Flowers,” Mr. Delamotte’s “Innocence,” Dr. Diamond’s “Interior of Holyrood,” Mr. Henry Pollock’s “Winsor Castle,” Mr. Mackinlay’s “Bedlham Castle,” Mr. White’s “Garden Chair,” and Mr. John Stewart’s appropriate vignette to the volume—the portrait of Sir John Herschel.”]


The Photographic Album for the Year 1857. Being Contributions from the Members of the Photographic Club. Printed for the Members of the Photographic Club by Charles Whittingham, London, 1857. (It may be that it was not actually published until 1861) [(This is the third album produced by the Photographic Club. With 39 original photographs by 39 photographers, including “At Pont y pair, Bettws-y-Coed, North Wales,” by Francis Bedford. “An angry brook, it sweeps the glade, Brawls over rock & wild cascade, And foaming brown with double force, Hurries its waters on their course.” W. Scott. “Taken on Collodion (wet), in the middle of June, 1856; weather bright sunny day, very hot; Exposure one minute; developed with one grain solution Pyrogallic Acid.” “Lens by Ross; focal length fifteen inches; diameter three inches; Diaphragm three eighths of an inch.” “Printed on albumenized paper coloured with gold.”]
The Sunbeam: A Photographic Magazine, No. 1, edited by Philip H. DelaMotte. Chapman & Hall, 1857. [4 original photographs, 1 each by F. Bedford, Sir Jocelyn Coghill, P. H. DelaMotte, and J. D. Llewellyn.]


Bedford, Francis. The Treasury of Ornamental Art. Illustrations of objects of art and virtu, photographed from the originals and drawn on stone by F. Bedford, with descriptive notices by Sir John C. Robinson. London: Day & Son, 1857. 145 pp. 70 I. of plates, illus.


Waring, J. B., ed. Art Treasures of the United Kingdom; from the Art Treasures Exhibition, Manchester. Chromo-lithographed by F. Bedford. The drawings on wood by R. Dudley, with essays by O. Jones, M. D. Wyatt, A. W. Franks, J. B. Waring, J. C. Robinson, C. Scharf Jun. London: s. n., 1858. n. p. illus.


The Sunbeam: A Book of Photographs from Nature, edited by Philip H. DelaMotte, F. S. A. London: Chapman & Hall, 1859. [18 original photographs by Francis Bedford (4), Sir Jocelyn Coghill (1), Lebbus Colls (2), Joseph Cundall (2), P. H. DelaMotte (1), Dr. Holden (1), J. D. Llewellyn (2), Phoebus [Pickersgill?] (2), Henry Taylor (1), George W. Wilson (1), Thomas Wilson (1).]


Bedford, Francis. A Guide to Warwick, Kenilworth, Stratford-on-Avon, Coventry and the various places of interest in the neighborhood. Warwick: H. T. Cooke & Son, n. d. 142 pp.


Gems of Photographic Art. Photo-Pictures Selected from the Universal Series by Francis Frith. Reigate: Printed and published by Francis Frith, 1862. 1 pp. 20 I. of plates. 20 b & w. [Title page and twenty original photographs. Six by F. Bedford, two by T. Eaton, one by R. Fenton, five by F. Frith, one by Meteyard, five by A. Rosling. (Variants, with different prints, may exist)]


Howitt, William & Mary Howitt. Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain… The photographic illustrations by Bedford, Sedgfield, Wilson, Fenton, and others. London: Alfred W. Bennett, 1862. viii, 228 pp. 27 b & w. [Original photos.]


Photographic Pictures made by Mr. Francis Bedford during the Tour in the East, in which, by command, he accompanied H. M. H. the Prince of Wales. London: Day & Son, 1863.3 vol. 172 b & w. [No. 1, “Egypt,” 48 b & w; No. 2, “The Holy Land and Syria,” 76 b & w; No. 3, “Constantinople, the Mediterranean & Athens,” 48 b & w.]


History of the Recent Discoveries at Cyrene, made during an expedition to the Cyrenaica in 1860 – 61 under the auspices of Her Majesty’s Government by Capt. R. Murdock Smith and Commander E. A. Porcher. London: Day & Son, 1864. n. p. 16 b & w. illus. [Sixteen original photographs by Francis Bedford and lithographs.]


Howitt, William and Mary Howitt. The Wye: Its Ruined Abbeys and Castles; Extracted from “The Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain” by Wm. & M. Howitt. The photographic Illustrations by Bedford and Sedgfield. London: Alfred W. Bennett, 1863. n. p. 6 b & w. [Four original photographs by Francis Bedford, two by Russell Sedgfield.]


Howitt, William and Mary Howitt. The Ruined Castles of North Wales; With photographic illustrations by Bedford, Sedgfield, Thompson, Wilson, Fenton, and others. (2nd Series) London: Alfred W. Bennett, 1864. n. p. [“…. In each volume we have some five-and-twenty exquisite photographs of venerable piles, whose names are as household words upon our lips; and each subject is made the theme of from ten to twenty pages of well-told history and description. Some of these pictures are so artistic that they almost shake our faith in the assertion that photographs are not suggestive. We may especially notice, for example, the view of “Kenilworth Castle from the Brook,” which forms the frontispiece to the second volume, the view of “Holy Cross Abbey” in the same volume (with its sky “sunned down,” as photographers call it), and one or two little “vignetted ” head and tail pieces….”]


Newton, Sir Charles Thomas. Travels and Discoveries in the Levant. London: Day & Son, 1865. 2 vol. 10 illus. [Ten photo-lithographs by Francis Bedford, after drawings by Lady Newton.]


Mott, Augusta. The Stones of Palestine; Notes of a Ramble through the Holy Land… Illus. with photographs by F. Bedford. London: Seeley, Jackson & Halliday, 1865. viii, 88 pp. 12 b & w. [Original photographs.]


Bedford, Francis. The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople, Athens, etc, etc. A series of forty-eight photographs taken by Francis Bedford for H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East, in which, by command, he accompanied his Royal Highness, with descriptive letterpress and interp. by W. M. Thomson. London: Day & Son, 1866. 2 vol. 48 I. of plates. 48 b & w. [Volume one contains viii, 99 pages of text. Volume two consists of 48 original photographs.]


Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid. By Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, Astronomer Royal for Scotland. Alexander Stratum and Co., London. 1864. 400 pp. 1 b & w. [“The frontispiece is a reduction from the excellent original photograph of Mr. Francis Bedford, representing a good view of the Great Pyramid of Jizeh…”]


Bedford, Francis. Catalogue of an Entirely New Series of Photographs of Warwick, Guy’s Cliffe, Kenilworth Castle, Leamington, Coventry, Stoneleigh, Stratford-on-Avon, Etc Cooke, 18??. 8 pp.


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, of Beddgelest, by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1868]. 10 I. of plates. 10 b & w. [10 mounted prints. Title page, but no texts with the photos.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, of Bettws y Coed, by Francis Bedford. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1868]. 12 I. of plates. 12 b & w. [12 mounted prints. Title page, but no texts with the photos. UCLA Library.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, of Bristol and Clifton, by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1865?]. 16 I. of plates. 16 b & w. [16 mounted prints. Title page, but no texts with the photos. Another edition, 10 b & w.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, of Chester, by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1868]. 10 I. of plates. 10 b & w. [10 mounted prints. Title page, but no texts with the photos.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, of Devonshire, by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1868], 20 I. of plates. 20 b & w. [20 mounted prints. Title page, but no texts with the photos.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, of Exeter, by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1868]. 10 I. of plates. 10 b & w. [10 mounted prints. Title page, but no texts with the photos.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, of llfracombe, by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1868]. 10 I. of plates. 10 b & w. illus. [10 mounted prints. Title page, but no texts with the photos.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, of North Devonshire, by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1868]. 15 I. of plates. 15 b & w. [15 mounted prints. Title page, but no texts with the photos.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, of North Wales, by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1864]. 30 I. of plates. 30 b & w. [30 mounted prints. Title page, but no texts with the photos.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, of South Devon, by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1868].15 I. of plates. 15 b & w. [15 mounted prints. Title page, but no texts with the photos.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, on Stratford-on-Avon and Neighborhood, by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1868]. 101, of plates. 10 b&w. [10 mounted prints, about 4″x4″. Title page, but no texts with the photos.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views, of Tenby and Neighborhood, by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour of the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1867]. 17 1. of plates. 17 b&w. [17 mounted prints. Title page, but no texts with the photos.]


Bedford, Francis. Pictorial Illustrations of Torquay and Its Neighborhood. Chester: Catherall & Pritchard, n. d. [ca. 186-?]. 26 pp. 30 b & w. [30 original photographs. Scenery and views.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views of Torquay. No. 2. Chester: Catherall & Pritchard, n. d. [ca. 186-?]. ?? pp. ?? b & w. [ At least 63 original photographs. Scenery and views.]


Bedford, Francis. Photographic Views of Warwickshire; by Francis Bedford. Photographer to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales during the tour in the East. Chester: Catherall & Prichard, n. d. [ca. 1868],16 I. of plates. 16 b & w. [16 photographs, each plate bearing a title plus a number. The numbers run from 591 to 657, but with gaps in the numbering. Photos about 4″x6″. Views, with people.]


Jay, Bill. Francis Bedford, 1816-1894: English landscape photographer of the wet-plate period Albuquerque : University of New Mexico, 1976. xiii, 195 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm. & slides (30 slides : some col. ; 2×2 in.) in pockets. [Thesis (M.F.A.)–University of New Mexico, Dept. of Art and Art History, 1976. Bibliography: leaves 194-195.]


Seely, Gail. Egypt and the Holy Land as photographic subjects 1849-1870: a comparative study of seven photographers. Austin: G. Seely, 1976. Thesis (M.A.)–University of Texas at Austin, 1976. 272 leaves, [17] leaves of plates : ill., maps ; Bibliography: p. 265-272. [“The purpose of this thesis is to discuss seven European photographers of Egypt and the Holy Land … whose work is included in the Gernsheim Collection”–Introd., leaf 9. Typescript copy, with 8×10 photo reproductions.” The photographers discussed are: Maxime du Camp, John Shaw Smith, James Robertson, Felice A. Beato, Francis Frith, Francis Bedford, Charles Piazzi Smyth and Sgt. J. McDonald.]


State University of New York College at Brockport. Fine Arts Gallery. Two Victorian photographers: Francis Frith, 1822-1898, Francis Bedford, 1816-1894: from the collection of Dan Berley: (September 19 – October 11, 1976) Fine Arts Gallery, New York State University College at Brockport. [Brockport, N.Y.: The Gallery, 1976] [24] p. ill. ; 19 x 22 cm. Cover title: Photographs, Frith and Bedford. Catalog of an exhibition held Sept. 19-Oct. 11, 1976 at the Fine Arts Gallery, New York State University, College at Brockport. Bibliography: p. [24].


Millard, Charles. “Images of Nature: A Photo-Essay.” on pp. 3-26 in: Nature and the Victorian Imagination. Edited by U. C. Knoepflmacher and G. B. Tennyson. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1977. 519 pp. illus. [24 photographs by various photographers published in the portfolio, of which 4 are by Francis Bedford. Also a comment upon the photography of the period by Millard on pp. 23-26.]


Original Prints, Francis Bedford, 1816-1894. [Microfilm.] Woodbridge, CT: Research Publications, 1981. On 1 microfilm reel; 35 mm. (History of photography. Monographs; reel 12, no. 118) [Filmed original was photocopy of a printed catalog with added leaves of typescript and manuscript. Description: [71] leaves : ill.]


The Photographic Heritage of the Middle East: An Exhibition of Early Photographs of Egypt, Palestine, Styria, Turkey, Greece And Iran, 1849-1893. Los Angeles, California: Department of Special Collections, UCLA Research Library (Nov. 5, 1981 – Feb. 21, 1982). P. E. Chevedden. Malibu, California: Undena Publications (1981), 36pp. 29 Illus. [Discusses Antonio Beato, Francis Bedford, Maxime Du Camp, Francis Frith, W. Hammerschmidt, and others.]


Bartram, Michael. The Pre-Raphaelite Camera: Aspects of Victorian Photography London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 1985, 200 pp. 179 illus. [A study of the use of photography by the Pre-Raphaelites, and their impact on contemporary photographers. ]


Drew, John H. Bedford’s Warwickshire: a record of the 1860s Buckingham, England: Barracuda Books. 1987, 112 pp. 48 illus. bibliog. [The book reproduces the photographs, with descriptive captions, of sites in the county of Warwickshire made by Francis Bedford in the 1860s, and gives an account of his career. Includes a list of Bedford’s printed books, an index, and facsimile pages of his catalogue of English Scenery.]]


Perez, Nissan. Focus East: Early Photography in the Near East (1839-1885) New York: Abrams, 1988. 256 pp. [Gathers photographs of the nineteenth century Middle East and its people, culture, and ruins, and offers brief profiles of early photographers, including Bedford.]


Erdogu, Ayse. Selling the Orient: Nineteenth Century Photographs of Istanbul in European Markets Ph.D. dissertation: University of Texas at Austin. 1989, 369 pp. Dissertation Abstracts International: Order no. DA9016880. [Investigates photographs produced by three photographers in Istanbul: Sébah & Joailler; Abdullah Frères; and Basile Kargopoulo. The author compares their work to that of Swedish artist Guillaume Berggren and James Robertson and Francis Bedford.]


Commercial Aesthetics : Nineteenth Century British Photographs by Francis Bedford, Francis Frith, James Valentine and George Washington Wilson St. Louis Community College at Florissant Valley. Art Gallery, Margaret Harwell Art Museum. David R. Hanlon, exhibition curator. St. Louis Community College at Florisant Valley, 1992. 40 pp. ill.


Photography as art and social history [microform]. Marlborough, Wiltshire, England: Adam Matthew Publications, c. 1993. microfiches : ill., maps ; 11 x 15 cm. Pt. 1. The Francis Bedford topographical photographs (5 microfiches) + 26 leaves of text. Introductory textual material contained in loose-leaf binder for pt. 1 includes maps and list of major publications by Francis Bedford.


Gibson, Shimon. Jerusalem in original photographs, 1850-1920 Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns; London: Stacey International, c2003. 204 p. ill., map; Includes bibliographical references (p. 197-200) and index. A number of Bedford’s photographs printed; Bedford mentioned or discussed several times.]


Spencer, Stephanie. Francis Bedford, Landscape Photography and Nineteenth-Century British Culture: the Artist as Entrepreneur. Farnham, Surrey ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate Pub., 2011. viii, 202 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. Notes : Includes bibliographical references and index.


W. M. Thompson, Francis Bedford. The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople, Athens … A series of forty-eight photographs, taken by F. Bedford, for … the Prince of Wales during the Tour in the East, in which … he accompanied His Royal Highness. With descriptive text and introduction, by W. M. Thompson. Publisher: British Library, Historical Print Editions, 2011. 218 pp.


Ryerson University. IMA Gallery. Seeking Solace., Francis Bedford’s Framing of Victorian Ideals: Photographs from the from the Steven Evans Collection: April 1-April 28, 2012, IMA Gallery, Ryerson University. [Toronto: The Gallery, 2012. [1 sheet, 50 x 31.5 cm., folded to make 9 pages. ill. ; [“Exhibition and publication realized by Professor David Harris’ 2012 Exhibitions and Publications Class in the Photographic Preservation and Collections Management Program at Ryerson University.”]


Gordon, Sophie. Introduction by John McCarthy. With contributions from Badr El Hage and Alessandro Nasini. Cairo to Constantinople: Francis Bedford’s Photographs of the Middle East. (March 8, 2013 – July 21, 2013) The Queen’s Gallery, Palace of Holyroodhouse. Royal Collection Publications. Distributed by University of Chicago Press, 2013, 256 pages, 220 color illustrations.


“The Exhibition of the Photographic Society.” ART JOURNAL 6:2 (Feb. 1854): 48-50. [(First exhibition of the Photographic Society, with 1500 photographs on display.) “At the rooms of the Society of British Artists in Suffolk Street, there was opened on Tuesday the 3rd of January, a novel exhibition. In many respects it was worthy of especial note; it was a fine example of the value of every abstract discovery in science: it was singular, as it exhibited remarkable progress, made in an art by non-scientific men, every stage of which involved the most refined physical and chemical principles. It was of great interest, as showing the value of photography to the artist, to the traveller, the historian, the antiquarian, and the naturalist: to all, indeed, the exhibition appears to display points of the utmost importance. We purpose, therefore, to devote an article to the consideration of this, the first exhibition of the Photographic Society. It is pleasing to commence our task by recording the interest taken by our Most Gracious Queen in the progress of everything which has any tendency to exalt the character of the people over whom she reigns. Upon the formation of the Photographic Society, her Majesty and Prince Albert became its patrons; and on the morning previously to the opening of the Exhibition, these illustrious personages paid a visit to the Gallery, and spent a considerable time in examining the numerous specimens exhibited. The Queen and Prince were received by Sir Charles Eastlake, President; Professor Wheatstone, Vice-President; Mr. Roger Fenton, the Honorary Secretary; and Mr. Fry, Mr. Berger, Mr. Rosling, Dr. Diamond, and Professor Robert Hunt, members of council, with Mr. Henfrey, the editor of the Journal, and Mr. Williams, the Assistant-Secretary. Both her Majesty and the Prince have for a long period taken the utmost interest in the Art; and their expressions of delight at the productions now brought together, cannot but have the most important influence on the yet greater advance of photography. Nearly 1,500 pictures, illustrating, with a few unimportant exceptions, every variety of the photographic Art, are now exhibited. It is, of course, impossible, and if practicable, it would be useless to examine so many productions in detail. To the inexperienced, it may also appear that, since every picture is drawn by the same agent— the sunbeam, in the same instrument—the camera obscura, they must have the same general character, and therefore admit not of any critical remarks as to their artistic value. Such is not, however, the case. The productions of the painter are not more varied than those of the photographer; and it is a curious and interesting study to examine the subjects selected for photographic view, and to trace in these, as we would in an artist’s picture, the peculiar bent of the mind. To select a few examples: —Sir William Newton delights in the picturesque features of the Burnham beeches, and studies to produce a general harmony and breadth of effect, rather than to secure the minute details in which many of his photographic brethren delight. The Count de Montizon is a student of natural history; and in some fifty pictures which he exhibits, we have examples of the zoological collection in the Regent’s Park. These are curious evidences of the sensibility of the collodion process which the count employs: lions, tigers, bears, birds, and fish are caught, as it were, in their most familiar moods, and are here represented with a truthfulness which but few artists could approach with the pencil. The Viscount Vigier delights in nature’s grander moods,—the mountain gorge, the foaming torrents, the beetling rocks, and the everlasting snows, are the subjects which he labours to secure upon his photographic tablets. The views in the Pyrenees, now exhibited, prove how completely he has succeeded in securing the bold features of alpine scenery, with all its depths of shadow and its savage grandeur. Nothing more successful than these photographs of the Viscount Vigier have yet been produced. Mr. Turner leads us amidst the ruins of the English abbeys; he delights in ivy-clad walls, broken arches, or mouldering columns; his pictures are purely, essentially English; when he leaves the ruined fanes hallowed by ancient memories, he wanders into the quiet nooks of our island, and with a poet’s eye selects such scenes as “wavering woods, and villages, and streams.” Mr. Delamotte displays a natural feeling somewhat akin to this; his quiet pictures of the “Old Well,” “Alnwick Castle,” “Brinkburn Priory,” and the ” River Coquet,” show him to be one of those “who lonely loves To seek the distant hills, and there converse With Nature.” Exquisitely curious as are the details in the views of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, and in Mr. Delamotte’s copies of Irish Antiquities, they bear no comparison as pictures with those little scraps from nature which he exhibits. Mr. Hugh Owen, with the eye of an artist, selects bits out of the tangled forest, the “Path of the Torrent,” or the depths of the glen, which must prove treasures to a landscape-painter. Mr. Rosling is amongst Photographers what Crabbe was amongst poets, one who delights, in all the minute details of the most homely scenes, who, if he ventures far from home, seeks “villages embosom’d soft in trees. And spiry towns by surging columns mark’d Of household smoke.’ The delight in details is shown by the really wonderful microscopic reproductions of the Illustrated London News which this gentleman exhibits. It has been, from time to time, said that in all Photographic productions the veil of air through which all nature is seen, is wanting. In most of them this is the case, but there are two striking exceptions in this collection; a view of St. Paul’s by Mr. Rosling, and “The Garden Terrace,” by Mr. Roger Fenton. In these little pictures the gradation of tone is as perfect as in any sun pictures which we have seen, and the gradual fading off of the outlines of the objects as they are respectively more and more distant from the eye, yet still retaining their distinctness, is beautifully artistic and at the same time natural. The productions of Mr. Fenton are more varied than those of any other exhibitor. His pictures of the works at the suspension bridge at Kief, now in the process of construction by Mr. Vignolles, for the Emperor of Russia, mark the stages of progress, and thus the camera of the photographer is made to act the part of a clerk of works and record the mechanical achievements of every day. This is by no means an unimportant application of Photography; the engineer or the architect can receive from day to day, the most accurate information respecting works which he may have in the process of construction hundreds of miles apart, and thus be saved the labour of constant personal inspection. Mr. Fenton’s Russian tour has enabled him to enrich his portfolio with numerous views of the monasteries, churches, &c, of the Russian capitals. Many of these are exhibited, and then he gives us homely views, selected with an artist’s eye, and manipulated with great skill, together with portraits of considerable merit. Although some of Mr. Fenton’s productions are obtained by the collodion process, the greater number are the result of wax paper, in which process this gentleman, the secretary of the society, is one of the most successful operators in this country. Messrs. Ross and Thomson continue to familiarise us with Scotch scenery. There is “the copse-wood gray That waved and wept on Loch Acliray, And ruiugled with the pine-trees blue Of the bold cliffs of Ben-venue.” We have on former occasions had to commend the productions of these artists, and the fine character of the specimens on the walls of the gallery in Suffolk Street causes us to regret that there are not a larger number of such scenes, as their Loch Acliray, and Loch Katrine, so nearly realising Sir W. Scott’s description of those lakes and their enclosing “mountains, which like giants stand, To sentinel enchanted land.” We might in this manner gather into groups the especial subjects now exhibited, each group bearing the well-marked impress of the mind of the photographer. The art is purely mechanical, and the results are obtained by means of a philosophical instrument, which has no power to alter its conditions. That which external nature presents the camera-obscura represents, therefore the varied character to which we allude is dependent, mainly, on the selection made. We say mainly dependent, because the photographic manipulator has it in his power, in the process of printing his pictures, to secure certain effects, which add more or less of the pictorial character to the result. A few years since, and a period of twenty minutes was required to obtain upon the most sensitive tablet then known a view of a building. How greatly does the sensibility of our preparations now exceed this. Here we have Mr. Dillwyn Llewellyn presenting us with a view of a Welsh sea-coast, and the waves of the restless ocean have been caught ere yet the crest could fall, the hollow ascend to become the crest, or the breaker cast its foam upon the shore. Dr. Becker, librarian to the Prince Albert, has also, since the opening of the exhibition, contributed a picture in which the fleeting, and ever-varying clouds are painted, by their own radiations, in singular truth. The improvement in sensibility is particularly shown however in the portraits of the insane by Dr. Diamond. The rapidity of operation is shown by the life which is in every countenance. The physiognomy of the affliction is truthfully preserved, and all the phases of excitement or melancholy rigidly preserved. High medical testimony assures us that these portraits are of the highest value in the study of that most severe of human afflictions, the deprivation of reason. The portraits by Mr. Berger are equally remarkable for the evident rapidity with which they have been taken, and for the artistic tone which is given to many of them. Two of these portraits, in particular, struck us as proving the correctness of Raffaelle, and his boldness. It is not possible that we can particularise the respective excellences of the numerous exhibitors. The portraits by Mr. Hennah, by Mr. Home, and Mr. James Tunny are especially deserving of notice. To the daguerreotype productions of Mr. Claudet, Mr. Beard, and Mr. Mayall we need scarcely devote a line; their various excellences are already too well known to the public. There are many pictures, subsequently coloured by the artists’ hand, of great merit, but as being coloured they are removed, as it were, from the domain of the photographer. Yet, not entirely so, since we have here examples of colouring upon photographic portraits by the artists already named, and also by Mr. Laroche, equal in nearly all respects to the first class ivory miniatures, but which are produced at about one-tenth their cost. The value of photography to the traveller who desires to secure faithful resemblances of the lands he may visit, and to the “Home-keeping Wit,” who still wishes to know something of the aspects of other climes, is here most strikingly shown. We have an extensive series of views from Egypt—the Vocal Memnon, the Sphinx, the Pyramids, the temples of Isis and Dendera, and numerous other photographs by Mr. Bird, make us acquainted with all the peculiarities of the architecture of the land of the Pharaohs. Mr. Tenison brings us acquainted with Seville and Toledo, while Mr. Clifford shows us Segovia, with its modern houses and its ancient aqueduct, Salamanca, and other Spanish scenes. M. Baldus exhibits several most interesting photographs of scenes hallowed by historical associations, amongst others the amphitheatre at Nimes, is on many accounts a remarkable production. This picture is by far the largest in the room, and certainly one of the largest photographs which has yet been executed. The positive now exhibited is copied from three negatives ; that is, three views have been taken in the first place, by moving the camera-obscura round as it were upon a centre, so as to embrace a fresh portion of the ruins each time. These three negatives being fixed are united with much care, and the positive taken by one exposure. In this case the joining has been so skillfully contrived, that it is scarcely possible to detect the points of union. The study of natural history cannot but be greatly aided by the publication of such photographic copies of objects as those produced by the MM Bisson. We learn that in the production of these, every assistance is rendered by the French government, and in this way it is contemplated to publish all the choice specimens of the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes, and other Parisian collections. Since this was written, a set of prints from steel plates, etched by Niepce’s bituminous process, have been received, and show still an extension of photography in the aid of art and science. The portraits of the Zulu Kaffirs, by Mr. Henneman, prove the value of the art to the ethnologist, since the physiognomy of races may be in this way most faithfully preserved. Under this section, the microscopic objects photographed by the Rev. W. I. Kingsley, and those by Mr. F. Delves require notice; those by the latter gentlemen are, as it appears to us, the most remarkable productions of this class which have yet obtained. Mr. Kingsley’s pictures are the largest in point of size, but they want that clearness and definition, that evidence of space penetration which strikingly distinguishes the works of Mr. Delves. Amongst the objects of purely scientific interest, the i impressions of the spectrum by Mr. Crooke, showing the Fraunhofer lines, and some j copies of the images produced in crystals by polarised light will attract most attention. The practical value of these is to j show the advantages of the bromide of silver over the iodide in all cases where we desire to copy objects, such as foliage, in which green and yellow surfaces .prevail. These are not new facts, as they were pointed out by Sir John Herschel in 1840, and particularly examined by Mr. Robert Hunt in his “Researches on Light,” in which volume is also given a drawing of the fixed lines of the chemical spectrum. The photographs of Mr. Stokes’ charming little bits of nature, those of Mr. Waring, of Sir Thomas Wilson, and numerous others, as illustrating interesting photographic phenomena, would, did our space permit, claim some observations. Any one examining the collodion pictures executed by Mr. C. T. Thompson, and those by Mr. F. Bedford, cannot but be struck with the wonderful detail and correctness of every part. The finest chasings in silver, carvings in ivory, and copies of the antique furniture which was exhibited last year at Gore House show the variety of purposes to which the art can be, and is now being, applied. There are several specimens of much historical interest exhibited, such as the first collodion portrait by Mr. P. W. Fry, and the earliest application of the protonitrate of iron by Dr. Diamond. Of actual novelties in the Art, there are none; the linotype, or pictures stained on linen, scarcely deserving the name, and its utility being very doubtful. The examples of photo-lithography, and of Mr. Talbot’s etchings on steel we have already given a full description in former numbers. Auguring from this, the first exhibition of the Photographic Society, which has only been in existence one year—and that a year remarkable for its paucity of sunshine— the very element upon which the success of photography depends; we may expect great advances in another year. As a word of advice to all who are interested in the art, we would say in conclusion, rest not satisfied with the agents you are now employing, or the mode of manipulation you follow, try other agents and new methods.”]


“Photographic Society.” ATHENAEUM no. 1421 (Jan. 20, 1855): 86. [“If universal Art progressed as fast as this small scientific branch of it, we might soon look for new Phidiases and new Raphaels. The second annual Exhibition is now open in Pall Mall, and presents evidences of great improvement. The portraits are broader and clearer and the compositions more artistic….” (Review of second annual exhibition. Sherlock, F. Bedford, Lake Price, H. Owen mentioned.)]


“The Second Exhibition of the London Photographic Society.” PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL 8:2 (Feb. 1855): 62-63. [“London, January 12, 1855. To the Editor of the Photographic and Fine Art Journal: Dear Sir,—Knowing that the proceedings of the London Photographic Society are of interest to you, I send a short notice of their second annual Exhibition. Yesterday Prince Albert paid a visit to the Gallery, and this morning the members of the Society and their friends were invited to a private view. It will be at once admitted that this is the best exhibition of photographs we have yet had. The progress of the Art, though slow, is sure and steady, and we see many difficulties which were, once thought almost insurmountable, yielding to the care and increased knowledge of the operator. We are not a whit afraid that even in its ultimate success photography will ever interfere with the artist, any further than to stimulate him to a more truthful appreciation of nature. We know that the small fry of miniature painters have been nearly swept away by the daguerreotype and the photograph, but that is simply because, their art was so bad—Richmoud and Thorburn, and Watts and Hayten drew as many heads year by year as ever they did, and although we can admit that a good photograph is better than a bad picture, we must allow that there is and ever must be an immeasurable distance—a broad gulf that can never be crossed —between the best photograph and the work of a true painter, An artist of great repute was by our side as we looked at one of Mr. Llewellyn’s photographs, appropriately called ‘Summers Evening.” “This is like summer,” said the artist; “the effect is as like many of his drawings as possible,” and in truth it is a most poetical little bit—certainly the nearest approach to a fine work of art. Mr. Llewellyn has many other subjects, nearly as good. He seems to delight in the picturesque, and chooses his subject with an artist’s eye. His instantaneous views are more wonderful than beautiful; but who does not look with interest at the ripple of the sea—the surf beating on the shore, the cloud-bank in the heaven, all pictured by this magic art, with a truth no mortal hand could ever imitate. Perhaps the most successful exhibitor—certainly the most prolific—is the Honorary Secretary of the Society, Mr. Roger Fenton. The fruits of his Tour in Yorkshire are for the most part exquisite. The “Valley of the Wharze,” is on the whole, the best landscape with distance that we are acquainted with, and shows how far the collodion process may be carried. The advocates of the paper negatives have always claimed a preference for their process in distant views, but this picture has certainly never been equalled. Mr. Fenton seems to have been very fortunate in the weather and the time of year during his stay at Rivaulx Abbey. The large picture of the Abbey taken from the north end is a singular, and at the same time a very beautiful example of what may be accomplished with the sun nearly in front of the camera. Several little road-side and cottage bits near Rivaulx are charming compositions and excellent photographs. Mr. Lake Price, the well-known artist, has contributed four pictures, which demand some attention. They are large and very imposing at first sight; one, the “Baron’s Welcome” is very like a drawing by Chattermole. The figures, clothed in armor, are ranged “dramatically” round a table, and there are plenty of ancient old weapons and quaint jugs to help make up the picture, but it will hardly bear examination. The attendants are more like stuffed figures than real men, and there is not an expression to be found in any one of their faces. This is precisely an illustration of our remark that a good photograph is immeasurably distant from a fine work of art. Mr. Lake Price’s “Retour de Chasse” is his best photograph, because it is his least ambitious—the dead game and the gold and silver are well grouped, and the effect is much more pleasing than in the semi-theatrical subjects. We hear that Mr. Price is almost a novice in photography, if so, we must compliment him on his ready proficiency in the art, but we cannot refrain from asking him to light his pictures from the side more than the direct top. Mr. B. Turner.—Six well chosen and well photographed pictures, show this gentleman’s excellence both as an artist and a manipulator. There are no other Talbotypes in the room to equal his. We like the size and style of his pictures: they are hold and vigorous, yet not wanting in detail. Mr. Phillip Delamotte, the photographer to the Crystal Palace, exhibits his two large views of the interior of that immense structure. The picture of the completed Palace is perhaps the grandest work of photography yet accomplished in England. It is a wonder to see with what precision the details of every part are given. One recognizes the face of the policeman, and can tell the geraniums from the nasturtiums, and yet at the same time one sees the whole height and nearly the whole length of the building. Some of the views in the Alhambra and Renaissance Court are as beautiful as we could wish for. Mr. Delamotte has likewise been on a visit to the Yorkshire Abbey, and has brought home charming views. He as well as Mr. Cundall, who was with him, seems to have devoted his attention especially to the buildings, and we have consequently a series of pictures of Fountains Abbey, Rivaulx, Kirkeshall and Bolton, which are highly interesting, Mr. Delamotte’s Fountains Hall, Echo Rock, and interior of the choir of Rivaulx, are his best productions. Mr. Cundall’s are his interiors of the choir and chapter—exterior of the Refrectory at Fountains, and his interior of Rivaulx, There are likewise views of Hastings by Mr. Cundall that are very good. Mr. Bedford also exhibited many views from Yorkshire, bright and sparkling bits most of them, which we are only sorry to find so small. Mr. Bedford seems to be a most careful manipulator. We scarcely discover a flaw or a fault in any of his pictures, and he is equally successful in his views from nature and his copies of pictures and still life. Mr. Thurston Thompson has been commissioned by H. R. H. Prince Albert, to copy the drawings of Raffaelle in the Royal possession. The specimens exhibited show how well qualified Mr. Thompson is for the task he has undertaken. No one but a photographer would understand the great difficulty of copying the drawings the size of the original. The photographs are perfect, the lines are clear to the very edge, and the very best possible result has been attained by Mr. Thompson’s skill. By what other process could such perfection have been arrived at? The Rev. Mr. Kingley’s microscopic views of insects are excellently photographed, and will no doubt be attractive to naturalists. Mr. Taylor’s country pictures are extremely well chosen, and are both bright and effective. Several photographs by Mr. Sherlock are worth especial commendation—witness the “Boy peeling a turnip,” the “Girl’s head,” of an unusually large size, and “still life.” Mr. Robertson contributes some of his well known views of Constantinople; Mr. Hugh Owen some charming studies of trees and a few pictures from Spain, which hardly increase his reputation. Besson, freres send a few excellent pictures, views of Paris; Mr. Russell Ledgfield many capital bits of Cathedrals and country architecture, and Mr. George Barker several good groups and full length figures from life. In portraits Mr. Hesinah, as usual, bears the palm, but we see no great progress in this branch. Mr. Claudet, Mr. Kilburn, Mr. Elliott and Mr. Williams each contribute a stand of daguerreotype stereoscopic pictures, all of them in our mind, though wonderful, very much resembling Madame Tassand’s exhibition.”]


“Reviews.” ART JOURNAL ns 1:3 (Mar. 1, 1855): 99. [Book review. Views of the Crystal Palace and Park, Sydenham. From Drawings by eminent Artists, and Photographs by P. H. Delamotte. With a Title-page, and Literary Notices by M. Digby Wyatt. Lithographed, Printed and Published by Day & Son, London. “Of all attempts which have hitherto been made to set forth, by means of pictures, the wonders of the existing Crystal Palace, this is, beyond measure, the best. Such commendation is, however, but comparative, and does not justice to the work before us; we will say then it is a very beautiful volume in its illustrations, and highly instructive in the letter-press descriptions which Mr. Wyatt has introduced. The principal subjects, or, at least, those which will interest most, are the views of the Courts: they are drawn with exceeding delicacy and with strict attention to detail; and, being printed in two or three tints, are thus rendered very effective: but why not print all in colours (where such are necessary to the complete elucidation of the architecture) as two of the Courts—the Pompeian and the Italian—are printed? And why destroy the illusion of past ages by the introduction of tall ladies in shawls and mantillas, and tall gentlemen in frock-coats, Oxonians, Chesterfields, and “registered paletots?” These may do very well at Sydenham, because they are parts of the living and breathing world all around; but in the silent though eloquent picture, they seem to us a mockery: here they appear intruders upon the solemn grandeur of ancient Egypt — the very sphynxes look outraged at their presence—and amid the restored magnificence of Assyrian pomp. In the Roman Court these interlopers have been judiciously kept almost out of sight; there is little here to disturb the dream of enchantment that rises up from arch and column, and graceful sculptures. How easy it would have been for the artists who have otherwise so well done their work, Messrs. Delamotte, Bedford, &c, to have enlivened their subjects with a few figures of the respective nations of antiquity, which they might readily have procured from authentic sources: Egypt, Nineveh, Greece, Rome, and the medieval ages, would then have stood before us in their own proper persons, and not as they now do, denationalised by obtrusive introductions, .Such are the only exceptions we take to this tastefully illustrated publication.”]


“Advertisements.” NOTES AND QUERIES 11:290 (May 19, 1855): front cover. [Interesting and Valuable Collection of Photographic Pictures, by English, French, German and Italian Photographers, partly from the late Exhibition of the Photographic Society in Pall Mall. Southgate & Barrett will sell by Auction, in their Rooms, 22 Fleet Street, on Wednesday Evening May 23, an Important Collection of several hundred photographs, by the most eminent Photographers; including Pictures by Fenton, Delamotte, Owen, Bedford, Cundall, Baldus, Le Gray, Bisson, Bilordeaux, Le Secq, Ferrier, Macpherson, Anderson, Martens, Negre, Shaw, Colls, Buckle, Sutton, Sedgfield. Many of the more important specimens are in Gilt Bend Frames. May be viewed two days prior to the Sale. Catalogues will be forwarded on receipt of Two Postage Stamps.”]


“Advertisements: Examples of Ornament.” NOTES AND QUERIES 12:315 (Nov. 10, 1855): inside front cover. [“Just published, handsomely printed, in Imperial Quarto, price 2l.2s. Examples of Ornament in Every Style. Consisting of a Series of 220 Illustrations (69 of which are richly coloured), classified according to Styles, and chronologically arranged: commencing with the Egyptian and Assyrian, and continued… These Illustrations have been selected by Joseph Cundall from existing specimens, and drawn by Francis Bedford, Thomas Scott, Thomas MacQuoid, and Henry O’Neill. London: Bell and Daldy, 186. Fleet Street.”]



“The Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 28:779 (Sat., Jan. 12, 1856): 42. [“The Third Annual Exhibition of the Photographic Society was opened to public view on the 7th inst. The private view, on the 5th, was honoured by the presence of her Majesty, H.R.H. Prince Albert, and the Princess Alice. The collection, numbering some 600 specimens, fully represents the capabilities of the art in its various and increasing applications, and displays a marked advance upon the Exhibition of last year. The progress of the art is most conspicuous in the better artistic treatment of subjects, due, probably, to the greater facility and certainty of manipulation gradually attained to. In the infancy of the art mechanical difficulties to be overcome in obtaining a tolerably perfect picture were so great, that the photographer could give but little consideration to the aesthetics of his art. With the result, however harsh and uncouth in treatment, he was satisfied, although the composition might be bad in every respect, and the point; of view ill selected. But since artists have occupied themselves with this powerful auxiliary to pictorial art, they have brought their peculiar technical knowledge to bear upon the subjects represented, and the critic is called upon to pronounce upon photographs as he would upon a gallery of water-colour drawings. Those who regard photography only as a mechanical art should compare views of the same landscape or view taken by different photographers, and they will soon recognize that the individuality of the operator is as much a part of a photograph as the picture is of the individuality of the painter. What a delicate perception of the beautiful in nature is displayed in the landscapes of Knight, Cundall, Shadbolt, Holden, Llewelyn, Delamotte, H. Taylor. and others whose productions proclaim them artists as much as if they were members of the Water-Colour Societies! Each has his favourite tone of colour, which of itself is frequently sufficient to proclaim the artist at a first glance. One revels in sepia, another in bistre, another in Indian-ink. No less indicative of the artist is the choice of subject. One haunts the tangled copse; others the shady glen, the mill-stream, the loch, the moor, the rural lane, the quaint cottage or mouldering ruin; another, more soaring in his imagination, mounts the castle-tower to depict the panorama beneath his feet. In the architectural subjects this individuality of treatment is still more striking and remarkable, because at first sight there would appear to be much less scope for it: but how widely different are the architectural views by Bedford, Newton, Bolton, Trout, Holden, Dolamore, and Bullock! and is not this difference the artist’s individuality? Therefore, since the manipulation of the art, how-ever delicate it may be, is no longer an impediment to the highest perfection of which photography is capable, we may fairly pronounce upon the works submitted to examination according to the canons of art.



”The Photographic Society’s Exhibition. (Second Notice.)” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 28:780 (Sat., Jan. 19, 1856): 74. [(3rd Annual Exhibition.) “Architectural subjects would, to the ordinary observer, appear to present the fewest difficulties and the greatest uniformity of treatment by the photographer. The pictorial aspect of a stone wall or tower would seem unchangeable; and so, perhaps, it would be were there no such thing as chiaroscuro. The artist-photographer, however, knows that in sunshine the play of light and shade, constantly varying, imparts to the simplest object a Protean character, and the picturesque may be found better in the morning or in the evening, and he will carefully watch for the fit hour. In the studies under notice we see that one artist affects extreme sharpness of outline, as in “Rivaulx Abbey” (No. 284), and in “West Front of Peterborough Cathedral” (No. 335). Another studies boldness and breadth, as in “Canterbury Cathedral” (No. 36), by V. A. Prout, whose productions constantly remind us of the drawings of his illustrious namesake. In this section of the art the works of Mr. Bedford appear to us most completely to satisfy the requirements of art. It is scarcely possible to conceive anything more beautiful than this artist’s views of Canterbury Cathedral (Nos. 152, 183, 203, and especially Nos. 467 and 499). We are inclined to place Mr. Bedford first in the rank of artist-photographers. In the selection and treatment of subjects his taste is always refined, and their execution, especially in colour, unexceptionable. We may refer for confirmation of our opinion to his “Studies from the Studio” (No. 128) and “More Gleanings from my Portfolio” (No. 356)….”]


Hunt, Robert. “Photographic Exhibitions.” ART JOURNAL ns 2:2 (Feb. 1856): 49-50. [“The Photographic Society has during the month opened its third Exhibition. Fenton’s Crimean photographs (noticed Art-Journal, October) are now exhibited in Pall-Mall; and Robertson’s photographs, taken after the fall of Sebastopol, are to be seen in Regent Street. The fact, that three exhibitions of sun-drawn pictures are open in the metropolis at the same time, sufficiently proves the growing interest in this beautiful art. The present appears a favourable opportunity for examining the state and prospects of photography—and, with these public exhibitions to refer to,we shall find no difficulty in directing attention to illustrative examples of each point with which we shall have to deal. During the last year or two, there have not been any considerable advances in the science of photography, but the art has been greatly improved. When the discoveries of Daguerre and Talbot were first published to the world, several experimental philosophers seized upon the subject, and their industrious researches were soon rewarded by the development of new and unexpected truths. These directed the way to secure improved sensibility in the photographic agents, and pictures were in a little time produced, in a few seconds, superior in all respects to those which formerly required, often, nearly an hour for their development. Herschel, for example, was the first to point attention to the importance of organic bodies in combination with the salts of silver. He showed that the equilibrium was more readily overturned, and the system of chemical decomposition more rapidly carried forward, when the metallic salt was associated with some of those carbon compounds, which especially possess the power of removing oxygen from substances with which it is associated. A knowledge of this fact led to the use of gallic acid as an accelerating agent, and, although unfortunately the steps are wanting, and we are prevented from tracing the progress of the discovery, we find photographers advancing from the use of paper, to the employment of gelatine and albumen, and eventually to the introduction of that important agent, collodion. Collodion proved so distinguishingly an accelerating power in photography, that almost every other preparation has given way before it. In proof of this the present Photographic Exhibition numbers 606 frames of photographs of various kinds. Of these there are of pictures by the Waxed paper process 64. The Calotype 78. The Daguerreotype 3. The Collodion 461. Total 600. This large majority of collodion pictures is, we believe, mainly referrible to the remarkable facility of the process. The preparations required can be purchased ready for use—and it is almost impossible for the veriest amateur to fail of obtaining a picture. We are rather disposed to think that the discovery of the collodion process has had an injurious tendency in stopping enquiry. The pictures obtained are generally so excellent, that little is desired by the photographer beyond the means of ensuring the permanence of his productions. We have had numerous valuable suggestions for the improvement of the collodion process, many of which have been adopted, but no one appears to attempt an advance beyond this. There is no reason why other agents possessing all the advantages of collodion, and some which are yet a desideratum, should not be discovered. It is with some regret that we visited the three exhibitions of the Photographic Society, without discovering, with one exception, any evidence of the study of photography as a science. Amongst the members of the Photographic Society we see the names of men eminent in their especial departments of science; and there are others who, although young, have given evidence of their powers to carry forward original research. Why is it, then, that the exhibition is almost without examples of experimental enquiry? Why is it that the Photographic Journal gives no evidence of the progress of scientific investigation? To produce a picture, the process being given, is excessively easy; any one with industry may succeed in this and even excel; to enquire into the physical and chemical phenomena concerned in the production, is a task demanding much higher powers. There are, however, two frames in the exhibition illustrating—one, the action of the hydrosulphide of ammonia, and the other of the permanganate of potash on finished photographs, which are excellent examples of one line of enquiry. These are by Mr. F. Hardwick, who has carefully investigated many points in the chemistry of photography, and he, in these examples, seeks an elucidation of the conditions under which photographs are found to give way j these demand a careful study. We have on a former occasion devoted an article to the subject of the fading of photographs, and we still hold to our opinion, that a sun-drawn picture may be rendered absolutely unfading under any of the ordinary atmospheric influences, proper care being taken in the manipulation. So much for the condition of photographic science. Now let us look at the art. The third exhibition of the Photographic Society is an exceedingly satisfactory one. We miss the productions of some wellknown photographers, but they are replaced by others, differing from the older hands in style, but in no respect inferior to them in general effect. We conceive there is more harmony—more delicacy—throughout the pictures than formerly. The printing processes have been more carefully attended to, and we have less of that hard contrast, of intense shadows with high lights, than formerly. We also see that the art of photography has had the advantage of leading its students to look at nature with a more careful eye than was their wont. The results of the camera obscura have not always been found to be quite agreeable; sometimes the sunshine, or rather the effects, upon the landscape, were offensively brought forward, and violent results not unfrequently marked the photographer’s studies. These defects, however, our more advanced photographic artists have learned to avoid. They now select natural objects under their more favourable aspects; they look at nature with an eye to the impression which her illuminated surface will make on the chemically prepared tablet; and they select those conditions of light and shadow which give a pleasing photographic result. Some of the landscapes, especially those by J. Knight (497, 502), several by J. D. Llewelyn (504, 511, 411, 443, &c.); T. W. Ramsden’s scenes in Yorkshire (533, 545); F. Scott Archer’s views (61, 62); those by W. Pumphrey (127, &c.); the delightful little bits of nature by G. Shadbolt (34, 57, and 58) will, upon careful examination fully confirm our remarks. “Inhaling the Breeze” (58) “breathing from the meadows,  As the west wind bows down the long green grass, And the light clouds pass as they were wont to pass, Long time ago”-—  by Mr. Shadbolt, possesses to us an inexpressible charm; there is a quiet poetry, and a fulness of light about the picture which is magical; it is like a picture by Turner, we can almost feel the west wind soft and balmy. Pre-Raphaelites might study this and some other photographs, and learn how the sun paints, disclosing every minute line on trunk and leaf—yet blending all into one—light melting by undulations into shadow, and shade brightening into sunny glow, like the illumination on summer seas. For minute and yet distinct detail of a peculiar kind, charming in its general effect, we would name (557) Ferns and Brambles, by H. White. In one picture by Mr. Archer, and in Bantry Bay (14) by T. Cadby Ponting, we have natural clouds, but we think we have seen more delicate and beautiful copies of “Cloudland” than those. How valuable to the artist would a good series of photographic cloud studies be, since few know how to paint them! There are many fine examples of “Ruined fanes, relics of hood and cowl devotion,” of crumbling castles and tottering mansions, which show the manner in which Time’s effacing fingers produce disintegration of the solid stone. The weather-worn fragment is depicted with every scar upon its face, every channel which the rain drops and the wind has worn. Scenes from Kenilworth (45, 46), Dolamor and Bullock; Ludlow Castle (10), Rev. H. Holder; several portions of Windsor Castle, by A. F. Melhuish; The Choir, Canterbury Cathedral (183), F. Bedford ; and some similar productions by V. A. Prout, are excellent studies. Few men could paint as the sun paints; it is not to be desired that they should do so, since the expenditure of time in producing all this wonderful detail would swallow up too much of a man’s life, and it would, we fear, as a final result, produce marvellous mechanism, to the sacrifice of mind. Photography has its uses,—we fear we see its evils, or abuses, in the way in which some of our artists employ the photographic copy of nature, instead of looking at nature with their own eyes, and , mentally fixing some of the ever-varying images which are drawn upon the tablets of those wonderful stereoscopic cameras, the human eyes. Yet many are the lessons, if read aright, which are taught by photography. O. G. Rejlander and Lake Price contribute several artistic studies of a far more ambitious kind than we have hitherto seen. They are all wonderfully clever, but after all they are but the images of actors posed for the occasion; they all want life, expression, passion. Passion they have none, and yet these pictures tell a pleasing tale. The three Subjects (4), by Rejlander, are exceedingly well treated. The Breakfast Table, by Lake Price, is a pretty comfortable English interior, in which all is happiness and peace; let us hope it is the artist’s home. The Wolsey—Charles Kean—(135), by the same photographer, is an exquisite portrait and a fine picture. The Monk (150), also by Mr. Lake Price, and its accompanying studies, are good in their way, but they are dramatic representations; and this applies yet more forcibly to the Scene in the Tower (139), in which the murder of the young princes is the subject. We doubt the propriety of attempting to rival the historical painter. We believe, indeed, that such pictures as those will have a tendency to lower the appreciation of Art in the eyes of the public, and unfit them for receiving the full impression intended by, or of seeing the beauties of, the artist’s production. We do not mean to disparage the works of Mr. Price or of Mr. Rejlander, they are excellent of their kind, but our love of High Art leads us to desire not to see too many of this class of subjects. J. Watson & Co. exhibit an Academic Study (227), and the Broken String (259), which must also be regarded as an artist’s study, and both possess very great merit as such. We have in this Exhibition numerous examples of the applications of the photographic art. A Frame containing four subjects of Cuneiform Inscriptions (201), by Roger Fenton, which are copies of the natural size of clay tablets brought from Nineveh, are wonderfully exact. It would be an almost endless labour to draw these relics of Assyrian story by hand—and here we have every character, by one impulse, faithfully depicted in a few seconds. We have Hindoo Antiquities and Egyptian Bas-relief (210) as other examples of the same class. One of the Engraved pages from the German Edition of the Ars Moriendi, Black Book, date about 1470 (198), Mrs. L. Leigh Sotheby, furnishes another example of important applications of the photographic art. There has been some discussion on the question of copying valuable records, manuscript and printed books. We have seen examples sufficiently numerous to convince us that any of those things cau, under almost any conditions, be faithfully copied by the collodion process. Dr. Diamond has shown the antiquary how excellently well coins can be copied, in the Tray of Admiral Smyth’s Roman Coins (434); and C.Thurston Thompson exhibits the application of the art in copying enamels (585, 594), Art-manufactures (597), and furniture (603). Portraits are numerous, and many of them excellent; we hesitate to particularise, but we must mention Mr. Fenton’s Prince Napoleon (213), and Sir Colin Campbell (195), and Mr. Mayall’s portraits of Sidney Herbert (337); Lord John Russell (338); the late Sir William Molesworth (339); Sir George Grey (371); the Earl of Aberdeen (372), and Sir Cornwall Lewis (373). Thus our heroes and statesmen, as they lived and looked, are preserved to us, and their lineaments handed down to future ages. We think we have said enough to prove that the present exhibition of the Photographic Society is well worthy of close examination. Of the Crimean photographs of Mr. Roger Fenton we have already spoken (Art Journal, October, 1855). Mr. Robertson, chief engraver to the Imperial Mint, Constantinople, has produced an interesting series of views taken in the Crimea after the fall of Sebastopol, which are exhibiting at Mr. Kilburn’s, 222, Regent Street, The sad tale of destruction is here told with strange exactness. The Redan with the breach where the great struggle took place; the Malakoff Tower and Battery, and other celebrated scenes of “bloody strife,” are brought home to us, with fascines and gabions, in confusion thrown, in a manner which no artist could realise. We were especially struck with the Barrack Battery, showing the mantelettes for protecting the Russian gunners. Here, we see the excellent engineering of the Russians; and we learn to appreciate the value of these rope protections {mantelettes) for the gunners from the rifle-balls: these we have heard a competent authority declare to be the crowning invention of the war. Sebastopol and Balaklava, with all the strange confusion which distinguishes both, are before the beholder. The curious may find everything here to gratify them. The locality of each heroic or sad event is chronicled. The geologist may study the rocks of the Crimea without crossing the sea; and the architect the buildings which decorated this fine city. The trenches, the tents, the huts, are respectively represented; and —” last scene of all this sad eventful tragedy”—we have the English Burial Ground on Cathcart Hill, with the monuments of the brave men who sleep in the embraces of death, but whose memoirs are dear to the country of their birth, where their names will live and kindle heroic life in the souls of those who must preserve the high character of the Briton for courage and honour. Photography has achieved wonders. Let any one visit each of the three exhibitions which we have named, and we feel conscious they will leave them with a full conviction that the Art which has achieved the end of the enchanter’s mirror, and preserved for us, and shown to us, shadows which cannot fade, of persons and of things which are lost us, or at a distance from us, must produce yet greater triumphs with each recurring year. The sun, which gives light and colour, has answered the call of the evocator, and become the painter of the objects which it illuminates. In obedience to the bidding of the philosopher it will give us yet more truthfulness, and show us still nearer approaches to life. R. H.”]


“Town and Table Talk on Literature, Art, &c.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 28:797 (Sat., May 3, 1856): 475. [“…The biographers describe in very enthusiastic language the beauties of a folio volume of fifty photographs by fifty different hands, and those of eminence, to which Mr. Whittingham, of Chiswick, has attached fifty pages of letterpress of corresponding beauty. The volume is a present to her Majesty, and is one of fifty-two copies of a series of photographs made by members of the Photographic Club—a newly-established club akin to the old Etching Club, and instituted to advance and record the progress of the art of photography. This is their first volume, and most wonderfully does it exhibit the progress which photography has made in England during the past year. Each of the fifty members sends fifty-two impressions of what he considers to be his best photograph with a description of the process used in obtaining it. Fifty copies are distributed among the fifty; the fifty-first is offered to her Majesty, and the fifty-second presented to the British Museum. Very wonderful, indeed, are some of the photographs in this very beautiful volume. We would especially point out as perfect in their truth to nature and adherence to art Mr. Batson’s “Babblecombe bay,” Mr. Henry Taylor’s “Lane Scene,” Mr. Llewellyn’s “Angler,” Mr. Bedford’s “Flowers,” Mr. Delamotte’s “Innocence,” Dr. Diamond’s “Interior of Holyrood,” Mr. Henry Pollock’s “Winsor Castle,” Mr. Mackinlay’s “Bedlham Castle,” Mr. White’s “Garden Chair,” and Mr. John Stewart’s appropriate vignette to the volume—the portrait of Sir John Herschel.”]


“Photographic Exhibition.” ART JOURNAL ns 3:2 (Feb. 1857): 40. [“The Photographic Society has opened its fourth Annual Exhibition; and it is a thing to see, and to talk of after it has been seen. The sun has been made to work after an admirable style, and to tell us many remarkable truths. There we find certain chemical ingredients spread upon paper, developing, under solar influence, into artistic studies,—into regions of cloud-land,—and into water, trees, and rocks. We have wonderful light and shadow, and we can but marvel at the beautiful gradations of tone which this etherial painter has produced. We rejoice in the progress of this delightful Art; and we perceive that the photographer has a power at his command, which will, if tempered with due care, produce yet greater wonders. There are many shortcomings here, and in the friendliest spirit we call attention to them, hoping that they may cease to appear in the next Exhibition. Any man can now take a camera-obscura, and he can, with but little trouble, learn to cover a glass plate with iodized collodion, render it sensitive, and place it in his dark box. He may obtain an image, or images, of external nature; but it does not follow that he will secure a picture. There are many photographs in this Exhibition which are anything but well-chosen subjects, and which have been obtained under badly-selected aspects. There are another class which must be regarded as only accidentally good. We say accidentally good because we see a great want of uniformity in the productions from the same photographer. We think we could point to some pictures, which are the picked result of some twenty trials upon the same object. This should not be; nor need it be if the photographer will patiently study the physics and the chemistry of the agents with which he works. There are many charming pictures, showing peculiar atmospheric effects. We look at those with great pleasure, but with some doubt. Jt would be most instructive if the photographer would give a clear description of the true atmospheric effect which produced the photographic effects to which we refer. Beautiful as are some of skies, with their heavy and their illuminated clouds—pleasing as are some of the mist-like valleys, and the vapour-capped mountains, —we desire to be assured that the photograph is a true representation of the natural condition of the air and earth at the time the photograph was taken. We cease to value a photographic picture if it is not true. Are the fleecy clouds on the blue empyrean faithfully transferred to the sensitive tablet? Are we not deceived? Did not dull masses of rain-cloud float over the blue of heaven? Were not the heavy cumuli coloured with the golden and the rosy rays of morning, or of evening, when those pictures were taken? Was not nature very bright when the photograph indicates obscurity? Did not a glorious sun flood those hills with yellow light which look so poetically obscure? We know this to be the case with some of the photographs: may it not be more commonly the case than is generally imagined? Again, much has been said about the fading of photographs. It is a sad thing to see so many pictures in this Exhibition which must of necessity fade. This is the more lamentable since we know that a little more care would have rendered them quite permanent. There is no mistake upon this point. The presence of sulphur-salts in the paper is evident, and they are only to be secured now by thoroughly washing and re-mounting them. The committee having charge of the Exhibition would do wisely to reject such photographs as these, for it is most damaging to the Art to find its productions fading out like a shadow. W ith the Photographic Exhibition it is not necessary to speak of individual works as we would of the productions of the painters. The cases are not parallel: the painter employs, or should employ, eye and hand, governed by a presiding mind, the photographer uses a machine, and requires a little judgment. The artist works from within to that which is without; the photographer employs external agents to do his bidding. A few alone require especial notice. Mr. Rejlander comes with a new and extensive series of compositions, many of them being remarkably clever. We feel, however, in looking at productions of this class, that we are looking at portraits of actors—excellent in their way, but still actors. “Grief and .Sorrow,”‘ ” Don’t cry, Mamma! do not impress us with any feelings of sympathy from this want of reality. Many of these studies of Mr. Rejlander are excellent; but they cannot be regarded as works of Art, and, indeed, we should be sorry to see such productions taking place amongst us as works of Art. Mr. Fenton has, as usual, many very beautiful landscapes and truth-telling pictures of time-honoured piles. Mr. Cundall’s portraits of “Crimean Heroes” are a fine and interesting series of portraits; and the portraits of living celebrities—George Cruikshank and Hobson, Professor Owen and Bell, Samuel Warren, Rowland Hill, and others, will command attention. Mr. C. T. Thompson’s copies of prints and drawings, Dr. Diamond’s Portraits of the Insane, Mr. Robertson’s Views of Malta, Mr. Backhouse’s Swiss Scenes, Dr. Braun’s Views of Home, Rev. Mr. Holden’s Old Buildings, are especially commendable for their respective excellences. Mr. De la Motte has been very happy in his Oxford Scenes. Mr. Rosling has produced capital pictures, with more force than usual. Mr. F. Bedford, Mr. Llewellyn, Mr. Gastineau, Dr. Percy, Mr. Spiller, and numerous other well-known ”children of the sun,” have been successful in catching some of the beautiful effects of illumination which give a poetry to nature.”]


“The Photographic Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL 10:2 (Feb. 1857): 51. [“From the Illustrated London News.” “We are disappointed in the Fourth Exhibition of the Photographic Society. Whether the great Sun, to whom Photographers bow down, has behaved unkindly to his worshipers during the past year, or whether the hot enthusiasm of the professionals and amateurs has begun to cool, we are unable to decide, but certain it is that, looking at the evidence before us, this new art has not progressed in England one step since our visit to the Water-Color Gallery at this time last year. We miss, too, the names of many of the old exhibitors. What have Mr. Lake Price, Mr. Henry Leverett or Mr. Hennah been doing that they cannot contribute a single picture? Even the venerable Knight, Sir W. Newton, who rejoices in pictures “out of focus,” has not sent his portraits of trees; nor has Mr. Claudet added his usual colored stereoscopic pictures of fair Indies. To make amends, however, that Crimean hero, Mr. Fenton, covers the walls with large, bold, and well-chosen pictures from Scotland and the north of England; but we regret to say that, as photographs, we consider them to be far inferior to his pictures of “Bolten” and “Rievaulx Abbey,” exhibited two years since—one of which we have engraved. It was suggested to us that his pictures this year look as if a thin sheet of gauze were laid over them, so faint is the general effect, and so wanting are they in that vigor which every good photograph from nature should possess. Of Mr. Fenton’s contributions we like best his 102, 115; but we have not a word to say for such flat and unprofitable things as 156, 420, 306. Mr. Henry White, too, usually a most careful and successful practitioner of the art, has this year failed in impressing us with any favorable sensation. His pictures are much less brilliant than usual. Some of the subjects are too commonplace and ill chosen, such as No. 633; but we cannot pass by Nos. 319 and 617 without drawing attention to the foliage of the clematis, the honeysuckle, and rose, which is here better rendered than in any picture we have before noticed. Mr. Philip Delamotte sends this year a series of beautiful little views of Oxford. One of the chief recommendation of Mr. Delamotte’s works is that his points of view are always well selected, he seems to possess an educated eye that at once rejects those combinations which are so painful to men of taste, but which never give one moment’s uneasiness to those photographers who rejoice in the minute detail to be found in brick walls, or in the excellent portraits of individuals who are seen standing in the foreground in various attitudes much more natural than artistic, and who are always staring vigorously at the camera. Whenever Mr. Delamotte introduces figures it is with propriety, and as an aid to the general effect; but we notice that he very rarely has recourse to this assistance, and we can readily imagine that it is from the great difficulty he finds in getting people in easy attitudes. The moment a man is asked to stand still that he may be included in a picture he almost invariably assumes some ungainly and constrained position, and all ease seems to have forsaken him; directly he is told that he may move he becomes himself again. We recommend this curious fact to the notice of psychologists, and if they can tell photographers how to get over the difficulty they will do a great service. On one of the screens is a large frame containing some twenty or more stereoscopic views of the Colleges at Oxford, by Mr. Delamotte, which are undoubtedly the prettiest things of the kind ever done. Mr. Thurston Thompson’s copies of drawings by Raphael and Holbein are perhaps the most valuable reproductions ever effected by photography—no other art can give such exact copies as these are—to every intent they are equal to the originals; and when we see how beautiful Mr. Thompson has done his work—and there is nothing in photography more difficult—we do not wonder that he is afforded access to the Royal Collection, the Louvre, and the Oxford Museum. His copy of the large enamel by Leonard Limousin, in the Louvre, is very find. [sic fine.] It is taken on several different negatives, and he has managed to print from them, and join them in such a way that a casual observer would imagine the whole was printed from one glass. Mr. Llewlyn’s pictures this year are not so good as usual. They have the same fault as Mr. Fenton’s. They are not bright and sparkling as we are accustomed to see his landscapes. His best is a “Gipsy Encampment”—a pleasing photograph; but the truthful art tells us they are not real gipsies. He exhibits a little picture; “The Forest Scene” (582), by the oxyimel process, which is a perfect gem. Messrs. Bullock and Delamore’s large pictures are some of them very excellent; especially the “Views of Rydal Water” I (237, 239, and 247); but then “Wells Cathedral” and “Glastonbury Abbey” are not up to the mark. Mr. Bedford has sent but few contributions this year; but as usual, they are among the best in the room. There are qualities in his views 350, 356, 360, which we never saw surpassed, The wet, glassy look of the stones, the reality of the tumbling water, &c., are all exact transcripts of nature. Many of the photographers may take a hint from the very beautiful way in which Mr. Bedford always prints his pictures.”]


“New Publications.” ATHENAEUM no. 1529 (Feb. 14, 1857): 218. [“Book review: The Sunbeam: A Photographic Magazine, edited by Philip H. DelaMotte. no. 1. (Chapman & Hall). 4 illus, by J. D. Llewellyn, Sir Jocelyn Coghill, P. H. DelaMotte, and F. Bedford.”]



“Photographic Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL 10:3 (Mar. 1857): 71-72. [“From the London Art-Journal.” (4th Annual Exhibition of the Photographic Society.) “The Photographic Society has opened its fourth Annual Exhibition; and it is a thing to see, and to talk of after it has been seen. The sun has been made to work after an admirable style, and to tell us many remarkable truths. There we find certain chemical ingredients spread upon paper, developing, under solar influence, into artistic studies,—into regions of cloud-land,— and into water, trees, and rocks. We have wonderful light and shadow, and we can but marvel at the beautiful gradations of tone which this ethereal painter has produced. We rejoice in the progress of this delightful Art, and we perceive that the photographer has a power at his command, which will, if tempered with due care, produce yet greater wonders. There are many short-comings here, and in the friendliest spirit we call attention to them, hoping that they may cease to appear in the next Exhibition. Any man can now take a camera-obscura, and he can, with but little trouble, learn to cover a glass plate with iodized collodion, render it sensitive, and place it in his dark box, He may obtain an image, or images, of external nature; but it does not follow that he will secure a picture. There are many photographs in this Exhibition which are anything but well-chosen subjects, and which have been obtained under badly-selected aspects. There are another class which must be regarded as only accidentally good. We say accidentally good because we see a great want of uniformity in the productions from the same photographer. We think we could point to some pictures, which are the picked result of some twenty trials upon the same object. This should not be; nor need it be if the photographer will patiently study the physics and the chemistry of the agents with which he works. There are many charming pictures, showing peculiar atmospheric effects. We look at those with great pleasure, but with some doubt. It would be most instructive if the photographer would give a clear description of the true atmospheric effect which produced the photographic effects to which we refer. Beautiful as are some of the skies, with their heavy and their illumined clouds—pleasing as some of the mist-like valleys, and the vapor-capped mountains,—we desire to be assured that the photograph is a true representation of the natural condition of the air and earth at the time the photograph was taken. We refuse to value a photographic picture if it is [sic not] true. Are the fleecy clouds on the blue empyrean faithfully transferred to the sensitive tablet? Are we not deceived? Did not dull masses of rain-cloud float over the blue of heaven? Were not the heavy cumuli colored with the golden and the rosy rays of morning, or evening, when those pictures were taken? Was not nature very bright when the photograph indicates obscurity? Did not a glorious sun flood those hills with yellow light which looks so poetically obscure? We know this to be the case with some of the photographs: may it not be more commonly the case than is generally imagined? Again, much has been said about the fading of photographs. It is a sad thing to see so many pictures in this Exhibition which must of necessity fade. This is the more lamentable since we know that a little more care would have rendered them quite permanent. There is no mistake upon this point. The presence of sulphur-salts in the paper is evident, and they are only to be secured now by thoroughly washing and remounting them. The committee having charge of the Exhibition would do wisely to reject such photographs as these, for it is most damaging to the Art to find its productions fading out like a shadow. With the Photographic Exhibition it is not necessary to speak of individual works as we would of the productions of the painters. The cases are not parallel: the painter employs, or should employ, eye and hand governed by a presiding mind, the photographer uses a machine, and requires a little judgment. The artist works from within to that which is without; the photographer employs external agents to do his bidding. A few alone require especial notice. Mr. Rejlander comes with a new and extensive series of compositions, many of them being remarkably clever. We feel, however, in looking at productions of this class, that we are looking at portraits of actors—excellent in their way, but still actors. “Grief and Sorrow,” “Dont cry Mamma,” do not impress us with any feelings of sympathy from this want of reality. Many of these studies of Mr. Rejlander are excellent; but they cannot be regarded as works of Art, and, indeed, we should be sorry to see such productions taking place amongst us as works of Art. Mr. Fenton has, as usual, many very beautiful landscapes and truth-telling pictures of time humored [sic honored] piles. Mr. Cundall’s portraits of “Crimean Heroes” are a good and interesting series of portraits; and the portraits of living celebrities— George Cruikshank and Robson, Professor Owen and Bell, Samuel Warren, Rowland Hill, and others, will command attention. Mr. C. T. Thompson’s copies of prints and drawings, Dr. Diamond’s portraits of the Insane, Mr. Robertson’s Views of Malta, Mr. Backhouse’s Swiss Scenes, Dr. Braun’s Views of Rome, Rev. Mr. Holden’s Old Buildings, are especially commendable for their respective excellencies. Mr. De la Motte has been very happy in his Oxford Scenes. Mr. Rosling has produced capital pictures, with more force than usual. Mr. F. Bedford. Mr. Llewellyn, Mr. Gastineau, Dr. Percy, Mr. Spiller, and numerous other well-known “children of the sun,” have been successful in catching some of the beautiful effects of illumination which give a poetry to nature.”]


“Note.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 3:52. (Mar. 21, 1857): 232. [“The first Number of the long-promised Sun Beam, edited by Professor Delamotte, has lately reached us, with which we are much pleased. The letter-press and the whole getting-up are in admirable taste; and the names of the contributors to this Number (comprising Mr. Llewelyn, Sir Jocelyn Coghill, Mr. Bedford, and Professor Delamotte himself) are a guarantee that the pictures are the best of their class. Comparison would be unfair where each picture illustrates a peculiar and separate style and subject, but we think that no judge of photography would grudge the price, if no more were contained within the wrapper than Mr. Bedford’s perfect picture of the Baptistery at Canterbury.”]


“Miscellanea. The Archer Testimonial.” CHEMIST: A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL SCIENCE n. s. 4:45 (June 1857): 572-576. [”…The above circular states the case so ably, that we have thought that we could not do better than insert it here. We have now earnestly to call upon our readers to subscribe liberally to this fund. The readers of The Chemist constitute a very large body of the most eminent men of science in the kingdom, as well as of the largest manufacturers—men who can well afford to contribute handsomely towards a provision for the unprovided wife and children of a departed brother; and we call upon them to come forward, and show by their subscriptions that the bereaved family of a man who had the nobleness of mind to bestow on the world the great discovery by which, had he patented it, he must speedily have realised a handsome fortune, may safely be left to the generous care of those who follow science, whether as a profession or as applied to the arts. Let every one give according to his ability, and at once…” “…. As a tribute of respect to departed worth, and of deep sympathy with the cause of the fatherless and widow, the following gentlemen have undertaken the duties of a committee, to receive subscriptions, and carry, out in its fullest integrity, the object of this testimonial. Committee.—Herbert Ingram, Esq., M.P.; Dr. John Diamond; Jabez Hogg, Esq.; P. Le Neve Foster, Esq.; George De Morgan, Esq.; Dr. Hyde Salter; Henry Pollock, Esq.; Robert Hunt, Esq., F.R.S.; J. E. Mayall, Esq ; T. Fred. Hardwich, Esq.; Nathaniel Machin, Esq.; A. Sweeting, Esq. Treasurers.—Sir William Newton and Roger Fenton, Esq. Hon. Secretaries. —professor Delamotte and Professor Goodeve. The following Bankers have very kindly consented to receive Subscriptions.—The London And Westminster Bank and The Union Bank Of London (Argyll Place).  List of Subscriptions. Her Majesty The Queen. £20 0s. 0d. The Council of the Photographic Society. £50 0s. 0d. … (This is followed by a list of approximately 80 subscribers, ranging from J. E. Mayall (£21) and Antoine Claudet (£10 10s.) to C. J. Slater (3s.). The list includes Dr. Diamond, Prout, Llewellyn, W. J. Newton, Hardwich, Malone, Shadbolt, Delamotte, Lake Price, Fenton, Sedgwick, Bedford, Johnson, Howlett and others.)]


“The Great Manchester Exhibition.” ALBION, A JOURNAL OF NEWS, POLITICS AND LITERATURE 35:24 (June 13, 1857): 286. [“The Photographers have a snug nook in the gallery, all by their wonderful selves. To review them in detail would be merely to repeat our remarks of the last exhibition in London, there being nothing but a six foot view of glaciers and and Alp peaks peculiarly astonishing as a Novelty, … Mr. Thurston Thompson contributes a long series of careful copies of Raphael’s drawings… Mr. Fenton is great in distances and rough stone gateways. Mr. Claudet is great in portraiture,… Dr. Diamond’s studies of the insane excite deep wonder… Messrs. Bisson are grand in their architectural views… Mr. Watkins admirable in his touched portraits…. Mr. Taylor’s studies of the tangles of plants astonish nature… Messrs. Dolamore and Bullock …Kenilworth studies… Bedford’s Welsh views… White’s rustic bits are matchless….”]


“Reviews.” ART JOURNAL ns 3:8 (Aug. 1857): 263. [Magazine review. The Sunbeam, A Photographic Magazine. Nos. I. & II. Edited by P. H. Delamotte, F.S.A. Published by Chapman & Hall, London. “Mr. Delamotte has given a most appropriate title to his published sun-pictures, when he calls his work the “Sunbeam;” but to speak of it as a “Magazine,” is surely a misnomer, according to the ordinary acceptation of the meaning of the word, which we believe is generally understood as a miscellaneous pamphlet containing original contributions in prose and verse, with or without illustrations of the text. But here the text is, in several instances, quotations selected to suit the pictures. However, we will not run a tilt with the editor upon a point not of any great importance in itself, and certainly of no value at all as regards the “Art” of his publication. Each part contains four subjects. The first number commences with “The Woods at Penllergare,” photographed by J. D. Llewelyn—a close, umbrageous scene, so thick that the “sunbeams” seem scarcely able to penetrate into its recesses; but they fall forcibly on the trunk of a large tree to the left of the picture, and on a rustic bridge that intersects it in the foreground; all else is in comparatively indistinct masses. “The Tournament Court, in the Castle of Heidelberg,” photographed by Sir Jocelyn Coghill, Bart., is very beautiful; the architecture of the old edifice comes out sharp and clear in its details; trees, ivy, and long grasses, are defined in all the delicacy of their sprays, leaves, and long tender blades. “Magdalen College, Oxford, from the Cherwell,” by P. H. Delamotte, is a very brilliant picture; it makes one feel hot to look at it: marvellous are the lights and shadows that stand opposed to each other. “The Baptistry, Canterbury Cathedral,” photographed by F. Bedford, is less vivid, but very striking: the dark trees and shrubs in the foreground contrast effectively with the light thrown on the buildings, which retain all the indications of venerable years, except weakness: the only sign of decay is on their wrinkled fronts. The first subject in Part II. is “The Old Bridge at Fountain’s Abbey,” by Dr. Holden: this is an extraordinary sun-picture, taken, it may be presumed, at a late season of the year, for the’ branches of some of the trees are denuded of their coverings, leaving the minutest spray in clear and sharp relief against the sky. How admirably the whole scene composes itself into a picture! what adjustment and balance of parts to each other! There is throughout not an object too much or too little; nothing that the most skilful artist would omit, and nothing that lie would introduce to supply a vacuum, or to aid the effect: had it been possible to lower the shadows on the bridge, it would have made the work a little less heavy, without lessening its powerful chiar1-oscuro. “Sunshine and Shade,” photographed by F. R. Pickersgill, A.R.A., is the title given to two figures, a lady and a gentleman, the former standing, the latter in the act of reading, in the open air under a hedge: the photographer has evidently placed his figures in position, and very pictorially they are arranged, and with wonderful truth are they made to appear. we know not whether Mr. Pickersgill’s title has a meaning beyond the mere expression of the sunshine and shade of nature, but certainly the face of the lady is not lighted up with sunny smiles: this is the only ” shadow” that casts a real gloom over this exquisite picture. “Cottages at Aberglaslyn,” by F. Bedford, is not a well-chosen subject: parts of it are rendered with undoubted fidelity, but, as a whole, it does not come well together, to speak artistically. “The young Audubon,” by H. Taylor, is a fanciful title given to a wood scene—the idea suggested by a young rustic, who is standing by a stile, contemplating, it may be presumed, some birds in the trees over his head; this is a beautiful photograph, delicate in colour, in gradation of tints, and in the expression of the minutest object that enters into the subject. Among the multitude of photographic works now coming before the public, the ” Sunbeam,” if continued as it has been commenced, must take a foremost place: the subjects, generally, are as well selected as they are varied, and certainly the camera of the photographer has never produced more satisfactory nor more exquisite results.”]


“Exhibition of Art Treasures at Manchester.” PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL 10:9 (Sept. 1857): 285-286. [“From the Liverpool Photo. J.” “It has always been esteemed a great advantage to the tourist, whether he journey through the beauteous regions of nature, or ramble among the inestimable treasures of art; whether he turn aside to contemplate the ancient reliques of times gone by, of to examine the triumphs of modern engineering skill, that the memory should be assisted by some means within his grasp. A portfolio of engravings, a wallet of fragments selected by himself (oft-times to the great detriment of the object of his visit), are of themselves great and useful adjuncts to the tablets of memory, on which with a pen of a writer more or less ready, every one writes to some extent. These things are not to be valued according to the simple standard of what they will fetch, if offered to competition, but are enhanced in worth by the associations which connect themselves inseparably with the objects or places visited, and which value, somewhat selfishly can only obtain in the possessor’s own mind. But when a traveller can by simple chemical appliances reproduce, not only to his own, but to the eyes of every one, the actual scene in which his delight was aroused, and in a great measure excite the same pleasurable feelings in others which he experienced himself, it must be clear that the benefit becomes infinately less selfish, and its extent is only confined by the limits of reproduction. Now photography is a combination of these contrivances; the ingenuity of many minds has arranged means, which if rightly made use of, can extend our most treasured reminiscences to those around us, and at the same time may increase our own enjoyment. But the photographer needs warning; it is not sufficient that a subject represented shall be so in a merely matter of fact manner. But its aspect must be favorable. A painting of Vesuvius without the usual concomitants of an eruption as detailed by Pliny, or the picturesque pine tree-like cloud which usually precedes it—a view of Niagara without a rainbow, would be to many people uninteresting; it would not certainly sustain our view of the matter, if we presented subjects like these without the accompaniments, simply because when we visited them they were absent. It is therefore incumbent on our photographic friends that they choose the most favorable conditions of which they can possibly avail themselves, and in this we are only seconding the opinion of a writer in the leader of the last number of this Journal. This idea is one which will hardly fail to occur to a visitor to this exhibition; for without some conceptions not necessarily suggested by the scenes themselves, many of the artists would have quite fallen short of our standard of excellence. The department of photography which we propose at this time to notice, commences with the Falls of Niagara (Nos. 110 and 140); these are interesting as the work of an American artist, whose name is not known to us, and still more so as faithful representations of a scene which has long been regarded at one of nature’s most marvellous masterpieces. We next notice two Alpine scenes, by Martens (142), “Glacier du Rhone” and (138) “Monte Rosa;” and, viewing pictures of these and similar scenery, we cannot fail to be struck with astonishment at the results obtained. We have not hitherto been favored with any account of Alpine photography; but, comparing great things with small, we are sure, from impediments which beset the Iess ambitious artist, that the difficulties of these higher regions must be immense, They are mostly of an altitude which is unattainable in this country. That of the Finsterhorn, exhibited by Prince Albert, is an immense height above the level of the sea. While speaking of the region of everlasting snow, we may mention, as fine specimens of photography, Matterhorn (184), by Mr. De la Motte; La Mont Cervin (231), Fluhlen, with fine cliffs in the background (261), Lucerne (272), with a somewhat spotty sky, by Martens; Glaciers (355); (359) the Mer de Glace, is a fine picture, though somewhat indistinct in parts; (216); Monte Rosahas, an atmospheric effect of distance quite illusive, exhibited by Murray and Heath. Messrs. Delamore and Bullock’s contributions rank amongst the first of their class, both as favorably chosen scenes and excellent specimens of photographic printing, being characterized by a decisive clearness which is not often excelled; and the productions of Mr. Bedford bear also the same marks. Of the former may the mentioned Rydal Fall (179) with capital transparent water. Aber, N. Wales (183); Coast Scene (200); the latter is a capital study for a geologist; (291) a mill, at Ambleside, is an example of photography much more agreeably told than in 258; (207), Stock Ghyll Force, a favorite scene; also (193), on the same stream (198), a frame containing four landscapes—Hamstead Heath—evidently taken quickly, so that we almost might expect to find images of rabbits emerging from the brake in the foreground of No. 1. (220) Rydal Church is not so successful, but is interesting, as a spot sacred to the memory of the best of the lake poets. (217), Lyulph’s Tower—we think a view from the west would have been preferable; (232) Rydal Water, another favorite spot. (238) Glastonbury Abbey, (245) Ulleswater (347) Conway Castle, (502) On the Rothay. By the latter artist are a fine view of Pont Aberglashyn (222) and (281) (286), a Gateway at Canterbury, and (320) the Baptistery of the Cathedral of that City. (364) (366), and (368), Welsh Landscapes, which for fine definition may be registered as very beautiful specimens; (510) and (514) are other fine views at Canterbury. There are some good studies of trees, marked T. Bedford. The same artist, we presume. (226) Fir Trees, (325) Plants (182) Pont du Diable, by Mr. Delamotte, is almost stereoscopic, and this gentleman’s pictures are all to be well spoken of. There are (188) Lausanne, which we rather suspect of painted clouds, (288) Highstreet, Oxford, much superior to his stereoscopic views of that city. The visitor should compare this with No. 138, in the Water Color Gallery, a drawing by Mr. A. Pugin. While speaking of Mr. Delamotte, we wish to call attention to his series of Recollections of the Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition, of which honorable mention may be made. If well printed, every local photographer ought to possess a portfolio of these. Mr. White’s pictures are all good photographs. We wish we could say as much for his prints, some of which we have noticed to be in a state of deterioration from fading. He shows a first-rate view of a Watermill (199). The Decoy (189), Studies from Life (178) and (244); also (373), a Tale of the Crimea—these three have all the same back-ground of foliage, which is very good. In (228) Wotton House, we think he has attempted too much in endeavoring to show the whole precincts of Mr. Evelyn’s house; the print is of an unpleasant color, not usual with this artist. Mr. Fenton’s pictures may be identified anywhere; they are almost to be distinguished as well from any other artist’s as a Rembrandt would be in a collection of Claudes or Poussins, An extensive sweep of scenery such as (187) Reach of the Dee, a characteristic bit of ancient architecture, as (205) Roslin Chapel, a picturesque mill (217), a Waterfall (500),a River’s Bed (508), the Garravalt, (518) a romantic Bridge—all these are excellent examples of photography on a large scale, and some in which a degree of ingenuity in obtaining a position must have been required. Mr. Llewellyn sends some very good pictures, and of them may be very favorably contrasted with others. His views of Penellgare (371, 512, 516) are much superior to No. 566 of the same by Mr. Knight, and to 305, by Mr. Delamotte. Mr. Llewellyn’s “On the Tees,” is a very good study of rocks scattered about in a rapid stream. We think 365 and 369, “On the Warf” and “Tenby Bay,” must be early attempts of this artist. The comparisons between the different views of Penellgare will afford good illustrations of our opening remarks.”]


BOOKS. 1857.
“List of New Works. American. English.” AMERICAN PUBLISHERS’ CIRCULAR AND LITERARY GAZETTE 3:36 (Sept. 5, 1857): 564-565. [Book notice. The Treasury of Ornamental Art: Illustrations of Objects of Art and Virtu. Photographed from the Original by F. Bedford and Drawn on Stone by J. C. Robinson. Royal 8vo. 73s. 6d.]


Theta. “Manchester Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 4:58 (Sept.. 21, 1857): 45-47. “Art-Treasures’ Exhibition, Manchester. Photographic Department. In this short notice of the Photographic Department of the Art-Treasures’ Exhibition, I only purpose giving a criticism upon the Landscape and Miscellaneous portion, as I look upon Portraiture almost as a distinct art. And, perhaps, a better idea of the adaptation of Photography to different branches of Art will be gained by classing the works according to their subjects, as follows :—1. Studies from Life, Landscapes, and Architecture. 2. Statuary, Porcelain, and Still-life. 3. Copies of Paintings, Engravings, &c. 4. Stereoscopic. In the First Class, the most ambitious are the studies of Rejlander, of which No. 65, ‘Two Ways of Life,’ is the largest. As this is so well known, it needs very little criticism: the picture is well arranged, yet the figures are not perfection; and though it may be the best of its class, it cannot yet compete with the figure painter….” [(Rejlander, Grundy, Lake Price, A. Brothers, Martens, Batson, Llewelyn, Wilson, Delamotte, Delamore & Bullock, White, Le Gray, Fenton, Mudd, Bedford, H. Taylor, Bisson Freres, Dr. Golden, H. M. Page, W. S. Ward, B. B. Turner, Sir J. Coghill, Dr. Becker, Leverett, Goodman, Robertson, Dr. Diamond all briefly discussed.)
“… Of Bedford’s works it is difficult to make a selection, as all are so very artistic and perfect in tone, distinctness, and light and shade: certainly his works must raise the art in popularity. If Pictures can be perfect in black and white only, we need go no farther than these. No. 222, ‘Pout Aberglaslyn;’ No. 226, ‘ Fir-trees;’ No. 227, ‘Rivaulx Abbey;’ No. 286, ‘Gateway, Canterbury,’ and his ‘Welsh Landscapes,’ will, I think, justify the above remarks. In No. 320, ‘The Baptistery, Canterbury,’ the appearance of the foliage combined with the architecture is exquisitely beautiful. If he uses, as I suppose, the common collodion process, what an illustration of the truth that manipulation is less than taste in photography; and that a man must be an artist to get good results!…”
In the Second Division—Statuary, Porcelain, and Still life—we have many good examples, some of which must prove useful to the artist and antiquarian….” (C. T. Thompson, Lake Price, Dr. Becker, White mentioned.)
The Third Division—’Copies of Paintings, Engravings, &c.—is rich, very rich, and shows the high state of perfection to which the art has arrived in this class….”
The Stereoscopic — the Fourth Department, has but few exhibitors….” (Wilson, The Stereoscopic Company mentioned.)


“Architectural Photographic Association.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY.4:59 (Oct. 21, 1857): 52. [“This Society, only established in May last, has met with such warm support both in the Architectural and Engineering professions, and from the Public, that it is even now taking a prominent place in the field of Art. It numbers already between 500 and 600 subscribers of One Guinea and upwards per annum, and the Committee have been enabled to enter into such arrangements with the most eminent Photographic artists both in our own country and on the Continent, as to ensure the formation of probably the largest collection of Architectural Photographs yet brought together. It is intended that the Photographs shall be exhibited in the beginning of December next, and that Members shall have free admission, when they will have an opportunity of choosing such subjects as shall best please them. By this arrangement not only will every one be enabled to select his prints of the styles which he prefers, but the annoyance will be avoided of finding that every other subscriber has the same as himself, — those perhaps selected by one having tastes and associations totally different from his own. “We have seen in the possession of the Association prints by Bedford and others illustrating the beautiful and chaste Mediaeval Architecture of our own country; by Robertson and Beale, of the ancient Architecture of Athens and Greece, and of the remarkable Byzantine and Saracenic Architecture of Constantinople and Turkey; Bisson, Baldus, and others will contribute numerous specimens of the Architecture of France, Belgium, &c.: Alinari and others of Italy; and for other countries arrangements are nearly complete. It would be premature to do more than mention the certainty of the operations of the Association being extended into India, China, and other countries of Asia; but as the warm cooperation of several Public Departments is being afforded towards this National project for promoting Art-education, and the extension of the love of Architecture amongst all classes of the community, we may safely rely upon the Association becoming worthy of the large support which is being accorded to it, and we recommend our readers to enable it at once to take up the position which it ought to fill, by becoming early subscribers….”]


“Photographic Society.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 4:61 (DEC. 21, 1857): 101-102. [“Ordinary Meeting. December 3, 1857. Dr. Percy, F.R.S., Vice-President, in the Chair….” “…The Secretary announced that at the next Annual Meeting in February the following Gentlemen would retire from the Council, in accordance with Law VII.:—Dr. Becker, Earl of Craven, F. H. Wenham, Esq., T. G. Mackinlay, Esq., Sir T. M. Wilson; and that the Council nominated in their stead— The Rev. J. Barlow, F. Bedford, Esq., M. Marshall, Esq., N. S. Maskelyne, Esq., F. H. Wenham, Esq. Also that the following persons were recommended by the Council to be appointed to the offices of President, Vice-President, and Treasurer of the Society at the Annual Meeting in February next:—President—Sir F. Pollock (Lord Chief Baron). Vice-President—R. Fenton, Esq. (in the room of Sir W. J. Newton). Treasurer—A. Rosling, Esq. The Lists were then ordered to be suspended in the Meeting-Room….”]


“Photographic Society.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 4:63 (Feb. 22, 1858): 154-159. [“Annual General Meeting. Tuesday, 2nd February, 1858. Sir F. Pollock, Lord Chief Baron, President, in the Chair….” “…Gentlemen, in meeting you on the present occasion at this Annual Meeting of the Society, I am exceedingly glad to be able to announce nothing, with one single exception, but what is good and cheerful. The Society has increased in its members. We have obtained fifty additional members during the last year. The publication issued by the Society has increased in its circulation from 3000 to 3500, the number published by the Society being greater than that of any publication of the same class existing in this country; and, indeed, you must resort to publications which have the character of a newspaper before you can get anything which will exceed in circulation that of the Photographic Journal….” “…I have to call your attention to a very few matters; but there are some which I think I ought to mention on the present occasion. Among the first is a communication that I have received from the Society of Arts, requesting the co-operation of this Society in an object which I think every honest and well-directed mind would concur in, for the protection of what might be called intellectual or artistic property. A committee has been formed, composed of members of the Society of Arts, and they have selected some members of the Photographic Society, and, I believe, of other societies, for the purpose of endeavouring to protect by law (where direct protection is not afforded) those results of scientific labour, or the mere efforts of genius, in producing that which instructs and delights mankind….” (Several other matters discussed.) “…The election of officers was then proceeded with, at the conclusion of which the vases were emptied and the Scrutineers reported….” “…The Chairman announced that the Scrutineers had reported that the President and Treasurer had been re-elected; that Mr. Fenton had been appointed a Vice-President in the room of Sir W. Newton; and that the following gentlemen had been elected into the Council: Rev. J. Barlow., N. S. Maskelyne, Esq., F. Bedford, Esq., F. H. Wenham, Esq., M. Marshall, Esq….” ‘…A vote of thanks was accorded to the Scrutineers, and to the Chairman, and the meeting adjourned.”]


“Minor Topics of the Month.” ART JOURNAL ns 4:3 (Mar. 1858): 94-95. [The Photographic Society Club has just published issues of portraits of the members, for their own use and interest. We notice this publication because of its intimate connection with Art; each page of the rules is elegantly decorated with colour printing until they rival the glories of an enriched manuscript of the olden time, but the novel feature is the addition of portraits of all its members, executed in photography. They are all “men of mark,” and include the able photographers Bedford, Delamotte, Diamond, and Fenton; Drs. Percy and Hardwick, Durham the sculptor, and Thomas, the editor of Notes and Queries, are among the number. The Lord Chief Baron Pollock, as the president, appropriately heads the series, and two of his sons are among the members, who have also executed some of the best portraits in the series. Out of the twenty which are here, Dr. Diamond has completed thirteen, and for clearness and beauty of composition in effect we have never seen his works surpassed. It would be well if many other of our societies would thus secure portraits of their members; it might readily be done on the plan adopted here, which is, that each member gives the twenty required of his own portrait, and receives twenty in return, being one of each member. The passages from the poets, which appear in these pages, are singularly happy, particularly that from Milton, which describes this photographic volume as well as if the poet lived since the art was discovered—”___What with one virtuous touch The arch-chemick sun, so far from us remote, Produces.”]


“Exhibition of Photographs at the South Kensington Museum.” LIVERPOOL & MANCHESTER PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL [BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY] ns 2:5, 7 (Mar. 1, Apr. 1, 1858): 61-63, 82-83. [“Supplementary exhibition, held by the London Photo. Soc., for the winter months. 705 “frames” exhibited, 74 of which were copy prints of works of art. 185 portraits. Caldesi & Montecchi, R. Fenton, F. Bedford, C. Thurston Thompson, F. Frith, Negretti & Zambra, O. G. Rejlander, Lake Price, W. M. Grundy, Dr. Mansell, R. Howlett, A. J. Melhuish, T. R. Williams, others mentioned.”]


“The Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 4:66 (May 21, 1858): 207-211. [“The Fifth Annual Exhibition of the Society, at No. 1, New Coventry Street, was on Wednesday last inspected by the Members and Visitors invited by the Council, and yesterday was thrown open to the public…. As in the majority of critics (or perhaps better called visitors) who may visit this Exhibition, it is not likely that there will be many who do understand the photographic process; and as criticisms from a photographic point of view often appear in pages similar to these, allow us to venture upon another ground, and look and write upon this Exhibition as “one of the public.” In the first place, it is easy to sec that the majority of pictures in the present Exhibition formed a part of that so recently closed at South Kensington….” “…As we said before, the majority of the pictures in the present Exhibition formed a part of the Kensington Exhibition, and we are compelled to say far exceed anything which has been sent to the new one. Of course no one can touch Fenton in landscape: he seems to be to photography what Turner was to painting —our greatest landscape photographer; not that there is any similarity between the aerial perspectives of Turner, and the substantial and real which we get transferred by Fenton. The finest things produced by Fenton are Nos. 42 and 48. There is such an artistic feeling about the whole of these pictures, the gradations of tint are so admirably given, that they cannot fail to strike the beholder as being something more than mere photographs. Then there are others nearly as good and interesting; but as his contributions are so numerous— being between forty and fifty pictures, and all of them first-rate—it is needless to specify them. We notice an almost entire absence of Melhuish’s landscapes, which were indeed gems, but, on the other hand, we see some new ones by Leverett and B. R. Turner. There are also some small pictures by Rosling, by Taupenot’s process; these, as a rule, show the usual faults of this process—an absence of those middle tints which we find in Fenton, or, perhaps more appropriately, in Lyndon Smith’s pictures. There is too much white and too much black; none of those nice balancing tints which we see in some other landscapes, such as Bedford’s. Bedford need only be mentioned as exhibiting his perfect Continental landscapes: he is a very Nasmyth in the beautiful miniature landscapes (photographed by command of Her Majesty the Queen) in the present Exhibition. It would be difficult to say which is the best….”]


“London Photographic Society.” LIVERPOOL & MANCHESTER PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL [BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY] ns 2:12 (June 15, 1858): 148-151. [“Paper by Hardwich “On the Solarization of Negatives” read; Francis Frith was in the audience and was called forward, with applause, to describe his experiences in Egypt with solarization. (p. 150); Bedford, Davies, Malone and others also commented.]


“Photographic Society.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 4:67 (June 21, 1858): 207-210. [“Ordinary Meeting. June 1, 1858. Roger Fenton, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair….” “…Mr. Hardwich read a paper “On the Solarization of Negatives.” “This is the season of the year at which we expect to meet with that red and transparent appearance in the high lights of negatives, termed “solarization.” There are many photographers who understand quite well how to deal with such a condition, but others, doubtless, who do not, and to such I would address my observations this evening….” (Paper presented, followed by commentary by members in the audience, including Bedford.)  “…Mr. Bedford.—Sir, I have worked with Thomas’s collodion, with Ponting’s, and also with Hardwich’s, and, under most circumstances, have produced satisfactory pictures. I think that the mistake into which beginners and amateurs frequently fall, is owing to the theory that the collodion being a very rapid process, they jump to the conclusion that a subject is to be shot off quickly, and they work as a rule with too much light. I think that, however strong the light may be, if the lens is stopped down sufficiently, you may produce a good picture with the lights not more solarized than if you gave half the exposure. Again, a great deal is to be done with the development. I have worked in a broiling sun at 120°, and as soon as I have poured on the developer the picture has started up very quickly; and I have preferred, under such circumstances, to flush the plate in water, stop the development entirely, and then commence afresh, when I have generally found that you can go on developing perfectly. At Coburg last year I had one subject, an interior of a quadrangle, one wall of which was painted dark yellow, and the other was white-washed; the yellow was in shadow, and the white-wash in strong sun-light, yet that made my best picture. I used a very small stop, and gave it five minutes with collodion that had been iodized about three days: that picture was perfect in its shadows and lights, and had the texture of the wall most perfectly defined. I think generally it is better to work with collodion not fresher than a fortnight; but that by studying the light and other circumstances, including the size of the aperture in the stop, you may produce a picture with almost any collodion. I cannot enter into the chemistry of the subject, because I am accustomed to work with collodion which I buy ready-made….” p. 209.]


“Critical Notices: The Photographic Exhibition at the Crystal Palace. Part 1.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 1:3 (Sept. 24, 1858): 29-30. [“First Notice. It is a happy idea, on the part of the directors of the Crystal Palace, that in addition to the already long list of attractions, there should be added another item — in other words, a Photographic Gallery. This is as it ought to be. Photography has now assumed a very important position among the arts and sciences, and it is only fitting and proper that it should have appropriated to itself a court or gallery at Sydenham. and that in that court there should be a collection which should in every way be worthy of the importance of the art and the Palace. Fresh discoveries are being made every day, and every day we find out some new application of this wonderful art, whether it be a means by which we can the more easily detect a prisoner, or record the rapid flight of a cannon ball through the air. When first we heard of the idea of a photographic collection at Sydenham we thought that not only were the directors taking proper steps in regard to making the Palace even more attractive to the public than it is at present, and not only were they taking a course which must tend to increase their dividends, but that they were placing a means within reach of the photographic world of keeping a record of the progress which the art is daily making. We thought that it must be indeed a pleasing feature in the attractions of the Palace to the amateur or beginner in photography that here he might have an opportunity of consulting the best results of each particular “process,” and thus be enabled to judge of the efficiency or inefficiency of any particular mode of development, and that in this way the Sydenham Gallery might become an object of constant interest not only to the amateur, but to the public, who, having no means of seeing the progress in the art except in the shop windows, and not feeling sufficient attraction or interest in a simple exhibition of photographs, they might, by the more frequent familiarization of the eye with photographic progress, acquire a more widespread interest than they do at present. These were some of the thoughts which occurred to us, we say, when we heard of a Photographic Gallery being about to be formed at Sydenham, and with every desire of being m courant in all that relates to photography, and that we might (as it is our desire and intention) keep our readers equally so, we proceeded List week to Sydenham for the purpose of inspecting “The Photographic Collection.” We cannot but express disappointment at the almost entire absence of new pictures. It was to us by no means a new exhibition. Wherever we turned it seemed as though an old friend nodded to us, and that with an almost self-complacent air. Here we met with one whom we had first known at Manchester, and with whom we had afterwards renewed acquaintance at the South Kensington Exhibition ; but not content with this, it again made its appearance in the Coventry Street Exhibition. This we had thought the culminating point of re-exhibition, but what was our astonishment to meet again with these old friends who seem to have retained (notwithstanding their exhibitive campaigns) all their juvenescence. The reader will be inclined to agree with us, that the least thing that could be expected, was some new pictures on the occasion of opening a Photographic Exhibition at the Crystal Palace. Of course it may be urged that just at present there is some difficulty in obtaining new photographs; then why not delay the opening and wait until such time as they are obtainable? By all means let the present collection be replaced with something which shall reflect credit upon the Palace, and the art. There is in the Crystal Palace Gallery, as far as regards light, arrangements for hanging everything which can conduce to a successful exhibition. The screen saloon principle we very much admired, and for such a gallery as that at Sydenham it is decidedly preferable. In the Art Treasures Exhibition at Manchester, the screen was used, but owing to the narrowness of the gallery the saloon principle, which was carried out in the picture galleries on a large scale, could not be introduced in the Photographic Gallery, as that portion of it which was appropriated to photographs was in such close contiguity to the orchestra that for three or four hours in the afternoon it was impossible to examine any of the photographs in the front of the screens, owing to the crowds who listened to the music. The saloon principle was admirably carried out at the fourth Kensington Exhibition, and it could not but strike the visitor how much it conduced to his comfort in examining the photographs, since it enables people to inspect the pictures in peace without that continual throng which is always passing behind them, when pictures are hung in long lines. The colour of the screens, which is a neutral or tea green tint, is admirably suited for as a background, and where there are spaces, which must necessarily occur now and then between the frames, it never obtrudes itself as more staring colours do, nor does it offend or strike the eye as disagreeable. It is worthy of notice how different is the effect here from that produced at Coventry Street, where there were dark rooms and bad light, and, to make things worse, a dirty looking background which gave a sombre appearance to the room that was anything but agreeable. Of course those works which are new deserve our first attention, and amongst these we may mention Herbert Watkin’s series of portraits of contemporaneous celebrities. These will no doubt prove interesting to the general public, who will be anxious to behold the lineaments of those about whom they may have heard or read much. Who, for instance, would not feel interested in seeing the portrait of William Howard Russell, the Crimean and Indian special correspondent of the Times? he who has certainly raised the profession of ” special correspondent” to an enviable position ; who has thrilled the world with wonderful descriptions, and astonished it with his keen observations. He is indeed the photographer of life as it is. With all the correctness of the camera does he ‘transmit pen-and-ink pictures to paper, which make the blood of the reader circulate the faster by the wonderful power of his word-painting. We say, who is there, then, that would not feel a great desire to look on him as he really is, with his smiling face and patriarchal beard? None, we will venture to reply; and so might we say of each celebrity, who in the circle in which lie moves is a centre around which many admirers revolve, be that circle political, literary, artistic, dramatic, or scientific. This portion of the Exhibition will at all times prove an attraction, though to speak of the pictures from a photographic and artistic point of view, we cannot say that we admire them much. We think that it will not be denied that generally the human face has some defect or other, which, as we have it constantly before us, we do not so readily notice; but the moment that the face is portrayed on the glass or paper of a photograph, when there is the absence of that colour which hides what is here a perceptible defect, it is immediately noticed, and the photograph, though a good one, is condemned as being a bad likeness; another view is taken, possibly so as to exclude the defective part, and then we have what is termed a good portrait, which in reality is only half of the truth, but decidedly the pleasantest half, because it administers to the vanity of the sitters by the exclusion of what would be painful. If, then, this much can be said of ordinary plain photographs, what must be said of such exaggerated pictures as those of Mr. Watkins, where every one of the defects (which perhaps under other circumstances would hardly be noticed) is brought forward with faithful yet painful fidelity? To show that we are not taking too extreme a view of the case, we cannot do better than refer the reader to a hideous portrait of the eminent tragedian Mr. Barry Sullivan, which is here given with an alarming reality; all the smallpox marks which unfortunately that gentleman has on his face are here so exaggerated, that on inspection the face looks as though it were taken upon a coarse-grained canvas. Then there are other faces—for instance, those of Mr. Robert Bell, Viscount Combermere, Lord Palmerston, and many others—which look decidedly repulsive, but the portraits of those whom time has furrowed are the least able to bear exaggeration. All this series are given with a truthfulness free from flattery, which makes the human face appear anything but divine. The whole of these photographs are open to the above objection of exaggeration. Some faces do not suffer so much as others, but speaking generally we think it desirable that the size of these pictures should be smaller, and then they would be free from their most objectionable traits.”]


“Critical Notices: The Photographic Exhibition at the Crystal Palace.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 1:5 (Oct. 8, 1858): 52-53. [“Concluding Notice….” “…The views on the continent, which were taken by Mr. Bedford at the command of her Majesty the Queen, are here exhibited again. It would indeed be superfluous on our part to do more than even mention such works as these. A verdict has been so generally pronounced in their favour, and they have so well deserved all the encomiums which have been heaped upon them, that we can only say, Go, Mr. Bedford, and charm us again in the same manner. Having thus dismissed the question of landscape photography, we of course come to the next feature of the exhibition, viz., portraiture. We have already given an opinion upon the productions of Mr. Herbert Watkins; we will, therefore, now proceed to notice briefly the other specimens. Fust, then, we have to call attention to the series of contemporaneous portraits by Mayall….”]


“Note.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL; BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 5:74 (Dec. 11, 1858): 89. [“…Endeavours have been made from time to time, by Members of the Society, to organize a system of exchange of photographs. The subject has been several times brought before the Council, and a Committee was appointed last summer, one of whose duties was to arrange a plan for carrying out this object. Without going so far as to say that it is not possible to form a plan which shall work satisfactorily, it is enough to state that no progress has hitherto been made towards such a result. It is very desirable that the Members of the Society should have occasionally laid before them visible evidence of the progress which the photographic art is making. Other societies have purchased, and presented to their members, copies of successful photographs produced by artists of established reputation. There are obvious objections to the adoption of such a course by the Council of the Photographic Society of London. Some of its Members, however, together with other gentlemen belonging to the Society, have offered to contribute each a certain number of copies of their best negatives, in order that the Society may present to every Member, whose name shall be included in the list of the year 1859, a good specimen of the present state of the art. Mr. Bedford, Mr. Fenton, Mr. Delamotte, Mr. White, and Dr. Diamond have already pledged themselves to furnish 50 prints each. Mr. Frith and Mr. Thurston Thompson, we have heard, approve of the plan and will assist us. Mr. Rosling will be induced to favour us with specimens of his beautiful pictures now exhibited at the Crystal Palace; and Mr. Llewellyn some contributions from his portfolio, which all photographers are so desirous of possessing. Members may also expect to be favoured from Mr. W. B. Turner, whose choice specimens of calotype will be remembered by all who have visited our exhibitions,. In fact, we believe that among the many good photographers who are members of this Society, there are few who will not be pleased to give their zealous assistance. All those who are willing to cooperate in carrying out this plan, already announced, either by the loan of negatives, or the gift of a number of positive prints, are invited to communicate with the Secretary of the Society….”]


“Exhibition of the Architectural Photographic Association.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 1:16 (Dec. 24, 1858): 185-186. [“The second annual exhibition of this association opened on Friday last—the “private view” being held on the previous evening—the attendance on that occasion was not large, and the show of -pictures, both in quantity and quality, was below that of last year….” “…Macpherson has illustrated Rome in one hundred and twenty views. Cimetta, Venice in thirty-three views. Melhuish, London in two views. Robertson and Beato, Cairo, in thirty-one views. Lousada, Spain in twenty views. Lowndes, Cocke, Frith, Bedford and Cade, in England, and Baldus, Paris, are also contributors with several other minor artists. Among whom our readers will be as much astonished as we were to find the absence of Fenton; this is to be regretted, for there are very few who will not remember with pleasure such choice specimens of architectural photography as his “Galilee Torch, Ely Cathedral,” “the West Porch of York Minster,” and pictures of that class….”]


“Exhibition of the Architectural Photographic Association.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 1:18 (Jan. 7, 1859): 207-208. [“The inspection of the views by Cade has given us much pleasure. These views are small compared with those we have already noticed, but they are exquisitely fine in tone and detail. (Several of Cade’s photographs named and critiqued.) “…Altogether these views by Mr. Cade do him great credit, and we hope to see some more by the same artist in future exhibitions. The brilliant and beautiful photographs by Frith of Egyptian scenery are already so well known to the majority of our readers, that it would be superfluous on our part to criticise them at any great length. They possessed such merit, and received such well deserved encomiums, that it is almost matter of surprise that any one should have attempted to photograph Cairo so soon after Frith had done it. However, we have here a series of views of Cairo by Robertson and Beato, not so large, nor yet so beautiful, as those of Frith. We do not intend going into detail; suffice it to say, that they have all the characteristics and peculiarities of oriental photographs. Many of the views are extremely interesting, among which we may mention the “Tomb of the Mamelukes” (198), and the “Tombs of the Mamelukes and Caliphs ” (203). In many of the photographs there is great nicety of detail, and generally the sites are well selected. The next series are the old Spanish views by Lousada. We are astonished to see these photographs here, since, apart from the interest attaching to those views themselves, there is nothing to recommend them as photographs, and they are very bad as architectural studies; for instance, in some of the architectural views illustrated there is really a great deal of fine detail, but in the photographs by Lousada there is nothing but masses of black and white, with no half-tone. A few Oxford views by Cocke are very mediocre indeed. They will not bear the slightest comparison with Cade’s Cambridge views; or even with any of the Oxford views we have seen. They have some few good points, but are generally too dark….” “…Baldus’s Paris views are certainly the worst we have ever seen executed by this artist. They are not clear in tone, nor interesting in subject. He has introduced into one an artificial sky, which we do not like. Indeed, we are surprised to find that a photographer, who has earned such well-deserved laurels as . M. Baldus, has allowed such very bad pictures to leave his studio. Taking the photographs as they are catalogue;!, we next come to the Egyptian views by Frith; of these there can not be two opinions—they have deservedly established the reputation of Mr. Frith as a first-class photographer. Of the English views by the same artist, we cannot speak so highly. There is, if we may use the term, a decided mannerism in them. They are treated exactly iu the same way as the Egyptian views: each photograph having a great intensity of black and white, and looking as though they had been taken under a scorching Eastern sun. This is a fault which is rendered more strikingly apparent by the contrast it offers to the Egyptian views. In the Eastern views there is much detail, while, in the English views, foliage is rendered in black masses. The view of “Inverness” (308) is a most faulty picture; it is full of spots, and is altogether a very bad photograph. The water in the foreground is especially bad, while the stones in the bed of the river appear much as though spots of soot had accidentally fallen on the negative. There is an exquisite little view here by Cade, of the “Terrace at Sir William Middleton’s,” which we are inclined to think far surpasses any of those pictures already noticed. The views by Gutch, the “Exterior and Interior of Holyrood Chapel” are not equal to some we have seen by this artist. Since the exhibition of the photographs of the Royal Engineers at South Kensington, we are not enabled to perceive any advance in the manipulation of these military photographers, if the “Rochester New Bridge,” and the “Rochester Cathedral” are to be taken as specimens of progress. And now we come to the most charming series of pictures in the collection. When we say they are executed by Bedford, need we say more? There are twelve views which have been “taken expressly for the association.” We cannot help thinking that, when the association obtained Mr. Bedford’s services, they ought at least to have asked him to have chosen some other subject than “Tintern Abbey.” We have had this splendid ruin ad nauseam. The only thing that makes the present views at all bearable, is the astonishing perfection in which they are rendered. When we compare the views by Cocke with those by Mr. Bedford, we are then enabled to judge how far Mr. Bedford can surpass all other photographers in his execution. In no piece is this so perceptible as in the “View of the Choir looking East”, and in the same view by Cocke. In the one there is clearness of tone, detail in (lie foliage, and a beautiful perspective half tint as seen through the window of the Abbey; the foliage in the background is given with the greatest nicety: while in the other we have few or none of the characteristics of Bedford’s photographs, and the foliage as seen through the window is only discernible in small patches. “The West Door, Tintern Abbey” (321), is a marvellously clear photograph; even the largo nails in the door are easily discernible. But decidedly the best views are “The Donjon, Raglan Castle” (315); “The Entrance Gate, Raglan Castle” (317). In these we can see almost the form of every leaf, clear without even the aid of a glass; all the foliage is crisp, and every sprig of the delicate tendrils of the creeper as it reaches upward, looks as though it were a copy of some finely pencilled picture; indeed, the mass of foliage seems almost to invite one to put one’s hand among the leaves. We confess we are at a loss to do full justice to these inimitable photographs. By the aid of a magnifying glass the detail of the grass could be almost seen. No photographer who exhibits in the present collection can compare with Bedford for the clearness of his foregrounds; whilst the lens with which these views were taken must be as near perfection ns human skill could make, it. There is a. number of photographs here by Mr. Bedford which were exhibited in 1857. They are beautiful, but when we compare them with the new pictures, they show how decided are the marks of progress in Mr. Bedford’s manipulative skill. The most beautiful of the old series is the celebrated “Baptistry of Canterbury Cathedral” (340), which attracted so much attention when first exhibited. Of the Italian views by Ponti we are not able to say much. They lack what is needful to make them good photographs. There is a fault in them which seems to be prevalent in the pictures exhibited in this collection—too much black and white, and a want of half-tone. Some have many good points, but generally speaking, they are not such as to merit a long notice. In conclusion we can only remark, that we think it would be almost desirable to introduce stereoscopic views as a part of the exhibition. One of the leading objects of the association is “to form a collection of photographs for the association; and, if thought desirable, to exhibit them; ” and, of course, to distribute them to subscribers. There are many persons who would gladly subscribe, if among the photographs there were some good stereoscopic slides—such, for instance, as those by Sedgefield, which we recently had occasion to notice.”]


“Fine-Art Gossip.” ATHENAEUM no. 1628 (Jan. 8, 1859): 55. [“Brief review of Photo. Soc. exhibition. Fenton, Bedford, Caldesi & Montecchi, Roslyng mentioned.”]


“Fine-Arts. – Photographic Society.” ATHENAEUM no. 1629 (Jan. 15, 1859): 86-87. [“The sixth Annual Exhibition of these children of the sun, who, like the old Italian dial, “count only the sunny hours,” is now open in the Suffolk Street Gallery….” (6th annual exhibition. Caldesi & Montecchi; Fenton; Diamond; Gutch; Bisson Freres; W. Hamilton Crake; Truefitt; Frith; Morris Moore; Sherlock; Choponin; Cruttenden; Bedford; Deleferier & Beer; R. Howlett; B. B. Turner; Cade; Rejlander; Dr. Holden; Bingham; H. P. Robinson; J. H. Morgan; Delamotte; Maxwell Lyte; others mentioned.) “Meeting of the Photographic Society and their friends will take place on Thursday evening next, January 20, in the rooms at Suffolk Street. Every gentleman invited to this soiree is expected to bring a lady on his arm….”]


“The Exhibition in Suffolk Street.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 5:77 (Jan. 21, 1859): 143-150. [(Reviews of the exhibition from several journals reprinted.) “…Mr. Roger Fenton is an important contributor; and has sent, besides numerous landscapes, showing that amount of air and distance, for which his works are remarkable, some illustrations of Eastern costumes and manners. Mr. Frith has some charming specimens; notice particularly 547 and 558. For delicacy and clearness conjoined, Mr. Francis Bedford is unrivalled,—see, for example, his North Transept, Tintern (137), Pembroke Castle (139), and the West Front of Tintern (143).”—Builder.
“Foremost among the landscapes of the exhibition stands the magnificent dioramic view of Cairo, upwards of eight feet in length, by Mr. Frith. It was taken from the summit of one of the buildings that command a view of the famous city. The flat-roofed houses, the tall minarets, the narrow streets, the crowded localities, the Nile winding in the distance, and beyond it the dim outline and diminished form of the great pyramids, all contrive to make this one of the most extraordinary and interesting works which have been produced. The dioramic view is surrounded by a number of other views of the locality which have already been made familiar to the public by the charming stereoscopic views published by Messrs. Negretti and Zambra. Next to this in point of size, and remarkable for its boldness, combined with the most remarkable accuracy and clearness of detail, is the great view of the interior of the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, by Mr. Delamotte. The sharpness of outline’ of the long vaulted roof and its supporting columns, the play of shadow on the water of the basin of the crystal fountain, the foliage of the climbing plants, and the trees and shrubs iu the nave, are all given with a success which has rarely or ever been equalled. This work is one of the photographic pictures which it is intended to distribute among the subscribers to the newly-established Crystal Palace Art Union. Some views, by Mr. Cundall, of places of interest in Kent are deserving of great praise for their execution, not less than for the inherent beauties of the pictures themselves. Igtham Moat is exquisitely beautiful, and scarcely less so are some tine views of Charlton, of Rochester Cathedral, and other places. Mr. Alfred Rosling again exhibits some of those delicious little pictures in the choice of which he appears to have almost an instinctive good taste. It is difficult to say whether one admires more the points of view which he selects, or the careful manipulation which is evident in the development of his subjects. A view of Betchworth, a group of chestnut trees, and some other bits of rural scenery, are among the gems of the present exhibition. Mr. Bedford, a not less careful manipulator, revels in the ruins of Tintern Abbey, of old Kitham Palace, of Raglan, Haddenhall, and other places of interest and picturesque beauty. They are charming specimens, and the army of photographers who traverse the land every year to discover new beauties for the million, deserve the warmest thanks for their exertions.”— Morning Chronicle.
“Of our home-landscape photographers, Mr. Fenton still maintains the lead. He has many works here, some perhaps new, but as we are not sure of the fact, as the major part are certainly familiar, we shall not attempt to particularize them. They are all, or nearly all, admirably selected as to point of view, and are enough to make the topographic landscape draughtsman tremble for his craft. They are also, we need hardly say, excellent as examples of photographic manipulation. But Mr. Fenton wants either some change of subject or of style. There is coming over his works some feeling of mannerism or monotony. It is needless to say that this does not apply to his noble photographs of ancient sculpture, or his studies of female form and costume, though these last arc not among the happiest of his works. Treading closely on Mr. Fenton’s heels—if he would take a bolder stride we are not sure that he would not outstep him—is Mr. Francis Bedford, who has here the works we noticed in the Architectural Gallery, and others at least equal to them, all surprisingly brilliant in tone and sharp in detail, whether that detail be crumbling stone, or moss-covered rock, or quivering foliage—but here again we want to see some new thing. We are glad to see these here, however, for the exhibition is decidedly weak in architecture. It sadly wants supplementing with some works on a grand scale, like the Venetian buildings in the Architectural Gallery. Inferior to Mr. Bedford’s, but still very’ pleasing, are some of the views of Canterbury Cathedral by Mr. Turner….”—Literary Gazette.
“In Architecture Mr. Fenton ranks quite first as a ‘New Master,’ sometimes broad and crumbly as Front’s ripe Stilton, old and mildewy; sometimes fine and graduated as Turner. One of his finest works here is the nave of ‘Salisbury Cathedral,’ with the sunshine in arches on the wall, and in sister arches of light on the pavement. At the far end twinkles the painted window with its amaranthine bloom of saints turned to flowers, or rather of victorious saints heaped by the angels with the blossoms of heaven. His” ‘Wolsey’s Gate, Ipswich’ (622), is rich in tone and impasto; the bricks seem really thick and crusted. For massive breadth Mr. Cruttenden’s ‘Norman Staircase, Canterbury’ (112) is especially good, and a fine example of our early style it is. Mr. Bedford’s ‘Views of Tintern’ are choice, but scarcely equal to his ‘Raglan Castle’, which has darkness the eye can traverse, and bushes of ivy wrought in a way that would drive weak men to split their palettes and light their fire with them…”—Athenaeum.
“…English and foreign landscape and home and continental architecture have been treated with conspicuous skill, not only by Fenton—the completest master, perhaps, of his craft (everything considered) who exhibits here—but by M. Bisson, Mr. Maxwell Lyte, Mr. Francis Bedford, Mr. Morgan, Mr. J. W. Ramsden, and Mr. R. Howlett, among others too numerous to mention. The Rouen subjects by the latter are hardly to be surpassed in sharpness and delicacy of light and shade….”— Times….”]


“The Exhibition of the Photographic Society.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 1:20 (Jan. 21. 1859): 230-231. [“In the present collection, the show of landscape photographs is not large, but it is diversified ; and, as was to be expected. Bedford, Fenton, and Morgan are among the foremost. Fenton we have always regarded as the leading English landscape and architectural photographer; now, however, Bedford seems likely to take the lead. In the productions of the former we see scarcely any progress, on the contrary, rather retrogression, while in the latter gentleman’s pictures, as we recently remarked, there is great and decided improvement. In Fenton’s series there are some perhaps finer than he has ever executed before, but, at the same time, we regret to state that the majority of his landscapes are far below the average merit of his pieces. Among his best are “Tintern Abbey” (46) ; it is clearer in tone than too generality of his pictures, and as Bedford has happened to execute a view of almost the same place, comparison is forced upon us, and we are compelled to admit the superiority of Bedford’s treatment of the subject….” (Additional critiques of specific images.) “…Many of Bedford’s views are similar in character to those already noticed in the collection of the Architectural Association. In looking at them we are almost inclined to think that they are even finer than those which we have previously referred to. We feel that we cannot speak too highly of this artist’s work; everything he does, he does well….” (Further commentary on Bedford.) Next in order comes Morgan, who is the nearest competitor that Bedford has. Yet how distinctive are the characteristics of the treatment in each case! Both are successful in the selection of artistic sites, in the beautiful delicacy of intricate detail. Still, each has an individuality so striking, that the most careless observer would at once detect the difference. Morgan’s views are numerous. In many points they are much like some that he has previously exhibited, but, generally speaking, they are more carefully executed. In his river scenery he is most successful, and every one of his pictures must be interesting to the artist. “On the Froom, Evening,” is a beautiful study. The shadows of the trees, and the reflection of the foliage in the river, are really charming. There are several views here by T. Davies, chiefly woodland scenery. They have many good points about them, but the artist’s style of treatment, and really excellent mode of printing, are hardly adapted to his selections; if he attempted architectural views he would be attended with great success. Rosling’s small views are, generally speaking, good, though they would lose nothing by having, in some instances, a little more half-tone….” “…The views by Truefitt Brothers are very feeble in tone. To the Indian Views by W. Hamilton Crape, we are not inclined to award such a high meed of praise as has been bestowed upon them in some quarters. As views of celebrated places in India they have a great historic interest, but in executive skill they are far below others which we have seen. Crittenden’s views have many good points about them, but, generally speaking, they are too intense in tone. We may just mention one, “The Baptistry, Canterbury Cathedral” (97), which at once calls to mind Bedford’s beautiful photograph of the same. The French views by the late Robert Howlett have the distinguishing beauties which marked his works. The present series of views of buildings are more like copies of elaborate ivory carvings than anything else. Dixon Piper has some good landscapes, although they are not superior to what we have seen by him on other occasions. B. B. Turner we are glad to see continues to adhere to his “Talbotype,” and gives us some very clever and interesting views, which make us regret that he is almost the only adherent of this beautiful process. Mr. Melhuish does not appear to have done much for the present exhibition; his landscapes, in many instances, are not equal to what we have seen by him before. To the geologist, Gutch’s photographs must prove of the greatest interest. The show of architectural views is not so large as might have been expected; no doubt the knowledge of the fact that an exhibition formed exclusively of architectural views was about to be formed, would influence photographers, and cause them to abstain from exhibiting here this class of views. The finest view in this way is one of Rome. It is on a very large scale, and is a grand and striking feature in the room in which it is placed. It is immediately over a panoramic view of Cairo, by Frith, and the contiguity of the two is by no means favourable to the patched, uneven tone of the Cairo view. Frith’s views are of the same character as those we have noticed before. Fenton’s interiors are fine, with a great amount of soft, clear tone. There are several views by Cade, much the same as those in the other exhibition already noticed. In sculpture copying, Fenton still stands unrivalled in the ancient department, while, in copying modern works, Jeffrey seems to be the best; witness the copies from Woolner’s bust of Tennyson (167). Picture copying, apart from the Raffaelle Cartoons, is not strongly represented here. Bingham’s copies, from Paul Delaroche’s drawings, are among the leading attractions. There are two beautiful copies by Howlett. The four copies of engravings contained in frame 198, by William Best, are about the nicest and most successful we have ever seen; the black tone in them is much better adapted to copies of engraving, than the brown one which is seen in Fenton’s copies. We must not omit to notice the beautiful little views by Maxwell Lyte. The combination of atmospheric effect, the beauty of his clouds, and the detail of the landscape, cause us to suspect that they are compositions, rather than actual views from nature. Ross and Thompson still continue to prepare botanic studies for artistic foregrounds, though on a larger scale than heretofore. What could have induced the Rev. J. M. Raven to exhibit his two views, “Pierrefitte” (86), and “View near Luz” (87), we cannot conceive: there is not the slightest pretence to anything like detail in them; they are, in fact, pure and simple blacks and whites. R. Ramsden has some interesting little landscapes, remarkable for clear printing, as “The Vale of St. John, Cumberland” (184), which is rather vigorous in tone. Dr. Holden, we regret to find, only exhibits a few very small views of Durham. Many well-known photographers are unrepresented, such as Lake Price, W. M. Grimsby, J. D. Llewellyn, and others. We are sorry for this. In looking at the beautiful little picture of “The River at Penllergau” (288), we thought we had fallen upon one of Mr. Llewellyn’s choice views, but a reference to the catalogue informed us that it was the work of James Knight. Sedgefield’s stereoscopic views, of which we have spoken at length, are here side by side with “The Stereographic Views in Brittany,” by Henry Taylor and Lovell Reeve; the latter have, indeed, among them the best we have seen for some time. (To be continued.)”]


“Exhibition of the Photographic Society of Scotland.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 5:78. (Feb. 5, 1859): 178-181. [“The Third Annual Exhibition of the Society was opened towards the end of December in Mr. Hay’s Pine Art Saloon, George Street, and has since continued to attract a large number of visitors. We may fairly congratulate the Society, not only on the admirable series of photographs which the Exhibition contains, but also upon the excellent accommodation which has been provided for their display; in this respect Mr. Hay’s Saloon appears to us to be much superior to the rooms occupied by the Exhibition on previous occasions, and has doubtless in some measure contributed to the greatly-increased attendance observable this year. Most of the old contributors appear to have sent specimens of their works; but there are a few whom we miss—Mayall, H. Taylor, White, Holden, and Ross and Thomson; on the other hand, the Exhibition is enriched with the productions of H. P. Robinson, Maxwell Lyte, W.T. Mabley, Melhuish, J. H. Morgan, Padre Secchi, Silvy, and an amateur W. D. C, all of whom we rather think contribute on this occasion for the first time, and many—indeed all—of them works of great excellence. In reviewing an Exhibition numbering nearly 1000 pictures, it is impossible to do more than notice a comparatively small number of the leading works; and even of these some may have escaped our attention. As must almost necessarily happen, several of the pictures in the Scottish Exhibition are duplicates of those now hanging on the walls in Suffolk Street, while a few others are so well known, from having been recently exhibited by the leading London publishers, as not to require particular remark….” “….A series of photographs taken by Mr. Bedford, from the rich and picturesque ruins of Raglan, Chepstow, and Tintern. Of these we particularly admire his interiors, (14) ‘Chepstow Castle—in the Chapel,’ and (19) ‘Tintern Abbey—the Nave,’ which are admirable for their detail and a fine play of light and shade; one or two of his other pictures—(11) ‘Raglan Castle,’ (12) ‘ditto—the Donjon,’ though equally beautiful in detail, appear to us to be somewhat monotonous in tone. We should be glad if Mr. Bedford would on a future occasion send some of his charming ‘ bits’ of English landscape, which we believe have not hitherto been exhibited in Edinburgh….” p. 179.]


“Critical Notices: Stereoscopic views in the North of England and in Wales. By Messrs. Ogle and Edge, Preston.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 1:24 (Feb. 18, 1859): 281. [“These gentlemen deserve the thanks of the artistic, for the very excellent series of views they have published. They consist of English lake scenery, “Welch landscapes, and English ruins. Of the quality of these slides there cannot be two opinions; they are clear, well defined, and, in many cases, very brilliant. Perhaps the only fault that can be urged against them is, a slight reddishness of tone. In some instances this is more agreeable than otherwise; but, generally speaking, we should prefer the red a little more subdued. “The Dungeon Ghyll, Langdale Pikes, “Westmoreland,” is a most vivid and beautiful picture. “Near Stock, Ghyll Porce, Ambleside,” is a wonderful specimen of clear printing; and, at the same time, it exhibits a great amount of detail in the foliage, while the water, as it rolls over the rocky bed of the river, is caught with great and striking force. But of the lake scenes, the best is “Rydal Water, with Hartley Coleridge’s Home and Nab Scar in the background.” The rendering of the water in the picture is really beautiful, while the background is clear and distinct; the whole picture seems, as it were, the very embodiment of tranquillity. In giving a happy illustration of “The brook that brawls along the wood,” Messrs. Ogle and Edge have been eminently successful in the selection of a spot that exactly represents the idea. It is a charming little picture. We will not go into particulars with regard to the other slides before us; suffice it to say, that the views of Tintern, Rievaulx, and Fountains Abbey, are done in a manner that would bear comparison with Bedford’s best and happiest views. Of all the views we have ever seen of “Tintern Abbey,” we have no hesitation in saying that the View from “The North Aisle, looking “West” (No. 4), is one of the best. It gives the spectator such an idea of distance, and impresses him with the grandeur of the building in a manner that cannot easily be forgotten. This series contains the most choice and beautiful views that we have seen. They are very artistic; and the selection of rites has been most careful and judicious.”]


[Story-Maskelyne, Mervyn Herbert Nevil.] “Art. IV.-The Present State of Photography.” NATIONAL REVIEW 8:16 (Apr. 1859): 365-392. [Book review. A. Manual of Photographic Chemistry; including the Practice of the Collodion Process. By T. F. Hardwich. Fifth edition. Churchill. The Journal of the London Photographic Society. Taylor and Francis. “It is no rare phrase that characterises the exciting age on which our lives are thewn as the age of the electric telegraph and of photography….” “…But what artist would select such huge masses of masonry alone for the subjects of a picture? To convert them into a picture, he must make them into the background of some living scene, with humanity stamped upon it; or must throw round them the garb of beauty—some tinted gauzy atmosphere won from a setting sun, caught in those transient moments when nature is, as it were, her own poet; or rather when the exuberance of her beauties can overflow and deck in a foreign grace scenes not else beautiful, and so make even such to appeal to the seat of poetic and artistic sympathy, the human heart. De la Motte, and Fenton, and Bedford, and a few others, may strive, and may now and then succeed in catching some happy effect in their camera; but it is where the camera is pointed to some expressly lovely scene at some happy moment; and is it not also due in no small degree—in fact entirely, in so far as such a result is not accidental—to the artistic feeling in the mind of the photographist himself, who knows how to choose and when to take his view?…”]


“On some of the Applications to which Photography has been applied.“ PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 5:84. (May 7, 1859.): 285-287. [“The recent and sudden call from the scene of his valuable labours of one who energetically promoted one of these applications seems to call for a statement of the modes he employed to effect this one among the many results of his life. Manuel Johnson, but yesterday the Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, established at that observatory, which he raised to so high a place among the observatories of the world, a complete series of meteorological records….” “…. Astronomy has also tried to avail itself of the photographic agency of light. Mr. De la Rue’s beautiful photographs of the moon, on a scale never dreamt of till he produced them, proclaim what may be hoped to be effected with such an instrument as Lord Rosso’s….” “… The microscope, too, has a part to play as an instrument for the photographist,…” “…On the relations of photography to art there is room for much discussion, and probably also for controversy. Photography has driven into the limbo of the unemployed a class of miniature-portrait painters, and they, like the ostlers and innkeepers of the old “roads,” who occasionally revenged themselves upon the railways by becoming employes upon them, have in many instances joined the motley ranks of photography itself. But that the true artist will not throw down his brush and retreat before the advance of photography into his domain, is evident enough. The utter powerlessness of the chemical pencil of the sun to give the true relations of intensity of colour, the absence from the photograph of that ideal element which is the soul of art, leaves the relation of the photograph to the picture at best only as that of a useful auxiliary to a great result. Even were it possible for the photographist to surmount the former of these difficulties, and to depict not only in correct relative intensity of light and shade but even in actual colour the truth of nature, of which at present there is not the faintest hope, must not the photograph still stand towards the artist’s great work as the truest prose description to the imagery of the poem? The artist need not fear the encroachment of the photographist. He may take the results of the camera,—he has already done so,—and by careful scrutiny of nature thus depicted on a flat surface in such marvellous detail, he may learn a new reverence for that patient elaboration of particulars which need not mar his whole; and he may thereby feel that if he never can attain he can yet approach that infinite delicacy of finish which marks the photograph, and that in that approach he is being truer even to the poetry of art than if he were to live in that scorn of detail and emulation of “broad effect” alone, which was born of the consciousness of the limit placed to human action in the production of minutiae, but has never characterized any really great school of art in any age. M. Le Gray may startle by the instantaneous production of a sea-piece, crisped .with laughing waves, fringed with the froth and foam of breakers, and overhung with skies of magical reality. But these pictures only startle: the artist feels all their want of true soft harmony, in fact their want of truth; and the public express the same consciousness of their false contrasts by asking if they are indeed moonlight views, or if the heavy clouds are really thunder-clouds. M. Baldus and the Bissons have it all their own way in their colossal views of the new Louvre and the new Tuileries, or of other vast buildings in Paris and elsewhere. But what artist would select such huge masses of masonry alone for the subjects of a picture? To convert them into a picture, he must make them into the background of some living scene, with humanity stamped upon it; or must throw around them the garb of beauty—some tinted gauzy atmosphere won from a setting sun, caught in those transient moments when nature is, as it wore, her own poet; or rather when the exuberance of her beauties can overflow and deck in a foreign grace scenes not else beautiful, and so make even such to appeal to the seat of poetic and artistic sympathy, the human heart. De la Motte, and Fenton, and Bedford, and a few others, may strive, and may now and then succeed in catching some happy effect in their camera; but it is where the camera is pointed to some expressly lovely scene at some happy moment; and is it not also due in no small degree—in fact entirely, in so far as such a result is not accidental—to the artistic feeling in the mind of the photographist himself, who knows how to choose and when to take his view? But in fragments of foreground, in those small bits of detail in which the artist has to subordinate his genius to mechanical and patient labour, the photographist is his best colleague; and it is in the careful study of such photographs that he will feel that art has nothing to fear, but much to learn, from her mechanical (?) associate, photography….” “…The invention of the stereoscope has given a remarkable stimulus to photography. Without photography the stereoscope would have been but a curious apparatus confined to the lecture-room or the drawer of philosophic toys; with photography it has become an article of furniture in every household….” From the National Review.”]


“The Archer Fund.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 5:85. (May 23, 1859): 299. [(Bedford is listed among the donors to Archer’s widow’s relief fund. He donated 2£. 2s, 0d., a respectable but not lavish amount.)]


“Photographic Societies. Blackheath Photographic Society.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 2:38 (May 27, 1859): 138-140. [“The seventeenth ordinary meeting of this Society was held on May 16th, at the Golf Club House, the President, J. Glashier, Esq., F.R.S., in the chair…. Messrs. Chatteris, C. Busk, and Dr. Kidd, were duly elected members. The President then proceeded to read a paper on “The application of Photography to Investigations in Terrestrial Magnetism and Meteorology, as practised at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich,”… A vote of thanks was then unanimously tendered to Mr, Glashier for his able and interesting paper; and Messrs. Kent, Crossland, Kieser, and Skaife, having been proposed as candidates for future election, the meeting adjourned….” “Second Annual Report of the Council,” The soiree, which was held at the Mansion House, by the kind permission of the Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor, on Friday, the 15th Apr., was eminently successful; and the works of Messrs. Glaisher, Heisch, Melhuish, Knill, Ledger, Smith, Spencer, Wire, and Wood, were such as to elevate the character of the Society from which they emanated. The following gentlemen contributed also materially as exhibitors to the success of the Exhibition, viz.—Messrs. Bedford, Bell, Dunning, Burfield and Rouch, Claudet, Cumming, Delamotte, Fenton, Frith, Horne and Thornthwaite, Jones, Knight, Ladd, London Stereoscope Company, Murray and Heath, Malone, Negretti and Zambra, Otterwell, Paul Pretsch, Powell and Leland, Pillischer, Rayne, Reeve, Rosling, Ross, Salmon, Shadbolt, Smith and Beck, Thurston, Thompson, Turner, White, Williams, E. G. Wood, and Herbert Watkins; to each of these gentlemen the Council beg to render their warm acknowledgments…. The following is a list of papers read during the session:— “On the Simultaneous Photography of various Coloured Objects.” By Mr. Heisch. “A Week with the Camera among the Hills of Kent” By Mr. Wire. “On Nautical Photography.” By Mr. Skaife, showing his “Instantaneous method” of taking photographs. “On two main points in Photography.” From Herr Paul Pretch. read by the president; … “On Metagelatine as a substance for mounting Photographs.” By Mr. Heisch. “On the Dry Collodion Process.” By Mr. Heisch. “On the Application of Photography to Investigations In Terrestrial Magnetism and Meteorology, as practised at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich.” By Mr. Glashier….”]


“Second Annual Report of the Council of the Blackheath Photographic Society.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 5:86. (June 15, 1859.): 310-311. [“The lapse of another year brings round the Second Anniversary of the Blackheath Photographic Society, and the Council have the pleasure of presenting their Second Annual Report. The Council heartily congratulate the Society upon its present prosperous condition. During the past year, the Society’s numbers have been recruited by the introduction of many of the influential residents in the neighbourhood., several practical photographers, and all zealous to promote the art of photography…. The soiree, which was held at the Mansion House, by the kind permission of the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor, on Friday, the 15th April, was eminently successful; and the works of Messrs. Glaisher, Heisch, Melhuish, Knill, Ledger, Smith, Spencer, Wire, and Wood, were such as to elevate the character of the Society from which they emanated. The following gentlemen contributed also materially as exhibitors to the success of the Exhibition: viz. Messrs. Bedford, Bell, Bunning, Burfield and Houch, Claudet, Cumming, Delamotte, Fenton, Frith, Horne and Thornthwaite, Jones, Knight, Ladd, London Stereoscopic Company, Murray and Heath, Malone, Negretti and Zambra, Ottewill, Paul Pretsch, Powell and Leland, Pillischer, Rayne, Reeve, Rosling, Ross, Salmon, Shadbolt, Smith and Beck, Thurston Thompson, Turner, White, Williams, E. G. Wood, and Herbert Watkins. To each of these gentlemen the Council beg to tender their warm acknowledgments.
The Council regret that so few strictly scientific researches have this year to be reported, as from these only can fundamental improvements be expected. M. Niepce de St. Victor continues his experiments upon the so-called storing up of light…” “…The Council must also bring under the notice, of the Society Mr. Pouncy’s Carbon Printing Process; for though they can by no means agree with him in his assertion that his prints are quite equal to silver ones, the immense strides he has made, in a comparatively short time, render his process one of great promise….” “…The discovery of Mr. J. H. Young, that the invisible image on a collodio-albumen plate can bo developed, after the removal of the iodide of silver, by hyposulphite of soda, or cyanide of potassium, is too important to be passed over without notice, showing, as it does, that the change produced in the iodide of silver by light is even greater than has hitherto been thought….” “…The new forms of lenses are still exciting much discussion. The members have had some opportunity of judging of the results obtained with them at the late exhibition at Suffolk Street. The pictures by Mr. Bedford were mostly taken with a Grubb lens, those by the late Mr. Howlett with a Ross Petzval….”]


“Proceedings of Societies. London Photographic Society.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 3:61 (Nov. 4, 1859): 106. [“The first meeting of this Society since the vacation was held on Tuesday last, the President, the Lord Chief Baron Pollock, in the chair. The minutes of the last meeting having been read, the Secretary proceeded to read a letter from a subscriber, who withheld his name, on the subject of the Archer Fund. The purport of the letter was to urge on photographers the great claim which the family of the late Mr. Archer had on their generosity, and offering, on the part of the writer, to subscribe a sum of a guinea, or half a guinea, for each of the seven photographic establishments he possessed, for a certain number of years, provided two hundred other photographers would subscribe in a similar proportion;…” “…Mr. Fenton stepped forward, and said, that just previous to the close of the last meeting the question of lenses formed the subject of conversation. During the vacation he had been working with one of the orthoscopic lenses, as well as with the old form of lens, and in his hands he found that the latter was the best for landscape purposes. With the orthoscopic lens he was unable to focus near and comparatively distant objects with the same distinctness, and, on the whole, he considered the old form of lens the best for general purposes. He had heard something of a new lens, invented by Mr. Sutton; and, perhaps, if any gentleman present had been using it, he would favour them with some remarks thereupon. He had made the above observations in the hope of inducing a discussion…. On Mr. Fenton resuming his seat another long silence ensued, which was at last broken by Mr. Bedford, who said that he, too, had tried the orthoscopic lens, and had arrived at the same conclusion as Mr. Fenton. For landscape purposes he found that it failed to give the same distinctness, in respect to near and distant objects, unless a small stop was used; and in that case, the length of the exposure was greatly increased. He had found that, to obtain the same degree of sharpness as with a different form of lens, it was necessary to expose for six minutes; whereas, with the latter, he could obtain the desired result in three minutes. He thought the orthoscopic combination a good one for architectural subjects, but not for landscapes. As for Mr. Sutton’s lens, he had not tried it, and therefore could not say anything on the subject. On Mr. Bedford ceasing to speak, the same uncomfortable silence pervaded the meeting, and several members rose and left the room, with that elaborate attempt to do so without making a noise, with which people sometimes leave a church at the beginning of a sermon, and which affects the nerves of those who remain infinitely more than would be the case if the exit had been accompanied by the overthrow of half-a-dozen chairs. At last, Mr. Shadbolt rose to offer some remarks on what had been said….” “…The Secretary read a letter from M. Joubert on the subject of a new process of producing fac-similes of engravings, &c., …” As it seemed hopeless to attempt to revive discussion on the subject of lenses, or to originate another on any other topic, the President announced that the meeting was adjourned until the 6th of December. The attendance of members at this the first meeting of the association, since June last, was very small, probably not more than forty were present at the commencement of business, if that may be called business of which we have given a report above….”]


“Proceedings of the Societies: North London Photographic Association.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 3:69 (Dec. 30, 1859): 201-202. [“The ordinary monthly meeting of the Association was held at Myddelton Hall, on Wednesday, the 30th ult.; George Shadbolt, Esq., V.P., in the chair. After the usual business of the Association had been disposed of, Mr. G. W. Simpson read a paper “On the Positive Collodion Process,” with some remarks on the Alabastrine Process, illustrated by a large number of specimens. A vote of thanks was given to Mr. G. W. Simpson for his interesting paper; and a discussion ensued on the permanency of pictures taken by the alabastrine process. Mr. Simpson informed the members that many of the specimens on the table had been taken more than three years; and during that time had been standing on a shelf unprotected by glass or case; and although exposed to atmospheric influence for so long a period, there was no perceptible change or deterioration in them. He thought this was a good test and proof of their permanancy….” (Followed by discussions from members.) “…The Chairman exhibited a number of stereoscopic pictures of China, published by Negretti and Zambra, and a remarkable picture of the spire of Salisbury Cathedral, by Mr. Sedgfield, which appeared horribly distorted in looking at it in the usual position of the stereoscope, owing to excessive “cocking up” of the camera; but on changing its position and looking upwards, the picture assumed a natural appearance. The Chairman also exhibited several stereoscopic sunset pictures, by G. W. Wilson, of Aberdeen, with the sun directly in front of the camera—a position in which it has been hitherto considered impossible to take a good impression. These proofs were very much admired for their brilliant and artistic effect. In addition to the above, he exhibited a small print, on paper, by Mr. Church, of Glasgow, prepared six weeks ago, and kept in a case similar in principle to that of Messrs. Marion and Co. A copy of the Presentation Photograph for the present year was handed round: the subject “Tintern Abbey,” by Bedford. This elicited general approbation, and a vote of thanks was given to the gentlemen of the sub-committee for the good taste and judgment displayed by them in the selection. Mr. D. W. Hill exhibited a picture taken by the Fothergill process, with the addition of one grain phosphate of ammonia to the ounce of albumen solution. Mr. Wall kindly presented a stereoscopic picture of the costly bedstead lately presented to the Queen, for which the thanks of the meeting were accorded to him. Captain Higginson and Mr. Henry Squire were duly elected members of the association. Two of Mr. Moginio’s tents were erected in the room for exhibition—one a tent only, the other camera and tent combined, weighing only 9 lbs. They attracted a considerable share of attention, and, long after the meeting had closed, many of the members were discussing the merits of both. The meeting then adjourned.”]




“Exhibition: London Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 7:111 (Feb. 1, 1860): 41-42. [Seventh Annual exhibition. Bedford; Fenton; Gutch; Hennah; John H. Morgan; H. P. Robinson; Rosling; Thompson; Williams; Henry White; F. M. Lyte; James Mudd; Lyndon Smith; Dixon Piper; J. Spode; Vernon Heath; A. J. Melhuish; Bisson Fréres; Russell Sedgfield; Woodward; S. Bourne; Sykes Ward; Mrs. Verschoyl; others mentioned.]



”Meetings of Societies: Architectural Photographic Association.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 7:112 (Feb. 15, 1860): 51-52. [Includes a paper by Prof. Donaldson, “Photography the Instructor of the Architect, and Architecture the Best Subject for the Photographer.” This was, in effect, a precis of the Society’s exhibition. Bedford; Bent; Clifford; Cundall; Cocke; Downes; Fenton; Greenish; Macpherson; Melhuish; Ponti; others mentioned.]


“Photographic Society of London. Annual General Meeting. Tuesday, February 7, 1860. Report of the Collodion Committee.” THE PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 6:94 (Feb. 15, 1860): 151-155. [“In March 1859, the Photographic Society appointed a Committee to examine samples of photographic collodion, and report upon them, with a view of arriving at a definite formula. Advertisements were Issued, which were replied to by Messrs. Hardwich, Mayall, and Sutton; but the two latter of these gentlemen did not send in collodion in sufficient quantity to admit of its being thoroughly tested. Hence, although individual members have worked with the collodions of Mr. Mayall and Mr. Sutton, the Committee in its collective capacity can only pronounce upon that prepared for them by Mr. Hardwich. They trust, however, that the investigation which they have undertaken will not be suffered to end with one Report, but that other makers of collodion will come forward and assist the Society in the determination of this difficult but important question….” “…The Report being satisfactory on the points above mentioned, we next consider the quality of the film yielded by the collodion, as regards closeness or openness of texture, and here it is found that some members speak of it as being too horny. That the film does possess such a structure is certain, and hence the question of how far this must be considered a defect. The following are extracts from the reports of those members who make complaint. Mr. Bedford says, “One fault I have found is a too quick drying of the film in hot weather. If, as is frequently the case, the plate has to be kept over fifteen minutes or so, it is necessary to add alcohol to the developer to prevent stains and patches of unequal development.” Mr. Hughes also observes: “My dark room being small, and with a southern exposure, becomes almost like an oven in hot weather, and one of the principal difficulties which I encountered was the partial drying of the film whilst it was in the camera slide.” The attention of the other members of the Committee was particularly directed towards this horny quality of the film; but, with the exception of Mr. Morgan, who speaks of it as inconvenient, but not insuperable, they make no allusion to it in their replies….” p. 151. “…When iodide of potassium is employed as the iodizer, the collodion loses its sensitiveness very considerably after a time; but the members of the Committee are not agreed as to how long it will keep in good working condition. Mr. Bedford says: “I prefer using it newly iodized, say in about two days; after five or six days it loses sensitiveness, and deteriorates rapidly, but in this state it works well enough when time of exposure is no object. I kept it in even working order by adding some freshly iodized collodion to the stock-bottle daily.”…” p. 152. “…In drawing up a Report in which gradation of tone in a photograph is spoken of, it must always be borne in mind that the character of the light and the aperture of the lens have much to do with the hardness or softness of the picture; and this observation we find corroborated in the separate reports sent in to us; for whilst one or two members have found at times a difficulty in obtaining sufficient contrast, others have complained of excess of intensity, although both were working with the same description of bath. Mr. Bedford alludes to this, and says: “In a strong light or glare of sunshine, there is, I think, a tendency to too great density, a too rapid starting out of the image. This I have remedied by employing a weaker developer, and in some cases, by washing the free nitrate away from the plate before putting it on, or washing the plate once or twice during the development, using, in that case, silver to give force to the image. By this means I avoided hardness, and secured a good picture under trying circumstances of light and heat.” Allowing for these differences in intensity, which must occur with any collodion, we find that the preparation which we have examined is sufficiently good, and that it is not a collodion of that kind which requires a considerable addition of nitrate of silver to the developer, or fails to yield an intense picture unless acetate be added to the bath. As a rule, the image will attain its maximum density shortly after the pyrogallic acid is applied, and there will be a fair share of the characteristic drab or cream colour upon its surface….” p. 153. “…In concluding this Report the Committee have much pleasure in expressing their opinion of the superior excellence of the collodion submitted to them by Mr. Hardwich, and they can confidently recommend the Society to stamp the same with the full mark of its approbation. F. Bedford, P. Delamotte, Hugh W. Diamond, Roger Fenton, C. J. Hughes, T. A. Malone, J. H. Morgan, H. P. Robinson, Alfred Roslino, W. Russell Sedgfield, J. Spencer, T. R. Williams.”


“Exhibition: London Photographic Society’s Exhibition. Part II.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 7:113 (Mar. 1, 1860): 69-70. [Seventh Annual exhibition. Bedford; Fenton; Gutch; Hennah; John H. Morgan; H. P. Robinson; Rosling; Thompson; Williams; Henry White; F. M. Lyte; James Mudd; Lyndon Smith; Dixon Piper; J. Spode; Vernon Heath; A. J. Melhuish; Bisson Fréres; Russell Sedgfield; Woodward; S. Bourne; Sykes Ward; Mrs. Verschoyl; others mentioned.]


“Exhibition of the Photographic Society.” ART JOURNAL ns 6:3 (Mar. 1860): 71-72. [The seventh exhibition of the Photographic Society is now open, and, with great unwillingness, we are compelled to declare that we are unable to detect any improvement in any division of this interesting art. There are numerous very beautiful pictures, but they are all at that dead level of excellence which has become wearisome. A few glaring departures from the stereotyped customs of the photographists of the day—even were they examples of failures—would be a great relief. The Photographic Society has been established for many years, and their Journal has been regularly published since March, 1853. They begin their work with the following paragraph:—” The object of the Photographic Society is the promotion of the art and science of Photography, by the interchange of thought and experience among photographers, and it is hoped this object may, to some considerable extent, be effected by the periodical meetings of the society.” Let any one examine the work done by the Society in the seven years which have passed— let any one go carefully over the collection of pictures now exhibiting, remembering the promise of former years—we are convinced that their judgment will be in accordance with our own, and that they will declare the Society has failed in every way to fulfil the hopes, upon the strength of which it was started. We believe the cause of this lies somewhat below the surface, and hence it has not been detected in the earlier working of the Society; and the influence has evidently extended itself too thoroughly through the body now for us to entertain any hope of its removal, or of there being any chance for a renovation of a society which might have done much for the advancement of the art and science of photography. The exhibition of last year was rendered above the average by the collection of photographs from the Cartoons. Those were the striking point of that exhibition; the present one, wanting this, is singularly tame and uninteresting. There are the same exhibitors as before, and a few new ones. Mr. Roger Fenton exhibits between thirty and forty pictures, all of them fine specimens of photography, and many of them exceedingly beautiful. These pictures are examples of great industry, of the most careful photographic manipulation, and of a true artistic feeling. Mr. C. Thurston Thompson, who devotes himself to the photographic department of the Art-Museum at South Kensington, has contributed copies of the sketches by Raphael and Michael Angelo; of drawings by Holbein and some others, which ore evidences of the value of photography as a means of multiplying the works of our greatest masters for the purposes of study. Mr. Alfred Rosling is charming, as usual, in his small but complete pictures. Mr. Lyndon Smith, in his views on the Wharfe, treads close on the heels of Roger Fenton. Mr. Francis Bedford, always good, quite equals any of his former works: there are few things in the exhibition superior to those pictures which are to illustrate a work entitled “The Home tour of the Picturesque and Beautiful.” Messrs. Cundall and Downes have two or three very charming photographs; some are, however, to our eyes, objectionable in colour. It is useless particularizing the works of all: as photographs the works deserving of commendation are those of the well known Bisson Freres, of Captain Tnpper, of J.M. Mackie, of Lake Price—whose’ Romes’ are excellent, of John H. Morgan, of V. A. Prout, of Mrs. Verschoyle, of A. J. Melhuish, and of Sykes Ward. There are others who have produced good photographs, but they do not appear to rise in any respect above the level, which is so easily obtained by the Collodion process with a good camera obscura. Mr. Samuel Fry has attempted a large picture of a heavy sea at Brighton: we cannot but regard this as a failure. The wave rolling on the shore is most imperfectly represented. ‘Sea and Clouds,’ by the same photographist, is superior to the other attempt. Mr. Henry P. Robinson has some composition pictures; of these, ‘Sour Apples’ is the only one possessing any merit. The groups are most unartistically arranged, and the photography is of the common order. The exhibition of portraits is large, and many of them are certainly excellent specimens of the art, and highly recommendatory of the several eihihitors to those who desire faithful resemblances of their friends or of themselves. Photographs of the finest kind are now so publicly exhibited in the shop windows of our principal streets, that we must urge upon the Photographic Society the importance of their insisting on the production of novelties for their exhibitions. If the Society desires to maintain a respectable position, it must sternly refuse any picture which has been previously exhibited; and it should abandon the very objectionable plan of putting in their catalogue the prices at which the photographs are to be sold. There are 586 photographs named in the catalogue; of this number about one-half have the selling price printed, and the large majority of those not so priced are advertisements of individuals or companies who live by taking photographic portraits. The profession is a most honourable one, and one which calls upon the mind of the artist for the exercise of some of its best functions. We have the highest respect for all, an especial friendship for some, but we do contend that a Society honoured by having the Queen and the Prince Consort for Patrons, and the Lord Chief Baron for President, should not allow their exhibition-room to be converted into a shop. We have heard the Royal Academy and the Water-Colour exhibitions I quoted in defence: we have never seen the selling price of a picture in the Royal Academy catalogue. But there is no parallel between the sale privately of a picture, which has been the labour of months, or it may be of years, and the sale of photographs, which can be multiplied at will, and of which the finest specimens by Mr. Roger Fenton are ticketed at 12s. This must be altered, or the Photographic Society may rest assured that each exhibition will become less and less attractive, and it will learn that, as a Society, it has lost its vocation, since it does not attend to “the promotion of the art and science of photography.”]


“Minor Topics of the Month. Photographs and Stereoscopic Views by Mr. F. Bedford.” ART JOURNAL ns 6:4 (Apr. 1860): 126. [“…, have been issued by Messrs. Catherall and Prichard, of Chester, descriptive of scenery, buildings, &c., in North Wales. The series of the latter is large, and comprehends a considerable number of the leading objects which excite the wonder and admiration of tourists, and have been the special delights of artists time out of mind. The photographs are of good size, and it is scarcely requisite to say, are of the highest possible merit,— the name of Mr. Bedford will sufficiently guarantee their excellence. They picture the leading beauties of the country—hills, dales, rivers, rocks, and waterfalls—and are delicious copies of surpassing natural attractions. The stereoscopic views are certainly among the best that have been produced, supplying a rich intellectual feast: to us they have given enjoyment of the rarest character—and so they may to our readers, for they are attainable at small cost. We name them at random, but they are all of famous places—Pont Aberglaslyn, Capel Curig, Llyn Ogwen, Bettys-y-coed, Beddgelert, Pont-y-gilli, Trefriew, Llanberis, Pen Llyn, with views also of the Britannia Bridge, Carnarvon Castle, &c. It is highly to the credit of a provincial establishment to have issued a series so entirely good.]


“Exhibitions. Liverpool Society of Fine Arts. Exhibition of Paintings, Engravings, and Photographs, at the Queen’s Hall, Liverpool.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 7:117 (May 1, 1860): 136-137. [Rejlander, Robinson, Frith, Mudd, Fenton, Wm. Keith, Bedford, J. H. Morgan, Duckworth (India), W. G. Helsby (daguerreotypes of Tahiti, Copiapo, Chili and Bolivia) and “a Liverpool lady” mentioned.]


“Photographic Society of London.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 7:104. (Dec. 15, 1860): 50-57. [“Ordinary General Meeting. December 4, 1860….” “…Dr. John Ryley then read the following paper:—“Result of a Series of Experiments on the Collodio-Albumen Process, as tending to show that the structural condition of the Albumen plays an important part in the Sensitiveness of the Plate.” (Members then commented upon the paper.) “Mr. Bedford stated that he thought negatives were not always destroyed by those ridges under the varnish. He found that upon the application of heat the would assume its original position and take a new coating of varnish. The most fatal was the clear open crack which was seen honeycombed all over the plate. He found, out of a dozen all varnished on the same day, two were all honeycombed in this way, and they had never been printed from; and that day ho had noticed some stereoscopic negatives, from which he had printed about 800 copies, were beginning to crack in the same way. That was the hard spirit varnish. He tried varnish from another maker; and that answered perfectly. The amber he never knew to crack in this way, but he discontinued using that because it was not sufficiently hard to stand the printing of a large number of impressions: after a certain time, cither by contact with the excited paper, or by damp acquired by contact with the paper, the varnish wore. He had also on a journey used amber varnish, and revarnished at home with spirit varnish, and never knew that to crack. He would he very glad if anybody would tell what was to be done to prevent this spreading of the crack; from its first appearance its advance was very gradual, and in the course of a week or two it covered the whole of the surface. He never knew more than six plates go in this way out of a very large number indeed; but it generally happens that if an accident does occur, it is with the most valuable negative. p. 55. “…Mr. Bedford said, his rule in varnishing a negative was always to expose it to a greater heat than ever it was likely to be exposed to in the hottest sun. The two negatives he had mentioned were the only ones that had come to grief with him from varnish obtained from Mr. Thomas; the others were as hard and perfectly varnished as could be wished. He thought Mr. Thomas’s suggestions most admirable, as recommending great care in the varnishing of negatives; and it was quite as necessary to varnish a plate well as to form a good collodion film upon it….” “…Mr. Bedford said his two cracked varnishes were Mr. Thomas’s. He only tried one sample of the Soehnee Varnish, and condemned it for its tackyness. The paper adhered to the varnish, and peeled it off. and the film with it. He then discontinued it, and tried another varnish. p. 56.]


“Photographic Engraving of Blocks, To Be Printed with Ordinary Letterpress. The Invention of Mr. Paul Pretsch.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 7:131 (Dec. 1, 1860): 347. 1 illus. [Photo by Francis Bedford, of Dover Castle, reproduced by Pretsch’s engraving process.]


“Stereographs: Chester and North Wales Illustrated, by Francis Bedford.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 7:132 (Dec. 15, 1860): 368-369.


“Critical Notices: North Wales Illustrated. A series of views by Francis Bedford.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 4:120 (Dec. 21, 1860): 400-401. [Chester Illustrated” noted on p. 401.]


“Our Weekly Gossip.” ATHENAEUM no. 1730 (Dec. 22, 1860): 874. [Praise for “a dozen stereoscopic views of Chester and North Wales, photographed by Mr. Bedford, and published by Mssrs.Catherall & Pritchard.”]


“Fine Arts: Architectural Photographic Exhibition.” ATHENAEUM no. 1735 (Jan. 26, 1861): 124-125. [“Photography, let the ignorant or thoughtless say what they will, unless, indeed, the now unattained mystery of colour be applied at some future time, can never be anything more than the reproducer and transcriber, not the inventor; claiming for it the powers of the last displays only astonishing blindness to the very meaning and ends of Art proper…” (Bisson Freres; Frith; Annan; Fenton; Bedford, others mentioned.)]


“Exhibition of the Photographic Society.” ART JOURNAL ns 7:2 (Feb. 1861): 47-48. [“The eighth exhibition of pictures by the members of the Photographic Society is now open, at the Gallery of the Society of Painters in Water Colours, Pall Mall East. There is a large collection of these sun-painted pictures; sufficiently large, indeed, to persuade the observer, that 1860 was not the year of gloom that most persons imagine it, to have been. Although luminous and calorific rays may have been absorbed by the vapoury clouds which hung over our islands, it is quite evident that a fair proportion of the actinic radiations must have readied the rain-soddened earth. There can be no Jack of enthusiasm amongst photographers. Notwithstanding the uncertainty of the past season, we perceive that the camera-obscura has penetrated the wildest moors, the most iron-bound coasts, the bleakest hills, and the recesses of the flooded valleys. The love of the art has carried the photographer onward through rains and storms. Indeed, we are disposed to believe that many of the most striking effects observable in the pictures exhibited, are due to that beautiful transparency of the atmosphere which follows a period of drenching rain. Our catalogue informs us that 622 pictures are exhibited; but there are more than this number of frames, and many frames contain four and six photographs. This is a proof of industry amongst the members of the society; but, when we ask ourselves if there is any distinguishable advance in the art, we are compelled to pause. For several years we have seen photographs which have possessed all the qualities that mark the best of these chemical pictures, in an eminent degree. Minuteness of detail, sharpness of outline, aerial perspective, freedom from the convergence of perpendicular lines, are merits with which we are familiar. The pictures which Mr. Roger Fenton exhibits this year—many of them very beautiful—are in no respect superior to photographs exhibited by that gentleman four or five years since. The Cheddar Cliffs and the views at Lynmouth are very charming,—perhaps Mr. Francis Bedford never produced more perfect works,—but we do not think them superior to many of the productions which Mr. Llewellyn, Mr. Sutton, and others have shown us. We were especially attracted by Mr. Bedford’s interiors. The views of parts of Canterbury Cathedral, of chosen bits of the Cathedrals of Wells and Exeter, together with portions of St. Mary Redcliffc Church, are all of them valuable studies to the artist, the architect, and the archaeologist; but we have now before us views of the interior of St. Mary Redcliffe, taken full ten years since by Mr. Owen of Bristol, which are in no respect inferior to them. So we might proceed from one class of subjects to another, showing, and we believe correctly, that there has not been any real advance in the photographic art for many years. The facilities for producing pictures, under all circumstances, are far greater than they were. Every mechanical arrangement has received, it would appear, the utmost amount of attention. The physical appliances have been improved, and the chemistry of the art, producing extreme sensibility to the solar influences, has been carefully studied. Yet we have not obtained pictures superior to those which marked the productions of the earlier exhibitions of the society. We cannot explain this. Has photography arrived at its maximum power? Can it not, by the aid of physical science—by the optician’s skill,—or the chemist’s experiments—be advanced higher? We believe much may yet be done; and we hope the society will interest itself in lifting the art beyond that dull level of excellence which has marked the exhibitions for several years. It is not possible for us, even were it desirable, to go through the long list of productions, so much like each other, and so nearly resembling the photographs which we have seen in former years. Fenton is good in his landscapes, but we venture to ask him if he has been quite so careful as usual; Bedford deserves praise; Cundall and Downes are in no respects behind; Caldesi has many beautiful studies; Maxwell Lyte has proved what can be done with metagelatine; Vernon Heath has wandered with advantage amidst the woods of Devonshire. James Mudd exhibits many pictures—all of them excellent—many of them may be classed with the best photographs ever produced. Maull and Polyblank require no advertisement for their portraits, nor do the London Stereoscopic Company for their stereoscopic views. There are, as might be expected, a crowd of “album portraits.” Those of Her Majesty the Queen and the Royal Family, by Mayall, are well-known, but we saw none superior to the chosen few exhibited by the London Stereoscopic Society. There are some successful attempts, not so ambitious as many which Lake Price and others have exhibited, in the direction of subject pictures. ‘The Holiday in the Wood,’ is the most successful of these, but the grouping indicates a deficiency of artistic feeling. Some of the small and so-called instantaneous pictures are good, but, with the extreme sensibility of the collodion process, when employed under the best possible conditions, we certainly fancy that better results are to be obtained. The Photographic Society directed especial attention some few years since to the fixing of photographs. This is a most important matter, demanding still the care of the society. We have now before us photographs which have been executed more than twelve years, in which there is not the slightest symptom of decay. We have others which have been produced within twelve months, which are fading rapidly. We have frequently expressed our opinion that there is no reason why a photograph should not be rendered as permanent as a water-colour drawing. These pictures need not necessarily fade. The experienced eye can almost always certainly tell whether a photograph is fixed or not. We do not intend to say that a man so judging may not be sometimes deceived, although within our experience this is rarely the case. It is to the interest especially of the seller of a photograph, that it proves permanent. If his pictures fade it shows carelessness, and he loses his customers. If the buyer of those chemical pictures finds, by and by, that he has a portfolio of “vanishing scenes” or of “fleeting images” he will weary of collecting them, and return to less truthful, but to more enduring productions. Is it not possible for the society to give some guarantee, or to insist upon some guarantee, that the necessary amount of care has been taken in washing the pictures sold from its walls? We advise our readers to pay this exhibition a visit, they will be much gratified; there is a great variety of subjects, and many very beautiful works. The solar rays have produced pictures which must ever strike the reflecting mind with wonder. A power has been generated millions of miles beyond this earth, which flows, and gives life and beauty to it. That agency which combines and maintains a living organism, paints, by its occult power, a magic picture. Every picture now hanging on the walls of the Photographic Exhibition, the result of chemical change in the hands of the photographer, is directly due to a physical change occurring in the far distant Sun.”]

Thompson. “Notes on the present Exhibitions.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 7:106. (Feb. 15, 1861): 110-114. [“When the alchemists of old, amidst the multiplicity of their processes, in the vain pursuit of the “philosopher’s stone” and the “elixir vita,” stumbled upon a peculiar form of silver which became blackened on exposure to light, and after experimenting on the phenomenon,— doubtless taking it up like a savage would a watch, or a monkey a letter, and obliged after all to lay it down again with a puzzled expression of countenance which told they could make nothing of it,—simply recorded the fact for their posterity in science, how little they imagined they had hit upon the germ of a discovery that was one day to be to art what printing was to literature; and that by its means this dear old world, which so often has presented itself to many of us in moral and social problems, would now present itself to us in pictures!…” “…The Annual Exhibition now open in Pall Mall is the eighth one of the Photographic Society. There will be found in it a more than usually interesting display of sun pictures – pictures, in which is exhibited the latest development of the art. The landscapes and architectural subjects comprise a wide range of examples of varied style and treatment, and in some of them there are carried farther what have hitherto been the boundaries of the art in particular directions. There is also more than an average number of works, a fact which is the more remarkable when we remember how unpropitious the past season has been for the trapping of sunbeams….” “…Turning from Mr. Mudd’s to Mr. Bedford’s, it would be difficult to decide who should hold the champion belt. The photographs of both are emphatically pictures. Mr. Mudd has the advantage in size: for versatility, Mr. Bedford carries away the palm. All are alike good, whether we turn from his architectural subjects to his ‘Cheddar Cliffs,’ from these to his cathedral interiors, and thence to his studies as in No.485, which would set a pre-Raphaelite crazy, —such leaves and tangled weeds, such a conglomeration of beautiful forms and ferns, and such richness of tone as make one scarcely deplore the absence of colour. For perfection of half-tones his ‘Cheddar Cliffs’ are unrivalled. No. 438, ‘South Aisle of Nave, Wells Cathedral,’ is one of, if not the gem of the Exhibition. There is an inimitable grace in the treatment; and from the broken masses of light, the eye is carried into the picture in a most remarkable way. Nos. 477, 479, ‘ Valle Cruris Abbey,’ are both very beautiful. Such subjects are always especial favourites, and the artist has displayed his usual felicity in treating them. Rich, crumbly, picturesque,
“And everywhere the torn and mouldering Past Hung with the ivy. For Time, smit with honour Of what he slew, cast his own mantle on him, That none should mock the dead.”
The last number is hung so low that its merits cannot be well seen; but it is a remarkable picture, taken quite against the light. The sun is glancing in softened radiance through the loopholes made by Time, lighting up turret and tree, and scattering patches of light on objects beyond. It has all the witchery of effect which a picture taken so much against the light would naturally possess, yet it is not in any way deficient in detail—indeed is quite a pioneer of what may be done in photographing effects rather than objects.”
The Fourth Exhibition of the Architectural Photographic Association, now open at the Institute in Conduit Street, is by far the best they have yet been able to set before the public. Their specialties are some grand subjects of Rouen Cathedral, of the very largest size, by Bisson Freres. No. 8, ‘ Hotel de Ville,’ has never been surpassed; and No. 9, ‘ Rheims Cathedral, West Portal,’ is wonderful; a journey need no longer be made to study its details. It may be done here at leisure, and with the sunshine for ever on it. We have also some fine interiors shown; and some details of wood-carving, &c., by Mr. Bedford, from which the most skilful draughtsman must turn away in hopeless despair. Some of them were secured by the opportunities afforded during the alterations at St. Paul’s Cathedral, and which may never occur again. Messrs. Delamore and Bullock send some new ones of Ely, and details of New Museum, Oxford; Mr. Frith some thirty new Egyptian views; and Dr. Murray contributes some of the Temples and Tombs of India. The remainder of the Exhibition consists either of old subjects and views, or duplicates of those shown at the Society’s Exhibition….” p. 113.


“Criticism on the Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 7:106. (Feb. 15, 1861): 116-117. [(Reviews from various journals reprinted.) “The Exhibition of the Society in Pall Mall East has attracted so much notice, and has received such a large share of attention, from all the leading journals and periodicals, that we have thought it very desirable that our readers should be enabled to see, with as little trouble as possible, the opinions which have been expressed upon it….”
The Times, January 18, 1861.
The Eighth Exhibition of the Photographic Society, now open at the Old Water-Colour Gallery, Pall Mall East, contains gratifying evidence that this new art is advancing in English hands, and has been carried by English manipulators at least as far as by their French or Italian rivals. We are glad to observe in this year’s Exhibition indications that our photographers, or at least the Council of this Society, are arriving at a sound conception of the real functions of photography. We see here hardly any examples of those unwise encroachments by the photographer on the domain of the painter which we, in former notices of this Exhibition, felt it our duty to protest against. There is only one signal case of this kind, in Mr. Robinson’s “Summer Holiday,” a composition showing very considerable taste in grouping, and commendable ingenuity in the employment of photographic machinery, but not the less to be protested against as a miserable substitute for even the photographic reproduction of a picture. It is true that Mr. Robinson has done his best by combining into his composition separate studies, lighted and arranged in subservience to a common design; but the effect is not the less unpleasant—reminding us of a stage-grouping after pictures, or a tableau vivant, than which nothing more entirely fails in all ihj true conditions of picture-making. It is well that the domain where photography ends should be so sharply and certainly fenced on as it is from that where art begins. Nothing short of the proof of this separation afforded by the conspicuous failure of all the photographer’s attempts to make pictures is required to correct the corresponding error which most of our young painters fall into when they strive to make their pictures photographs. Let the painters who are pursuing this mistaken road examine such works as Mr. Bedford here exhibits—for example, his “Study of Rocks at Ilfracombe,”—and they will be forced to admit the hopelessness of contending with the sun and chemistry combined, in the delineation of natural details. In all this Exhibition there is no man’s work, take it all in all, comparable, in our opinion, to Mr. Bedford’s, whether it be of subjects architectural—as his interior views of Wells Cathedral and his exterior subjects from Exeter Cathedral—or natural, as the rocks we have referred to. and other Devonshire scenes. Besides other merits, Mr. Bedford seems to us to have carried the perfect rendering of reflected lights and half tones further than any of our photographers. This is the crux of photographic art. Nothing can be conceived more delicate than the gradations from highest light to deepest shadow in the Ilfracombe subject; nothing fuller of aerial effect than the bit of the Chapter-house vestibule, Bristol. Mr. Bedford appears to us to show peculiarly sound judgment in his selection of subjects. Mr. Mudd is little inferior to Mr. Bedford in perfection of photographic execution, and in taste applied to landscape subject. After Mr. Bedford’s, we should single out Mr. Mudd’s work—…”
Athenaeum, January 19,1861.
“The eighth Annual Exhibition of this Society is now on view at the Gallery of the Society of Painters in Water-colours, Pall Mall East. The exhibition, as a whole, is far above the average in ready productions….” “… Landscape Photography is exceedingly well represented. Mr. Bedford, of course, stands first, as a clear, neat, and careful photographer. His architectural interior of ‘Wells Cathedral, North Porch ;’ ‘Exeter Cathedral, South-west Door’ (442); and ‘View in Ladye Chapel, Wells Cathedral’ (448), are among the most exquisite things that this most perfect of photographers has done. Mr. Fenton no longer holds the place he once held as the only good landscape photographer. He is now surpassed in manipulation by Mr. Bedford, and quite equalled by Mr. Mudd and Mr. Earl…”
Illustrated News of the World, Jan. 16, 1861.
The private view of this Exhibition was held on Saturday last in the Gallery of the Old Society of Water Colour Paintings, Pall-mall East. The Exhibition of this year is, perhaps, the best of the kind that we have seen. It is equal, in quality of pictures, to that held at South Kensington some years ago, though not so extensive….” “…In English architecture Mr. Bedford, the foremost of English photographers, has some very flne views on the “Second Screen.” In landscape photography Mr. Bedford and Mr. Mudd lead off very spiritedly. Then comes Mr. Roger Fenton, Mr. R. Gordon, Mr. Earl, and Mr. Spode….”]


“Photographic Society of London.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 7:107 (Mar. 15, 1861): 123. [“King’s College. Tuesday, March 5, 1861. F. Bedford, Esq., in the Chair….”]


“Editorial.” THE PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 7:109 (Mar. 15, 1861): 171. [“In Our last Number we took occasion, in a hurried manner, to call the attention of our readers to the extraordinary classification decided upon by Her Majesty’s Commissioners for the Exhibition of 1862. Since then, an official communication from Mr. F. K. Sandford, the Secretary to the Commissioners, has been addressed to our President, requesting the Council of the Photographic Society to appoint a Committee to organize Class 14, “Photographic Apparatus and Photography.” Under these circumstances the Lord Chief Baron assembled the Council to consider the proposition. The Council express themselves unanimously as feeling aggrieved at the manner in which the Art of Photography is classed. In a reply, which will be found below, the Lord Chief Baron puts the grievance in a manful and logical manner. It is needless to recapitulate the various points in this powerful and effective reply. From the manner in which the case is put, we cannot anticipate anything other than an immediate alteration of the obnoxious classification. Last month we quoted instances which we think sufficiently prove that Photography by common consent is acknowledged to be a branch of the Fine Arts. Since then, in the discussion of the new Copyright Bill, the Attorney-General, and the various Members of the House of Commons who spoke on the subject, placed Photography on the same footing as Engraving; that being the case, the Lord Chief Baron is undoubtedly right when he says “that the Council of the Photographic Society claim for it a position (however humble) among the Fine Arts (if etching and engraving may be so placed, as no doubt they may).” He then goes on to say that “Photography, quite as much as engraving, gives room for the exercise of individual genius, so as to stamp a special character on the works of photographers, and give to the result of their labours the impress of the mind of each artist.” The truth of this succinct statement is annually to be found on the walls of our Exhibitions, where any one who has the least knowledge of the productions of our leading photographers can instantly, without the assistance of a catalogue, single out the productions of Messrs. Fenton, Bedford, Llewellyn, Lake Price, Robinson, Vernon Heath, G. Washington Wilson, Maxwell Lyte, and others too numerous to mention. It is this “impress of the mind of each artist” that enables us to do so without any trouble….”]


“Photographic Society of London.”PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 7:109. (May 15, 1861): 175-182. [“Ordinary General Meeting, Mar 7,1861. Henry White, Esq., in the Chair. The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed….” “….How to prevent Stains and Streaks in the Collodion Negative. By R. W. Thomas, Esq.” “Whilst some have been for several years engaged in investigating the changes which take place in the various photographic substances exposed to the reducing action of the sun’s rays, others have been no less actively employed in researches of a more practical, and perhaps of an equally useful character….” (Responses from the audience.) “…Mr. Bedford had worked with so much light in his room that, instead of producing effects similar to those stated by Mr. Thomas, it had produced results which were so perfectly satisfactory to himself that he could hardly go the length that Mr. Thomas had gone in ascribing the streaks to too much light or diffused light. He thought it was necessary to take every precaution in not having too much light or diffused light; but he would ask whether Mr. Thomas had ever developed plates without having exposed them in the camera, and whether the greasy streaks which were observable on the plates on lifting them from the bath would develop the same results as a streaky picture. He remembered that some of the brightest negatives he had ever taken were produced in Marlborough House with a bright window two feet by five, with two thicknesses of yellow calico, the room being Bo light that he could read the smallest print; and yet his negatives were free from spots, stains, or fog. He had tried lately to find out the cause of the streaks, and had put an additional thickness of calico to his light, and made his room inconveniently dark; but still the evil was not remedied; therefore he concluded that, although too much light might cause streaks in some cases, there were other causes beyond too much light in the operating-room. Mr. Vernon Heath asked, what was the aspect of the window in Marlborough House? Mr. Bedford replied, very nearly south. He did not for a moment wish to be understood as disregarding the amount of light; for he thought that a most important thing, and very often photographers did work with too much light….” p. 179.
“…Mr. Thomas said that that, was a most favourable condition, provided the candle be protected, for it was known that a candle or gas-light might be used to produce prints on a collodion plate; therefore, if a candle were used, it would be necessary that the candle should be protected, though not to so great an extent as in the case of sunlight….” “…He thought he was right in coming to the conclusion that the negatives referred to by Mr. Bedford as having been obtained as described were obtained some six or seven years ago. He was able to say Bo because Mr. Bedford had been one of his patrons for many years.Mr. Bedford said that the negatives to which he had alluded were taken nearly seven years ago. Mr. Thomas then said that he thought he could suggest a satisfactory explanation. In the first place, seven or eight years ago very little was known about the character and the quality of the nitrate of silver used for the bath…” p. 180.”
(Later in the meeting the controversial action of the Commissioners of the forthcoming Exhibition of 1862 placing photography among the mechanical arts rather than the fine arts was brought up and discussed.)
“Mr. Heath regretted that so much time had been devoted to that which he could not help feeling might have been left out of the business of the evening. Observing the late hour, he would only ask permission to give notice that at the next Meeting he would offer some observations as to the position of photography in the Exhibition of 1862, because he thought the session should not close without some remarks upon a subject of so much importance to photography. The Secretary stated that he had seen the Lord Chief Baron, who informed him that he had received a communication from Her Majesty’s Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1802, requesting the Photographic Society to appoint some six or eight members who were competent to advise the Commissioners what course they should pursue with reference to photography being exhibited at the Exhibition; and the Lord Chief Baron at once requested a Council to be called, which was done, and which was very fully attended. The Council were unanimously of opinion that, previously to the Society taking any part in that Exhibition, photography should be placed in its right position. The Chief Baron had interested himself very much; and that day he had brought, in his own handwriting, what he considered a strong remonstrance and proper address to the Commissioners, of which they had yet to learn the result. Mr. Vernon Heath said that, somehow or other, photography had been misunderstood when it was proposed to treat it as something which was wholly mechanical. If it were so wholly mechanical, how was it that there was such a striking individuality of character in the works of different photographers? How was it that persons were so well able to select the works of Mr. Bedford, Mr. Fenton, Mr. Maxwell Lyte, and others, just as well as the works of different masters could be selected on the walls of the Royal Academy? Surely such a peculiarity could not be due to mere superiority of apparatus. If the peculiarly characteristic distinctiveness was really duo (as he apprehended it was) to artistic excellence, it was surely not for this age to say that that artistic excellence, which had only been obtained after years of struggling, should be put back again and dealt with as something mechanical. Mr. Shadbolt was glad that the Executive had intimated a disposition to enforce that which only the Society was capable of enforcing on behalf of photography. He had been requested to call the attention of the Council of the Society to the suggestion, that, if there shall be no intention of placing photographers on the footing of other artists, photographers should take the matter into their own hands, and get up an Exhibition about the time of the Exhibition of 1862, totally dissociated from that undertaking….” pp. 182.]


“Photographic Society of London.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 7:110. (June 15, 1861): 195-200. [“King’s College. Ordinary General Meeting. Tuesday, June 4, 1601. Joseph Durham, Esq., F.S.A., in the Chair. The Chairman announced that the President, the Lord Chief Baron, had attended several Council Meetings, and much regretted his inability to be present this evening. The Members would be informed of what had taken place with regard to the letter which the Lord Chief Baron had written to Her Majesty’s Commissioners for the Exhibition of 1862…. “…Mr. Vernon Heath, at the request of the Chairman, then exhibited and explained Professor Way’s new Electric Light, saying— It is not necessary that I should offer to you, Sir, or this meeting, any apology for the subject I am about to bring under your notice; for the possibility of making the electric light subservient to our purposes in photography is too important and too interesting to need my excuses….” “…It will be remembered that in our late exhibition Mr. Bedford exhibited a frame of photographs, which were printed as a first experiment with Mr. Way’s lamp; and it will also be remembered that these peculiar photographs had all those brilliant, vigorous, and rich qualities for which Mr. Bedford’s photographs are famous. One remark Mr. Bedford made as to his results with this lamp I am quite able to confirm—viz. that the light possesses a singularly penetrating power. For this reason the negative should be somewhat dense, and probably it mil result that a paper with less silver than ordinary in its preparation could be used; that is, if, as I believe, the lamp will come into use for printing purposes, we shall have to manipulate our negatives accordingly. An ordinary iron developed negative, which will by diffused daylight yield a most satisfactory print, will not be sufficiently intense to produce a brilliant print by this lamp….” p. 200.]


“Stereographs. North Wales and Chester Illustrated, by Francis Bedford. Chester: Catherall & Prichard.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 8:147 (Aug. 1, 1861): 272-273.


Silvy, C. “The International Exhibition of 1862.”
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 7:113 (Sept. 16, 1861): 269-270. [“Dear Sir, — I regret much troubling you with the request to insert in the esteemed journal of the Society this letter, in answer to M. Claudet’s, which appeared in your number of the 10th of August, and in which he honoured me, both at the beginning and the end, with the title of a servile unhappy exception. Faithful to the view with which they have been founded, photographic journals should be the promoters of progress, and not a battlefield for questions of amour propre; nevertheless, since the subject of classification interests at present the whole of the photographic world, I hope you will permit mc, who am as much devoted to my art as any one, to sustain in your columns an opinion which is less mine than that of the Royal Commissioners, and which, I regret, is not shared by the greater part of photographers. I remain, Sir, yours faithfully, C. Silvy.
A Monsieur Claudet. Sir,—Permit me, from the commencement, to assure you that I am sorry to be obliged to refute all your arguments, one after the other. If I have not the pleasure of being known to you, I have, at least, that of knowing you. I am aware that, from the very first, you were engaged with those learned men to whose researches we owe the discovery of photography. I fully acknowledge all the claim that you have to the esteem and consideration of the public, and which you so justly enjoy. I know, moreover, that you arc twice my age; and this alone would oblige me to be silent, were it not that the desire of serving the real interests of photography compels me to speak. In my letter addressed to the Photographic Society on the 4th of June, 1 said that, for my own part, I accepted the department which the Royal Commissioners had given to photography (that is to say, the mechanical one). You find the position assigned to photography unworthy of it; you protest, and demand for it a classification with the Fine Arts. Let us, then, examine frankly and calmly, if you will, the subject in dispute.…” “…Must we therefore say that photographic productions are not works of art? Far from it, they partake with every object formed by the hand of man, even indirectly and with the aid of machinery, the privilege of retaining the impress of the sentiment which has inspired them. The talent, the taste employed in the execution of these productions, constitute their quality, but cannot, on that account, make us forget their nature and origin, which are essentially mechanical. Their very perfection is an argument against it. Since you speak of landscapes, do not those obtained tiy the means of photography surpass in delicacy and exactitude all that the hand of man has ever been able to produce? An artist would be worn out with fatigue before having painted half the details which Messrs. Fenton, Maxwell Lyte, Bedford, &c. &c. assemble on their plates by a few seconds’ exposure to the camera obscura. Are those gentlemen on that account the greatest landscape painters in the world? Let them produce the same works without the succour of the lens and the camera, and no one will refuse them that title. The mechanical part and the artistical part are so completely united that each advancement accomplished by one promotes the advancement of the other. Take away the camera obscura; and photography is an impossibility. Suppress collodion, and you irreparably injure the production of portraits in bringing them back to the necessity of a lengthened sitting. Is it not therefore natural to show the public both the productions of photography and the instruments by which they have been effected? Every object, whatever it may be, bears the stamp of the originality, taste, and care of the maker who has produced it. When you simply see in it the result of machinery, it is a mechanical production; on the contrary, when the imprint of artistic sentiment is evinced, it becomes an object of art….” p. 269.]


“The Photographic Album. Vol. II. (Thirty Nine Pictures.)” JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF LONDON 7:114 (Oct. 15, 1861): 285-286. [39 prints by 39 photographers listed. Dr. Diamond, Bedford, etc.]


BOOKS. 1861.
“Reviews.” ART JOURNAL ns 7:12 (Dec. 1861): 376. [Book review. Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain. By William and Mary Howitt. The Photographic Illustrations by Bedford, Sedgfield, Wilson, Fenton, and others. Published by A. W. Bennett, London. This beautiful volume, one of the books of the season,” reached us at the eleventh hour only, when time and space are opposed to our noticing it in such a way as we desire to do. A hasty glance through its pages is sufficient, however, to warrant a commendatory line or two this month; in the next we hope to speak of it at greater length.”]


“Photographic Society of London.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 7:116. (Dec. 16, 1861): 319-320. [“Ordinary General Meeting. King’s College, London. Tuesday, December 3, 1861. Henry White, Esq., in the Chair….”   “…The Chairman, in pursuance of the 7th Rule of the Society, announced the names of those Officers of the Society who would retire in rotation, and of those whom the Council proposed for Election, as follows:—Professor Bell, as Vice-President, will retire, and Frances Bedford, Esq., is recommended to fill his place…. The Members of the Council who retire are— J. G. Ceace, Esq., P. H. De La Motte, Esq., Dr. Farre, V. J. Masbelyne, Esq., J. Stokes, Esq., F. Bedford, Esq.; …”]


“Sixth Exhibition of the Photographic Society of Scotland, at Edinburgh.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 7:117 (Jan. 15, 1862): 349. [“Having only partially inspected this interesting Exhibition, our notice of it must be brief. Indeed, we can do little more than indicate results, without dwelling on individual performances. From the wretched weather with which Scotland, and particularly its western districts, was visited in 1861, we were prepared to anticipate a scanty supply of contributions from that quarter, and to doubt whether these would possess their usual excellence. These anticipations, we are happy to say, have not been realized. Among our resident Scotch photographers the specimens sent equal the best contributions of former years, while Mudd, Dixon Piper, and Vernon Heath from England, and Mr. Maxwell Lyte from the Pyrenees, have filled the walls with specimens of their characteristic styles (for a difference of style among photographers is just as perceptible as a different touch among artists), which leave nothing, we think, to be desired. On the whole, we cannot hesitate to say that the Exhibition of this year is at least equal to any of its predecessors. The number of photographs exhibited amounts to 635, many of these (such as the cartes de visite) embracing twelve in a frame. In the few lines which are left to us, we can only indicate at hazard a few pictures that have caught our attention, .satisfied at the same time that we must have overlooked many, perhaps equally deserving of notice, and regretting that neither time nor space enabled us to do justice to all….” “…Among those by Mr. Bedford the finest is (411) “Rocks at Ilfracombe,” almost equal to anything in the Exhibition;…”]


“Photography in its relation to the Fine Arts.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 7:117 (Jan. 15, 1862): 359-360. [“Define terms,” it has been said, “and controversy will cease.” Unfortunately for the simplicity of this dictum, the uncertain J relation of well-defined terms to indefinite ideas j constitutes the whole difficulty. The term “Fine Art” is one of the most common to be found in the works of writers on Aesthetic science; its meaning in a general sense is understood by everybody; but for any precise definition, any accurate statement of the conditions involved, any unchallengeable landmarks pointing out its extent or limitations, we may search in vain. The consideration whether photography possesses a legitimate claim to a position amongst the fine arts involves, however, at the outset, that the conditions necessary to such recognition should be defined. All art may be broadly divided into two classes, the mechanical or industrial arts, and the beautiful or fine arts. The first has reference only to what belongs to the material facts—the physical necessities of man’s life. These supplied, he discovers that he has a higher nature and nobler cravings which must be satisfied. The subjugation of matter to all purposes of material use is the province of the industrial arts. The perception and embodiment of the beautiful in its various forms belongs to the province of fine art. The distinction here drawn is a broad and obvious one, and has, in effect, been universally recognized. We shall have to inquire, then, to which category photography belongs whether it is a mechanical or a fine art….” (The author later cites photographers “—such as Bedford and truthfulness, …Wilson, Lake Price and Rejlander….” who’s work challenges the existing boundaries.) From the London Review.]


“Notes Literary and Photographic.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 7:118 (Feb. 15, 1862): 366. [“We are sure that our readers will join with us most heartily in rejoicing at the appointment of Mr. Francis Bedford as the photographer who is to accompany His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales in his Eastern tour. Mr. Bedford will take views of landscapes, figures, and architecture of the various remarkable places that may be visited. Those who remember the charming landscapes which Mr. Bedford took for Her Majesty and His late Royal Highness the Prince Consort on the Continent will see at once the judiciousness of the appointment. Mr. Bedford is not only one of the very best photographic manipulators we have in this country, as all our readers know, but he is one of the best lithographic artists also; so that His Royal Highness has, in Mr. Bedford, a first-rate artist and a first-class photographer. We shall look forward with great interest for the results of this journey. We expect that Her Majesty, with that liberality which always characterizes her, will permit the public to have the benefit of Mr. Bedford’s photographs, if not for sale, at least for exhibition, as on former occasions.”]


“Eastward Ho!” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 9:160 (Feb. 15, 1862): 66. [Note that Bedford accompanying the Prince of Wales on his tour of the East.]


“Notes.” JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF LONDON 7:118 (Feb. 15, 1862): 368. [Bedford is to accompany His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales on his eastern tour….]


“Miscellaneous Items: The Prince of Wales and Photography.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE ALLIED ARTS & SCIENCES n. s. 4:19 (Mar. 1, 1862): 454-455. [From Photographic News. Note that Francis Bedford, one of only eight gentlemen accompanying the Prince of Wales on his eastern tour.]


Thompson, S. “Photography in Its Application to Book Illustration.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 9:161 (Mar. 1, 1862): 88-89. [Discusses the Howitt’s Ruined Castles and Abbeys of Great Britain, with photos by Bedford, Sedgfield, Wilson, Fenton, etc.]


“The Prince of Wales in Egypt.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 40:1136 (Sat., Mar. 22, 1862): 300. [(Left Cairo for Upper Egypt by steamer, met locals, visited the pyramids and Sphinx, etc.) “…An hour or more was devoted to the examination of the other antiquities in the neighbourhood, and the cavalcade returned as it had come, not without having been successfully caught up by the skill of Mr. Bedford, the photographer, who accompanied the Prince’s suite…”]


“Miscellanea.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:120 (Apr. 15, 1862): 39. [“Mr. Bedford, it is stated, produced a successful photograph of the cavalcade, consisting of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales and his attendants, on the occasion of their visit to the Pyramids.”]


1 illus. (“Prince of Wales’ Visit to Egypt: His Royal highness Examining the Negatives Taken by Mr. Bedford, Photographist, at Philae.”) on p. 466 in: “The Price of Wales in Egypt.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 40:1143 (Sat., May 10, 1862): 466, 467, 488. 3 illus. [(A sketch of Bedford showing his negative to the Prince and several companions, surrounded by Egyptian boys and bearers, Bedford’s camera on a tripod and a portion of his developing tent, with native assistant, are depicted — all of these before the ruins of a temple. Bedford is mentioned as accompanying the Prince’s expedition on p. 488. Illustrations, from drawings, of scenes and events –the reception of the Prince by Said Pacha, Viceroy of Egypt, the Prince at Philae, the Prince on camels to visit the pyramids. during his visit.) “…We returned the same day to Assuan, and thence back to Edfon, where we remained one day inspecting its magnificent temples. Several fine views were taken by Mr. Bedford, photographer to the Prince. The following day…” p. 488.]


BOOKS. 1862.
“Review. Ruined Abbeys and Castles.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:121 (May 15, 1862): 57-58. [Book review. Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain, by William and Mary Howitt. The Photographic Illustrations by Bedford, Sedgefield, Wilson, Fenton, and others. A. W. Bennett, 5 Bishopsgate Without, London, 1862. “There could scarcely be any subject selected by a writer better calculated to show to advantage the great aid which photography can render as a means of illustration than that before us,—photographic views of buildings of architectural note being generally among the most attractive pictures in our Annual Exhibitions. The views in this work are small, and their miniature size in many cases adds greater beauty to them. In the preface the publisher makes some very sensible remarks upon the necessity of accuracy in views of this class, as a means of enabling the reader correctly to understand the technical descriptions which accompany the views. He says, “In this volume, he has availed himself of the accuracy of photography to present to the reader the precise aspect of the places which at the same time are commended to his notice by the pen. It appears a decided advance in the department of topography thus to unite it to photography. The reader is no longer left to suppose himself at the mercy of the imaginations, the caprices, or the deficiencies of artists, but to have before him the genuine presentment of the object under consideration. He trusts that this idea” (and we heartily join with him) ” will be pursued to the extent of which it is capable; and that hereafter we shall have works of topography and travel illustrated by the photographer with all the yet-to-be improvements of the art, so that we shall be able to feel, when reading of new scenes and lands, that we are not amused with pleasant fictions, but presented with realities.” Nothing could possibly contribute more to this desirable state of things than the very clever manner in which the publisher of this work has combined able descriptive matter with first-class illustrations. The views executed by Mr. Sedgefield vary more in quality than any of his collaborateurs. It is to be regretted that he has vignetted several of his architectural views; he has by that means so entirely destroyed the fine and striking lines which are the chief beauty of views of this character. His little vignette of the “Shid,” is a perfect gem of photographic landscape photography. Of the views by Messrs. Fenton and Bedford it is needless to say more than that they are done in the usually careful manner that they execute all their works. Mr. Wilson, who has gained a deserved reputation for the beauty of his miniature landscapes, entirely preserves it by the views he has contributed to this work. We must, in conclusion, say a word about the neat and careful manner in which these pictures are mounted. Inattention to this little point, in our opinion, often spoils the effect of the most carefully executed pictures.”]


“Illustrations of the Prince of Wales’s Visit to Egypt.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 40:1144 (Sat., May 17, 1862): 495, 498, 499. 4 illus. [(Scenes of events, from drawings, of the visit.) “…On the preceding page we illustrate the ride of the Royal party to Edfou. here the Prince remained for a day inspecting its magnificent temples, several fine views of which were taken by Mr. Bedford, photographer to hid Royal highness…” p. 499.]


“Photography at the International Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:122 (June 16, 1862): 75. [“The photographic department of the Exhibition is now complete. A new and corrected Catalogue of the photographs has been issued; and notwithstanding the somewhat remote and inconvenient position which—compelled, we presume, by the exigencies of space—the Commissioners awarded to British photographers, their works have received honourable recognition by the public and the press. The Times, speaking of them, says :— “We mentioned yesterday, with the praise they deserved, the very fine collection of French photographs in the south gallery, though we now learn that some of the very best in this display are by English artists resident in France. Some remarkably good ones are sent by Mr. Maxwell Lyte, an amateur, whose pictures may be at once known by the words, ‘Lux fecit’—a true photographer’s pun on his name and art. Mr. Bingham, too, one of the best of the Paris professionals, sends some fine specimens, which go far to keep up the general excellence of the French show. There is a special class devoted to English photography in the building, which contains some of the finest specimens of the photographic art ever brought together. There was no class devoted to photography in 1851, and there was near being no exhibition of the art on this occasion, in consequence of the most unfavourable place assigned to it. As it is, the London Photographic Society have refused to exhibit, and, but for the efforts made by the most eminent photographers, the art, as regards England, would have been unrepresented altogether. The photographic collection is placed along with the class devoted to educational appliances, in a large room in the upper floor of the tower, between the English and foreign picture-galleries—about the most inaccessible and unfavourable spot to which it could be banished, but to which we feel now justified in calling the attention of visitors, as containing a collection which will repay a long visit. Here are collected the finest portraits of Williams, Claudet, Watkins, and Mayall, Caldesi’s copies of miniatures and cartoons, the exquisite views of Bedford, Fenton, Cundall, Downes, and White, and the fancy pieces of Robinson. Frith also sends specimens of three great views in the East, which were taken for Negretti and Zambra. Some of the best exhibitors in this class are to be found among the amateurs, of whom there are many, such as Colonel Sir Henry James, the Earl of Caithness, Lady Jocelyn, Colonel Verschoyle, Colonel Stuart Wortley, Sir A. MacDonald, &c. The educational appliances in this department of the Exhibition likewise deserve an attentive visit.” It will be unnecessary for us to explain the error into which our contemporary has fallen in saying the Photographic Society refused to exhibit; our readers are familiar with the exact steps the Council of the Society felt it desirable to take in relation to this question.”]


“South London Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:122 (June 16, 1862): 77. [“We notice that the Exhibition of Photographs at the Crystal Palace, under the auspices of the South London Photographic Society, is now open to the public. It comprises a very fine selection of pictures, many of them by photographers whose works have been familiar at our own annual exhibitions, and some few whose names are new to the public. The various processes in use are fairly represented, the wet process having, however, the largest number of adherents. Amongst the names hitherto comparatively unknown to fame, we may mention those of Jackson Brothers, near Manchester, who exhibit a series of very charming rural studies, in which the composition and photography are alike good. Mr. J. J. Cole, a recently joined Member of our own Society, has a series of very fine architectural photographs, consisting of examples of the works of Sir Christopher Wren. They are taken on tannin plates, and many of them possess very great merit in every sense. Mr. Buxton, an amateur, exhibits some views in the East, taken on collodio-albumen plates, which will compare favourably with the best we have seen of the localities. Mr. Bedford and other well-known artists contribute freely. The Exhibition is altogether a good one, and the ample space at the Crystal Palace permits the contributions to be arranged to the best advantage.”]


1 b & w (“West Front of Wells Cathedral.”) facing p. 42; 1 b & w (“St. Auqustin and His Mother.”) facing p. 44 in: “Engraving by Photography.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (July 1862): 42-45. [(Two tipped-in photoengraved illustrations. One is a view, credited to Francis Bedford, the second is a copy of an artwork, credited “By Ary Scheffer. From an Engraving. Printed by the ordinary Letterpress from a Block produced by means of Photography and Electrotype. Absolutely untouched by the graver.”) “Comparing the productions of the present International Exhibition with those of its predecessor, the progress is most strikingly visible in photography; in fact, in 1851 photography not being sufficiently advanced to be placed in a separate class, it was, with the apparatus used, included among philosophical instruments; now, however, it has a class of itself, namely, Class XIV. We have not space to describe the beauties exhibited, or to enter into the difficulties surmounted, but we can present our readers, at least, with some specimens of a process which appears to be an extraordinary achievement, and of which the consequences may be of great importance. Many people interested in photography may recollect having seen some photographs, done from paper negatives, obtained by the ordinary wet process, and exhibited in 1851 under the head of the Imperial Printing Office at Vienna, executed by the manager of it, Mr. Paul Pretsch, for which he was rewarded with the prize medal. But they may have asked themselves, What has a printer to do with photography? In the present year we have received an answer to such questions. There are to be seen in Class XIV of the English Department eighteen frames, filled with impressions, printed with ordinary printing ink by the ordinary printing-presses, from plates and blocks engraved by nature’s mysterious hand only, viz. by photography and electro-metallurgy. Photography and its sister art are made subject to the printing press, and for this reason the manager of the Vienna Printing-office became a photographer. These frames are headed by printed inscriptions, “Engraving by Photography.” The blocks, from which these copies have been printed with the ordinary press, are all absolutely untouched by the graver; and the plates, whose printed copies are exhibited in a considerable number, are of various descriptions. Some of them are, like the blocks, absolutely untouched by the graver, but some have been assisted, cleaned, and improved by the engraver, and a few shew the process of nature in combination with the work of the human hand, producing a result not attainable by the latter alone. In many instances this capability proves to be of great advantage. They are distinguished by printed labels on the specimens, and two frames of them contain the photographed original side by side with the printed copy….But not satisfied with this clear definition, Mr. Pretsch has exhibited on a counter in glass cases the plates and blocks themselves for examination by connoisseurs. There are to be seen seven blocks entirely untouched with the graver; the photographic originals of them being partly taken from nature and partly from works of art. There is also a large engraved printing-plate of copper, absolutely untouched; and a second plate, which has been assisted by the graver, and afterwards coated with a very thin film of steel, by which means the copperplates have been made almost as durable as engraved steel-plates. Therefore we see here the specimens of two processes, viz.,— 1. Producing engraved printing-plates of copper, coated with steel, for the copperplate printing-press. 2. Producing engraved printing blocks (surface copper, backed with type metal, mounted on wood, like the cast of a wood engraving), to be printed by the ordinary printing-press with or without types; and by this last process the specimen before our readers is executed. Both processes preserve the true finger of nature, or the real touch of the artist. The first process is for the best works of the fine arts, and for hundreds of people; the second process, however, is for the million. Photographs in our present time are still perishable, but printer’s-ink and paper stand the test of centuries. The influence of light is used in these two processes only for the production of the first engraved surface; having obtained the engraving in the desired effect, the subsequent portion of the processes is mere mechanical skill, however great the number of copies. Our ancestors had only written books, but since the invention of typography, religion, wisdom, and knowledge became universal goods of mankind. The rapidity and cheapness of production by the ordinary printing-press are as well known as the spread of its productions over the whole globe. And what typography has been for the spread of thought that is photography for the reproduction of authentic illustrations, if they can be printed with ordinary printer’s-ink, and by the common cheap process. To enable our readers to obtain a correct idea of these processes, we introduce a brief explanation of them. An ordinary glass plate is coated with a certain mixture sensitive to the influence of light, and this coating is dried. The photographic negative is placed on the surface of the coated glass plate, both of them are fixed in an ordinary photographic copying frame, and exposed to the influence of light. After sufficient exposure they are taken out of the frame, separated, and the picture now appears in a faint coloured copy on the flat surface of the coated glass plate, which is to be immersed in a bath of powerful chemical action. By this treatment some portions of the picture become more or less raised, and some remain sunk, according to the previous action of light, and exactly corresponding to the lights and shadows of the picture. Id fact, this picture is the main portion of the process; it forms the engraved surface, and therefore must be obtained so as to answer the requirements of the printing-press. A picture can be obtained without much difficulty, but not so easily the picture which will suit a certain purpose. It is marvellous how nature can accomplish this result, but it does so only under certain conditions; she demands great attention, experience, and study of her laws, because they are not easily discovered. Having obtained in this manner the engraving as it ought to be, though the material is perishable and transient, a cast or mould is made from it; the coating of the glass plate, having served its purpose, is removed, the plate cleaned, and may be used over and over again. The above-mentioned mould, having been made conductive, is used for the purpose of inducing, by means of voltaic electricity, a deposit of copper thereon, forming the matrix from which the printing surface of copper is obtained by repeating the process of electrotyping. The illustration of a portion of Wells Cathedral, in our present number, has been executed in the above-mentioned second process. The photographic original has been taken from nature by Mr. Francis Bedford, and the engraved block, absolutely untouched by the graver, produced by Paul Pretsch. Only the white portion of the sky, requiring great depth in the block, has been built up in the matrix. We selected the west front of Wells Cathedral for a specimen of this process, with the double object of testing Mr. Pretsch’s powers by giving him a very elaborate subject, which requires great skill on the part of the draughtsman, and great patience on the part of the engraver to produce an accurate representation of it by the ordinary processes of art, and consequently must be very expensive and very apt to be unsatisfactory. Such exquisite figures require to be drawn and engraved with minute care, whereas by the process of Mr. Pretsch the matter is almost as easy as if the subject was a plain wall; and as the magnifying glass can be applied to it to any extent, the renovations of the sculptures, which are numerous, can be at once detected, which cannot be done in an engraving. This very remarkable series of sculptures was originally executed in the first quarter of the thirteenth century, and it is considered by Professor Cockerell and other high authorities to be absolutely unrivalled in Europe in work of that period. Many of the figures have been renewed, but the greater part are original. Another reason for selecting this subject was to call the attention of the Dean and Chapter, and the architect to the Ecclesiastical Commission, to the very bad effect produced by having four of the windows in this beautiful west front blocked up, in order to save a few pounds. It really does appear almost incredible that they should be suffered to remain blocked up at the present day, and in any ordinary engraving the accuracy of the artist might well be doubted, but in photography there can be no mistake or misrepresentation; and there they stand plainly, two of the tall lancet windows on either side of the central triplet; that is to say, there have been originally seven lancet windows in the front, three of which remain open; the other four are blocked up in consequence of a change in the roofs of the aisles behind them, and it having been thought cheaper to fill them up with stone than to retain the glass and put black boards behind it, which would have retained the original effect of the windows in the front. It would not be difficult, nor very expensive now, to restore the passage behind these blocked-up windows, and thus again give reality to them. Our second engraving, “St. Augustin and his Mother,” requires neither explanation nor comment.”]


“Photography at the International Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:123. (July 15, 1862): 79-86. [“The Great Exhibition has become for photography, as for many of her sister arts, a very great fact. The palace in Cromwell Road contains a selection of fine pictures from many nations, unrivalled for number and for beauty, for the variety of subjects chosen, for the novelty of many of the processes, and for the perfectness of the execution. The practised operator will find as much to inform his mind as the casual visitor finds to delight his eye. But the fact of all others, and before all others, on which the photographer will dwell with pleasure is the public recognition which his favourite study has obtained. After a long battle with the guardians of established rights, the Italy of the Arts, as we may now fairly term photography, has made good her pretensions, and received her place. We are a class of ourselves; we take our place with oil-painting, with sculpture, with engraving, with design. We do not blame the conservators of privilege who contested our right to the rank we have now secured. We are a very young art: the sisterhood are proverbially and properly jealous of intruders: our pretensions were high, and we will not raise any objections now that we have gained our point against those who put us to our probation. It was their duty to see whether we had enough vitality in us to bear the day of trial and to work down opposition. We have done it. Our Palestro, our Volturno, have been fought and won: peace has been made. Thursday, July 11, was a day to be remembered; a brilliant sun, a sumptuous garden, a pretty ceremonial, a brilliant company, and an unrivalled band lent grace and gaiety to the more solid justice of the declaration of prizes. Our more immediate department was represented on the occasion by the jurors who had studied the collection and made the award :— A. Claudet, F.R.S., Hugh W. Diamond, M.D., F.S.C.; C. T. Thompson. No one need be told that, with so magnificent a collection before them, the work of these jurors had been anything but easy. Where so many subjects were in a high degree meritorious, it was often difficult, and in some cases perhaps impossible, to assign the exact order of merit. In rivalries of taste, which involve questions as well as points of science, which sun-pictures have now come to do, to a very large extent, general agreement is unattainable. The best judgment can only be an approximation to absolute justice; and the most sincere judge of such work will already feel that, when his best has been done, there will be a margin of oversight and prejudice left for the wiser public to correct. We say this, not as doubting the general propriety of the awards made, but from a conviction of the great delicacy of the task imposed on the jurors, and of the consideration of which even the most able and impartial judgments stand in need. The list of gentlemen whose works have been signalized for medals and honourable mention was handed by H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge to the Lord Chief Baron, President of the Photographic Society, and Messrs. H. White, H. P. Robinson, T. R. Williams, R. Fenton, F. Bedford, and E. Kater, F.R.S. – A future day will be fixed upon by Her Majesty’s Commissioners for the delivery of the various awards. Meantime our readers will be glad to have the following list, which we take from official sources:—…”]


“Miscellanea.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:123. (July 15, 1862): 97. [“Mr. Francis Bedford has returned from his Eastern tour in company with His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. The number of good negatives obtained is nearly two hundred, prints from the whole of which, with the exception of a few private ones, will shortly be exhibited and published. Notwithstanding the inconvenience of very rapid travelling, and the trying vicissitudes of such a tour, Mr. Bedford has been on the whole successful. His chief operations were on 12 x 10 plates, with wet collodion, in a dark tent.”]



“Calendar for the Ensuing Week.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 41:1155 (Sat., July 19, 1862): 78. [“His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales’s Tour in the East.—The Photographic Pictures of the many remarkable and interesting places in the Holy Land, Egypt, &c. &c, made by Mr. Francis Bedford during the tour in which, by command, he accompanied his Royal Highness are, by special permission graciously accorded, Exhibited Daily at the German Gallery, 168, New Bond-street. Dally, from Ten to Six O’Clock. Admission, 1s.



“Photographs of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales’s Eastern Tour.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 41:1156 (Sat., July 26, 1862): 99. [“The German Gallery, New Bond-street, is now opened with a collection of photographs, taken by Mr. Francis Bedford, the eminent photographer, during the tour in the East, in which, by command, he accompanied his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. The series is extensive, numbering 172 photographs, and comprising views of all the most striking or historic cities and buildings, ruins and sites, traditional and sacred localities, visited in the four months’ tour. As a mere manipulator Mr. Bedford has been eminently successful. If these photographs had been taken at home with none of the excitement and unforeseen difficulties of travel in the known conditions of our own climate, Mr. Bedford could hardly have been more successful than in the large majority of these photographs. He has, by judicious “exposure” and perfect control of “developing” processes and chemicals employed, overcome the difficulty of giving the middle tint better than we have hitherto seen in photographs from Eastern subjects, in which the contrasts of light and shade are usually so violent. Breadth and detail are combined in the happiest and most effective manner. The minutest hieroglyphic and other details are not lost by radiation in the lights or swallowed up by the intensity of the darks. The photographs, indeed, probably present more than could be detected by the unaided eye on the blinding sands of Egypt and Syria. Mr. Bedford has, moreover, shown much artistic taste in the choice of the point of view. The series opens with twelve views of the streets, the citadel, the new palace, and the beautiful arabesque mosques and fountains of Cairo. One of these is an interior view of the mosque of Sultan Hassan. There are also two photographs of the tombs of the Memlooks. At Gheezeh we have, of course, the great and lesser Pyramids, the Sphinx, and the excavated temple at its feet, which we have described in another column. We are then taken up the Nile to the extreme point of the journey, at the first cataract, and Philae with its very elegant temples, colonnades, propylea or gateways, and plumed palms. Thence we descend the river to the remarkably perfect remains at Edfou, and then to the stupendous ruins on both sides of the sacred river—of Thebes, the temples, and hall of columns of Karnac, the Memnonium, the colossi of the plain, and many other scenes which we engraved recently in illustration of his Royal Highness’s tour; the temple-palace of Medeenet Haboo, and the ruins of the Christian church, and the great propylon, &c., of Luxor. Denderah is the last place in Egypt given. The views of the Holy Land and Syria are equally numerous, and many of them are less familiar. The localities presented are Jaffa (the ancient Joppa), Upper Beth-Horon, Gibeon, Jerusalem (of which there are seventeen views), Bethlehem, Bethany, Mar Saba, with its convent; Nairnlus, Sebaste (the ancient Samaria), the Sea of Tiberias, Kahn Minyen (the reputed side of Capernaum), Banias and the Chapel of St. George, Hasbeiya, the scene of the late massacres; and Damascus, with its Greek church and Christian quarter, its mosques and minarets. A photograph is given of the ancient Pentateuch, preserved at Nabulus or Nablous, which is said to be the oldest book in the world. The Samaritan sect who inhabit this neighbourhood is certainly the most ancient in existence; they have worshipped in the same sanctuary for nearly twenty-five centuries. Their Pentateuch is a manuscript on a parchment roll, which they reverently keep, like the Jews, in a richly-embroidered cover and within a brass case; and they preserve the tradition that it was written by the great-grandson of Aaron. The strongest proof of its extreme antiquity is that it is written in the ancient Hebrew characters used before the introduction of the alphabet employed by Ezra after the captivity. Hasbeiya and the Christian quarter at Damascus bear the traces of the frightful devastation committed in the massacres of the Maronites nearly two years since. One photograph taken from an elevated point shows some scores of unroofed houses. Nothing conveys a higher idea of the magnificence of ancient architecture than the stupendous remains, the vast blocks of granite, and the rich and elaborate carvings on the ruins of Baalbec. One of several photographs of Baalbec shows the western end of the outer wall of the Temple of the Sun, with the immense stones, three of which, at about 20ft. from the ground, measure each 60ft. in length and 12ft. in height and thickness. After Baalbec we have Beyrout, Tripoli, Lebanon, the seaports of Dalmatia and Albania, Durazzo, Corfu, Rhodes, Patmos, and Smyrna. At Constantinople Mr. Bedford was very industrious, bringing home views of the city from the Seraskah Tower, of the Mosque of St. Sophia, the Obelisk of Theudosius, the Fountain of the Seraglio, and the splendid new Palace of the Sultan. There is also a similar series of Athenian views. Some of the photographs contain portraits of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales and suite; but these are not the most successful, from causes probably beyond the photographer’s control. The collection is altogether of extraordinary interest and instructiveness.”]


“Exhibitions: H. R. H. the Prince of Wales’ Tour in the East, Photographically Recorded by Francis Bedford.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 9:171 (Aug. 1, 1862): 288. [Exhibition at the German Gallery, London.]


“Entremets: Photography at the Royal Dramatic College Fete.” and “The ‘Powerful’ Lecture on Photography, by Professor Toole, F.R.A.“ BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 9:171 (Aug. 1, 1862): 295-296. [Everybody having fun – “Prof. Toole” and “Mr. Bedford” mentioned as an important part of the festivities.]


“Mr. Bedford’s Exhibition of Photographs (taken by command) of the Tour of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:124. (Aug. 15, 1862): 102-103. [“There are many reasons why this exhibition should receive at our hands, and also at the hands of photographers generally, a most cordial and appreciative welcome; and amongst these, not the least is the great meritoriousness of the collection as chefs-d’oeuvre of the photographic art under the greatest difficulties. We well remember the predictions of the probable failure of the expedition, and how positively it was stated that the hurry and pressure of a Royal tour would utterly disarrange the necessary neatness and care which is requisite, especially to such a photographer as Mr. Bedford, whose works have hitherto had those characteristics almost to a proverb. How all these vaticinations have been falsified, it will be our duty further on to point out. But a still more important point appears to present itself to us in connexion with this collection; and that is the entire triumph of photography as a branch of the fine arts, and the complete refutation of that prejudice and narrow-mindedness which would class it as purely mechanical. Singularly enough, at the very time when five gentlemen, acting as Commissioners, in Her Majesty’s name, for the management of the International Exhibition, were disputing the right of photography to enter its proper class, Her Majesty, with that keen and discriminating good sense which has always marked her, commands (happily for photography) Mr. Bedford to attend in the Royal suite, to record with the pencil of light the tour of His Royal Highness. To those who still maintain that photography is purely a mechanical art, we recommend most heartily a visit to this exhibition, and whilst there, let them disabuse their minds, by carefully examining Nos. 20, 38, 39, 68, 97, 105, and 106. Out of these we can only speak of one, viz. (20) “Philae, the Hypraethral Temple, commonly called Pharaoh’s Bed, and small chapel.” This is probably the most complete picture in the series. In artistic arrangement, there is nothing that the most fastidious and hypercritical could object to; and as a photograph it contains such infinite variety of detail, such an amount of half-tones, clearness, and indeed everything that goes to make a good photograph. That Mr. Bedford, in executing this collection, has put out his best efforts, and has in every -way done all that he could to enhance his own reputation, there can be but little doubt; but we at the same time think that he has, especially under recent circumstances, done all he can to raise the art which he so much loves, and has done so much to promote, above the unworthy cavils which have been urged against it. If we are right in our surmises, we have just to congratulate him on his success, and then thank him. In examining this collection for critical purposes, we have a formidable difficulty to encounter; and that is, that there is such a uniformity of excellence in all the subjects that, if we were to enter too largely into detail, it would result in a tedious reiteration of praise. To obviate this, we must be content to speak of classes of subjects, and that only in a general way. The figure-groups, which are few in number, are well arranged and carefully executed: Nos. 34 and 84 have a special value as including in each a portrait of the Prince. Of the landscapes, with one or two exceptions, it is impossible to speak too highly. We have, for another purpose, already enumerated above a number of works. In these and many others, we feel that there is a truly poetic rendering of the ruins of past ages. Silent though they be, they speak to us, in their solemn and deserted grandeur, of a past civilization, a past power, and a past wealth; they speak to us, in their carved columns, pillars, and friezes, of all that has been great and glorious, more eloquently and more forcibly than anything which the words of a ready writer could convey to us in poetry or in prose. The feeling of utter blankness and desolation which is expressed in many of these views, is often very much heightened by the artistic introduction of figures, which at the same time enables us to more fully appreciate the height and grandeur of these piles. No description, however vivid, could ever convey the feeling of desolated grandeur as shown in (28) “General view of the Temple of Karnak,” and again, in (97) “Damascus, part of the Straight Street, in the Christian Quarter.” In the architectural views which are here exhibited there is a marvellous stereoscopic effect, produced of course by the wonderful perfection of the half-tones which Mr. Bedford has succeeded in obtaining. In this lies a great part of the charm of the pictures. Comparisons are proverbially odious; but we cannot help contrasting these views with those which have preceded them; and in doing so, we must say that they are by far the best that have ever been done of similar subjects. Probably this is in a great measure attributable to the introduction of skies, which, whether produced naturally or artificially, undoubtedly add immensely to the artistic effect of these pictures. We have none of those hard skylines so noticeable in Oriental photographs. In the Grecian views, more especially the copies of the friezes, there is wonderful perfection of detail. We must not omit to call attention to (79) “The Ancient Samaritan Pentateuch,” which is apparently copied with great fidelity, and must be of interest to the linguist. Of the more modern views we need say nothing more than that they are in every respect worthy of Mr. Bedford. Shortly after the opening of the exhibition, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales visited it, with the Hon. R. Meade, Major Teesdale, Colonel Keppel, and Dr. Stanley—a compliment which was, certainly, in every way deserved. As a record of the tour, the series is most valuable; and we doubt not that many persons will be desirous of having copies of these productions. We wish the publication every success. Before concluding, we should say that this collection is not a rechauffe of what has already been done before by other photographers. The facilities afforded by the passport of Royalty have enabled Mr. Bedford to obtain views never before done, and not again likely to be done, except under somewhat similar circumstances; so that there is a real value attaching to a large number of these photographs.”]


“The ‘Times’ on Photography at the International Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:124. (Aug. 15, 1862): 109-111. [“There was, as usual, a large proportion of country excursionists, whom the Great Western alone are now bringing up at the rate of 7000 a day. These country visitors do really go as far towards seeing the whole contents of the building as any human beings can in a one-day’s inspection. They are not ” among-‘ the earliest arrivals; they form the early arrivals themselves, coming in en masse the instant the doors are opened, and only leaving with the last. They penetrate every court, gallery, and nook, even to that least visited and least known place of all within the precincts of the building—the tower devoted to the exhibition of photography and education. Both these classes are far better worth a visit than many others which receive more notice. The visitor will find the staircase which gives access to them in the centre tower, between the picture-galleries over the entrance from the Cromwell Road. Photography may be said to be an entirely new class since 1851; indeed, the art itself can scarcely be said to have existed at that time, if we compare it with its now universal spread. It is true we had then the Daguerreotype and the Talbottype, the former the only process sufficiently rapid to take portraits, and the latter only suited to views and objects admitting of long exposure to the camera. We all remember the very beautiful specimens of both these processes exhibited in the building in Hyde Park. They were, however, few in number, and exhibited as mere adjuncts of the philosophical instruments. In 1851 Archer invented the collodion process ; and this has given rise to the marvellous development of the art of late years. The Daguerreotype, however exquisite in its details (probably even now unsurpassed by any process), bad an unpleasant leaden hue, and gave a ghastly appearance to the picture. The Talbottype, owing to the negative being on paper, was subject to all the imperfections of texture; and though, when great care was bestowed on the manipulation, charming pictures were produced, the art had no commercial value, and it remained in the hands of a very few amateurs. The Exhibition of 1851 showed what was doing; for hitherto the workers had carried on their labours without knowing what others were employed upon; and this, combined with Archer’s invention, gave a great impulse to the art. The Society of Arts established and held in the Adelphi the first photographic exhibition; and this led to the formation of the Photographic Society of London, the parent of the innumerable photographic societies existing all over the kingdom. By the collodion process the extremest rapidity was obtained, the imperfection of the texture of the paper got rid of, and the power of multiplying copies to any extent, at a cheap rate, was achieved. Hence photography at once took a commercial standing, and photographers multiplied in all directions. With this the adaptation of the art to an infinite variety of purposes rose up in all directions. Mr. Charles Vignoles was, it is believed, the first to turn it to account for engineering purposes. Having large works in Russia, he had photographs sent him periodically of their progress, and copies were also sent to the Emperor Nicholas. Such reports could not be •’ cooked,” and the Emperor saw literally with his own eyes what was doing. Astronomers have turned the art to account; and Mr. Warren De la Rue this year has received the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society —the highest honour it can bestow—for the perfection to which he has brought the art in this direction, and for the valuable addition to science which he has made by its aid. The Commissioners for the present Exhibition seemed to have been puzzled in what class to place it, and at last decided to give it a class to itself; and fearing to give it a position in Section IV. (Fine Arts), placed it in Section II., as a sort of branch of philosophical instruments. This gave great offence to the lovers of the art; and the council of the Photographic Society of London, whose assistance had been invoked by the Commissioners, after a long correspondence, flatly refused to give as a body any aid whatever in the matter. Some few persons having at heart the interest of the Exhibition and of their art, and not wishing that English photography should be imperfectly shown, took the matter up, and a committee was formed. The result will show, notwithstanding the very inadequate space which the Commissioners have been able to allot for the display of the art, that British photography need fear no comparison with its Continental rivals. The landscapes of Bedford, Mudd, Robinson, the Earl of Caithness, Vernon Heath, Lady Jocclyn, Cundall and Downes, and a host of others, attest a supremacy in the art which, we venture to assert, very few, if any, Continental rivals will dispute. C. Thurston Thompson and Caldesi show gigantic photographs of the cartoons of Raffaelle, which are wonderful as masterpieces of manipulation. In portraits, the well-known names of Williams, Claudet, Mayall, Lock and Whitfield, Mayer, Dolamore and Bullock, Maull and Polyblank, &c., as exhibitors, give assurance of that branch of the art being well represented. Their coloured photographs are in reality miniatures, bring so-worked by hand as to leave no trace of the photograph. Doubts at one time existed as to whether these should be admitted in this class; but, inasmuch as they are founded on the photograph, it was thought desirable to allow their introduction. Photography has completely destroyed miniature painting proper; hence it was but fair that the new art of converting photographs into miniatures should be represented. Very eh arming and artistic are some of the specimens shown; but photographs these are not. One of the great drawbacks in photography has been the liability of the specimens to fade or change colour, and sometimes absolutely disappear; hence great efforts have been made by chymists and photographers to get some process in manipulation which should defeat this enemy of the art. The result has been that photographs, when carefully and honestly prepared, and preserved with ordinary care, are now very fairly permanent—probably as permanent as a water-colour drawing. Many trials have been made to produce in printers’ ink or carbon a print from a photograph, which would thus have all the permanency of an engraving, and some very charming results have been produced; but hitherto—probably from expense, uncertainty, or difficulty in manipulation—none have come into general use. Negretti and Zambra exhibit transparent photographs on glass, similar to those well-known productions of Ferrier of Paris, than which none were thought finer till Negretti and Zambra entered the field against them. Enlarged photographs are shown by Claudet and ! others, which are life-sized, and some of them coloured; the latter, however, can scarcely be called photographs—they are simply a result of photography. Paul Pretsch, Pouncey, John Field, and F. Joubert contribute specimens of this class. Colonel Sir Henry James, director of the Ordnance Survey, shows specimens of a very valuable adaptation of the art, by which the Government saves many thousands a year in the operations of his department, in the reduction, enlarging, and printing of maps and plans. It is termed “photozincography,” and the results are extremely beautiful and interesting. Sir Henry shows adaptations of it to the production of fac-similes of ancient MS.; and one of a page of Domesday Book is shown. The photograph, by a simple and cheap process, is transferred to a zinc plate, whence any number of copies can be taken off by the ordinary plate printing-press. F. Joubert exhibits a series of very beautiful pictures burnt in on glass, a marvellous adaptation of the photographic art in an absolutely new direction; and hero perfect permanency is obtained, at least so long as the glass will last. By a pure photographic process he produces on the glass, in ceramic colours, a picture, which by exposure to heat in the furnace becomes burnt in like any other picture on glass or china. By a careful and artistic manipulation he has been able to produce effects in several colours. The process has been perfected, and a cheap and artistic ornamentation of our windows, whether in portraits of our friends, landscapes of familiar scenes, architectural objects, or statuary, is brought within the means of the many. Mingled with the photographs, and closely packed on the small floor-space allotted for their display, are the instruments and appliances used in the art. In lenses, on which the artist is so greatly dependent, there has been great progress made since 1851. Ross and Dalmeyer show some very fine specimens— marvellous proofs of a combination of mathematical theory with the skilful development of the practical optician. Horne and Thornethwaite, veterans in the field of photography, Murray and Heath, Bland and Co., attest what the English can do as makers of apparatus. All sides show a host of contrivances thoroughly unintelligible to the uninitiated, but seemingly contrived with great ingenuity for extemporizing a laboratory, workshop, and dark room, wherever the labours of the photographer may carry him. Ono firm shows specimens of albuminized paper, an article much in use by the photographer, and it is said that this firm alone (and it is only one of a legion of others) uses for this purpose annually half a million of hens’ eggs. Class 14 has a high position in the building, and, though only to be reached by overcoming the labour of a long staircase, will, we venture to say, well repay the toil of the undertaking.”]



“Echoes of the Week, and the International Exhibition.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 41:1164 (Sat., Sept. 13, 1862): 283. [“Those so well-abused One of the most admirable and interesting exhibitions now open in London is that of the photographic pictures taken by Mr. Francis Bedford during his tour in the East, on which, by command, he accompanied his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, and which are now on view at the German Gallery in Old Bond-street. Panoramas, sketches, pictures, and photographs of the Holy Land are no novelties in this country, and are honourably connected with the names of Roberts, Bartlett, Bonomi, and others; but the circumstances under which Mr. Bedford’s tour was undertaken give additional interest to his collection of photographs. We may remark, en passant, that another artist of eminence, although in a widely-different style, is now occupying himself in Oriental fields. Mr. Buckstone, of the Haymarket, has commissioned the famous scene-painter, Mr. William Telbin, to proceed to the East to follow the scarcely-effaced footsteps of the Prince of Wales, for the purpose of making sketches illustrative of his Royal Highness’s tour in Syria and Palestine, which will be reproduced in a panorama for a grand spectacle founded on the Story of “Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia.” Dr. Johnson will himself officiate as chorus, and, in his immortal snuff-coloured suit and bushy wig, deliver a sonorous commentary on the adventures of Rassolas, who, dramatically speaking, is to be taken in hand by Mr. William Brough.”]



“Printing and Bookbinding in the International Exhibition.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 41:1166 (Sat., Sept. 27, 1862): 350-351. [“Typography proper—at least the produce of the typefounders’ art and appliances of the printing-office— are not things to tell well in an exhibition upon the desultory visitor, deprived of one of his senses by the groaning of organs and braying of brass bands; not even have they the seductions of form or colour to attract. Printing, that magic power of modern times, so potent as a leader of public opinion, so essential to our wellbeing and development, is worthily represented in class 28, north gallery, next the eastern dome, where our founders show type and printed specimens of good and durable character, well suited to the wants of the newspaper, book, and general offices, the whole of the contributors wisely avoiding a display of decorative printing, in which we are not great, our pattern-books being sadly discounted by the volumes from Paris, Vienna, and Berlin; indeed, here the taste in book-printing and book-binding is rather to retrograde, to seek in old forms and styles that have a beauty, but tell not of progress. Old type, quaint cuts, toned paper, and Renaissance bindings are the order of the day, exhausting a great deal of talent in their production, or rather reproduction- affectations that ought not to be encouraged. It is by improving upon the good English type of the present bit by bit, and the bringing good art to bear upon the ornamental parts, that printing will be advanced. Besley and Co., Caslon, Figgins, the Patent Type Company of London; Stephenson, Blake, and Co., of Sheffield; and Miller and Richards, of Edinburgh, all show, effectively and well, plain specimens, which include the Times, the Illustrated London News, the “Official Catalogue,” and one or two other severe tests for type. Of printers’ furniture—that is to say, rules, cases, frames, and wood letters—Bonnewell has a large display, and Ullmer a small one. Scott shows a collection of box-wood, as prepared for the draughtsman and engraver. Stereotype, electrotype, engraved and prepared plates, copper, steel, zinc, and pewter, brass type, and bookbinders’ tools, are all to be found here. Of foreign types, the specimens sent by the Imprimerie Impériale at Paris must take the lead, so complete is it in all the forms known, including signs and hieroglyphics. Derriey, of Paris, also has a nice show of type, delicate and in good taste. Austria and Prussia like- wise show; but in connection with printing, the concentration of labour upon one department or branch of profession being less common abroad than with us, many establishments doing everything, one or two even to the fabrication of their own paper. But to continue with our exhibitors of printing surfaces. We have but one wood-engraver—Leighton and Leighton—showing a collection of blocks and transfers below, and impressions of nice engravings above, demonstrating the ordinary method, old as the days of Albert Durer and Bewick, who doubtless had their dreams of metallic relief to supersede the labour of the engraver, as shown by Mr. Linton in his process of keriography, which, though brilliant and artistic in the hands of a master, is speculative in the highest degree for general use. [In the awards of the juries this process receives reward “for engraving,” being in truth exactly the contrary, a method to supersede engraving, showing the justice of the decisions arrived at.] Here, perhaps, may be noticed the very ingenious method (not new, for it was shown in Paris, in 1855, by a French exhibitor) of enlarging and reducing engravings employed by the Electro Block Company, celebrated neither for their blocks nor electrotypes, but for their power of making great or small impressions from engravings by the elastic properties of indiarubber, especially valuable where a few copies are required, as in the instance of Mr. John Leech’s sketches in oil now exhibiting, they having been taken from woodcuts in Punch stretched by this method and painted over. From France we have a process of obtaining relief and incised plates from engravings, drawings, &c, shown by Dulos. In the Austrian Court are lithographs transferred to copper, and chemically treated to become surface blocks, by Giessondorf, of Vienna. In this battle of the processes both artists and engravers take part, the one trying to do without the aid of the other, as may be seen in an engraving from Flaxman exhibited by Mr. John Leighton—an engraved photograph on wood, with which the draughtsman has had nothing to do. Photography and printing surfaces may be seen to great advantage in the display of Sir H. James, of the Ordnance Department at Southampton, who shows one of Hogarth’s engravings, “The Election,” reduced and engraved by the action of light, producing a repetition that would puzzle a connoisseur to make out. Messrs. J. and J. Leighton also show an old print by the same process in their case of restorations. In nature-printing we have tangible objects reproduced without the aid of draughtsman, engraver, or photographer, Nature doing all but print for herself, as may be seen in the beautiful transcripts of ferns and seaweeds by the late Mr. Henry Bradbury—a principle in part taken advantage of by Mr. Wallis in his specimens of autotypography, a process by which he is enabled to impress in a plate of soft metal an artist’s own drawing, even to his washes and delicate renderings, provided they be done upon the transparent medium supplied by him, somewhat as drawing upon tracing-paper, on easy and facile method, requiring no reversing of the subject or writing. From typefounding and printers’ surfaces to specimens of typography the transition is not great, commencing with the most opulent printing establishment in the world, the Bank of England, who expose their own notes, both English and Indian, in tempting array. They are of all denominations, printed and numbered by steam power from surface blocks in imitation of the old copperplate script—the most ephemeral, most valuable, and most coveted productions of the press, made but to be destroyed—to confound the forger rather than develop the noble art they grace. Of samples of printing contributed by a printer, the well-arranged frame of Mr. Clay is the only specimen here—the pages bearing evidence of nicely-balanced art direction. Mr. Watts, also a printer, exhibits not so much as such as the owner of founts of type curious and rare. His one hundred repetitions of the text, “And how hear we every man in our own tongue wherein we were born ?” show the wide range of his types, and the dialects from zone to zone. Messrs. Bradbury and Evans and W. and R. Chambers come next—actual bookmakers —combining as they both do the offices of printers and publishers. Mr. Austin, of Hertford, has printed some creditable works, with borders in gold and colours, Persian in style; and educational works in Sanscrit and other Oriental characters. Of the two houses exhibiting Bibles, her Majesty’s printers are the largest — holding as they do the patent right to print the authorised version, a right that has not degenerated into a monopoly, the Holy Scriptures, perhaps, being the cheapest book produced. Of Messrs. Baxter’s productions, their biblical works in all languages are as good as the width of the demand and wants of the subject will allow, being produced for a superior class of students and polyglot readers. Mr. Mackenzie, of Glasgow, has a well-printed Bible, composed by machinery and illustrated by photographs. In England it is the practice to divide and subdivide trades, publishers taking the rank of producers of the highest order, as may be seen by the show of Longman, who exhibit “Macaulay’s Lays” and “Cat’s Emblems;” or Murray, who shows “Milman’s Horace” and “Lockhart’s Ballads.” We have named these books because they are good, and are displayed. Messrs. Black, McMillan, Bell and Daldy, Low, Trübner, and Dulau, all show their best works, to describe which would be like writing a description of daylight—things to be seen every day and everywhere, and yet wanting to complete the vast encyclopaedia, to demonstrate to foreigners what is doing. In France, in the gallery next the nave, will be found their display of books. That of M. Henri Plon, showing the produce of an establishment where nearly everything is executed; as also MM. Mama and Sons, of Tours, who here display their chef-d’oeuvre of 1855, “La Tourraine,” printed upon vellum—a beautiful sample of engraving and typography, executed by a provincial house, which shows books and bindings from the cheapest to the most costly. Of other exhibitors, M. Paul Dupont, of Paris—who works his large establishment on a co-operative system where all to some extent participate in the profits—shows a folio collection of French histories and other fine works. Renouard has many works in the fine arts, geography, and history ; Dideron, works on archaeology ; Parin, of Lyons, some good specimens of typography in old type; Charpentier, of Nantes, a good illustrated book on Normandy; M. Mallet-Bachelier, many scientific books; and Ernest Bourdin, a first-rate atlas. B. Bance shows architecture, including the works of “Violet le Duc.” Pagnerre has not a good display; Claye many of his illustrated books; and Charpentier books of a classical and varied character. Of the books of M. Crumer, his livres de luxe and their lavish illustration—well known from the time of his “Paul and Virginia,” reprinted here—to the costly and beautiful illuminated books of latter years the display is fine. Of Austrian specimens the exhibition is not large, several works being in the educational department, including that magnificent specimen of typography in colours, a “Missale Romanum,” shown by H. Reiss, of Vienna, a truly fine book; also a copy of a translation of “Paradise Lost,” printed in Armenian, at the Mechitarists’ College, Venice, a duplicate of which may be seen in the Italian Court. With mention of the house of Zamarski and Dittmarsch, who send many ordinary-printed books, we pass into Prussia, or rather the Zollverein, there to find a collective exhibit—one of the largest being that of Trowitzsch, of Berlin, who sends specimens of type-founding and printing, rather coarse in quality beside those of R. Duncker, of the Imprimerie Royale, and his goodly array of 4tos. The works of the Great Frederick, and the Grand Prussian Bible: the letter and pattern book sent by this exhibitor is fine and classic in style. A. Duncker, also of Berlin, sends some fine works, including “König Friedrich’s Zeit,” glorious drawings on wood by Menzel; and R. Friedlander and Sons some old books, reproduced, we suspect, by the anaestatic process. Of typography, Leipzig, of course, contributes specimens, Brockhaus showing the products of his extensive office, where everything, from the compilation to the completion of a volume, is performed in a fair and substantial manner; not, of course, in luxurious taste, but good, very good. The same, also, may be said of Giesecke and Devrient, of that famous town, who send all sorts of specimens—books, engraved plates, ornamental printing and embossing, and of first-rate excellence; whilst from the capital, Dresden, we have from C. Meinhold and Sons four volumes of capital oblong woodcuts of events in German history, and many other books. From Stuttgardt little of importance comes; though from Brunswick excellent scientific works are sent by Vieweg and Sons. Belgium sends but few specimens of printing; M. Hayez, of Brussels, printer to the Academy, contributing some good quartos; as does also M. Grouse, and M. Tireher a history of glass-painting. Italy sends some specimens; as do the Portuguese, Norwegians, and Turks—none being very remarkable for style. Those from China and Japan are very curious and instructive, and would well repay the attention of the careful student; the quaint beauty of their block books, printed in colours, is something extraordinary. But to conclude with our typographic section, we finish in the Netherlands. Holland, the home of so much that was excellent in early printing, sends little or nothing to be commended; a book or two from Leydon, in Chinese and Japanese; whilst Haarlem, which claims to be the cradle of the art and home of Jacob Costor, sends a few droll specimens of type worthy of the last century, and a large frame in which is locked up the facade of a building—het paviljoen te haarlem—done in printers’ rules and ornaments; a wonderful piece of pain, not worthy the candle burned over it—a work that ought to be hung with that of M. Moulinet, a French compositor, who has done a statue of Guttenburg and other heroes in “leads,” that look strikingly like engravings—a difficulty overcome, or nearly, and that is all. Having disposed of the principal typographic works, we will devote a few lines to the display of impressions from incised plates, in so far as they come within the province of class 28, a class bordered by a great deal of debatable ground, literary and artistic. In plate-printing Messrs. M’Queen show some of the choicest line engravings of late years, well printed; also, Chardon, of Paris, in the French department. This art, old and primitive in its manipulation, is, nevertheless, important, the engraver owing much of his effect to the printer for its development. In the display of Messrs. Bradbury and Wilkinson are many engraved plates, impressions of bank notes, bills of exchange, and postage labels—a marked advance upon anything done here before. Their large exhibition diploma is excellent; whilst for use the copper plate coated with steel, exhibited beside it, will be apparent when it is known that by this process a soft engraved plate may be made hard and durable, the covering of iron to be renewed and washed away at pleasure. Of the nature prints here we have spoken before. Not so the machine engraving, or effects produced by the “guilloche engine,” a most difficult thing to use with effect in connection with art or hand work. Of postage-stamps the French send the plates of Barre, and also those of Hulot, who likewise sends that of the bank-note of France. In chromatic printing lithography will first have our attention, not because it has a priority of invention, but because it was brought to perfection earlier than chromo-typography, having made vast strides since 1851, when the Austrians caused a sensation with a few brown transcripts of still life. All our lithographers make creditable displays, Messrs. Hanhart, in black, white, and colour, doing good work, particularly in rendering representations of still life, their birds’ -nests and flowers making the walls most charming and refreshing to behold. So good now are our chromatic prints become that artists do not hesitate to sign them as faithful transcripts of the drawings. Vincent Brooks also has a varied and excellent display, imitating equally well the old cracked oil picture, the chalk drawing, or the water colour, for which he deserves all praise. Rowney and Co. also have some nice works of a pleasing character; whilst behind, at a stall redolent in brown, and blue, and gold, is the show of Day and Son, not very strong in pictorial chromatics, but making up in illuminated books, displayed upon a counter before a screen covered with private portraits, in black and white, the property of the Queen. For chromo and other lithography of a commercial character—as plans, documents, &c.— the frames of Maclure, Standidge, and Faulkner, of Manchester, bear good evidence of the useful; whilst Underwood, of Birmingham, in one specimen of colour, a corn-field, after V. Cole, shows the provinces alive to excellence in the reproductions of pictorial effects and landscapes we are in advance of other nations; though in renderings of the figure, and particularly in the imitation of illuminations and miniature drawings, either in black or colour, greatly in the rear of France and Germany, From this latter country—the home of Senefelder, the inventor of the art—the display is good. Zemarski and Dittmarsch exhibiting two of large size in colour—Christ taken from the Cross and to the Sepulchre–with others. Reiffenstein and Roesch also expose one of much merit for texture and rendering, “Boys stoning a Scarecrow,” with others, in black and white. Hartinger and Son, again, exhibit several, good in manipulation but crude and hot in colour. All are well drawn, the Viennese seeming better in that respect, even unto the mercantile work sent by Seiger, than we are. Again, in the Bavarian Court, the large oil prints by Becker, of Munich, “The Four Seasons,” though hot and brown, are well drawn. From Leipzig we have several mural maps in oil colours, most durable and good, sent by S. C. Hinrichs. From Paris Lemercicr sends a good display of lithography in all styles; but the most remarkable thing shown is a full-length portrait of the Queen, about the size of life, printed from a stone quarried in France. Of the chromo-lithographs the illuminated work is better than the pictorial, a remark that may be applied to some very beautiful chromo-lithographs sent by Mathieu, perfectly marvellous miniature renderings of figures and ornaments for a small book of prayer; unnoticed by the jury. From chromo-lithography to chromo-typography the gulf is not wide; indeed, to a casual observer, the results are the same—printing in colours—the spectator caring little how it is produced, from stone or wood, provided the price be moderate, a thing that could not have been but for surface-printing and the steam-engine rendering an old principle rapid, enabling Messrs. Leighton Brothers (who make a display in the north gallery) to produce pictures, truly for the million, at a moderate cost, many of them being given gratis with this Journal, thus placing pictorial art in distant homes all over the world, in nooks and comers where it would never other- wise penetrate. In the nicely-arranged show of Mr. Dickes, commendable in many respects, some beautiful specimens are exhibited, printed by machinery, thus following the steps and experience of others. We regret not seeing a display by Mr. G. Baxter, to whose energies the public have been much indebted. From France we have but two small specimens of chromo- typography—portraits of the Emperor and Empress, by Dunaud-Narat, hung so high that it is impossible to see them. Next to British colour-printing, in no art have we made greater progress than in bookbinding, particularly “publishers’ bookbinding;” that has had the benefit of first-rate art, publishers being enabled to devote a sum of money to the decoration of a new work of which thousands are to be struck off, where the extra binder, with his hand- tools, is obliged to rest upon old set types and patterns, often done, as far as art is concerned, infinitely better 200 years ago—Renaissance patterns that find plagiarists in more than one expositor, as may be seen by visitors to the Museum at South Kensington, upon volumes sent by such secondhand booksellers as Toovey, of London, and Craig, of Edinburgh. Of the few extra bookbinders who have not been shackled by old traditions may be named Zaehnsdorf, who should stand first in our alphabet for workmanship and finish, but little on the British side being comparable with his. The Dore’s “Dante,” a noble book (the linings of green morocco, tooled in gold), very perfect; a “Poets of the Nineteenth Century,” in olive morocco, with a good Grolier, a beautiful volume. “The Sakoontola,” though well finished, is not be happy in the ornamentation as the “Etude sur S. Champin,” nice and cleanly tooled on sage morocco. Of the calf books by this exhibitor these “blind” tooled are bright and sharp as it is possible; in fact the whole display, though small, is first-rate. The books sent by Mr. Riviere, though sombre in hue, are nice in design and well tooled—but few of them, we think, having been specially produced for the exhibition—sage and olive morocco covers predominating. The work is particularly solid and good. For novelty of design and execution, combined with colour, no one makes so good a display as Messrs. J. and J. Leighton—not alone in covers, but in the restoration and completion of old volumes; their fault, or virtue, seeming to be in a love of the quaint and original. Their large illuminated “Oxford Album,” in russia, is bold and very good; like two copies of Dore’s “Dante,” one in red morocco and another is black—with the serpent and apple illuminated upon the side—the latter very choice and Venetian in aspect, a poem in itself. A “Moore” also, with its Irish harp, and a “Tennyson,” richly tooled, breathe of the same spirit; also a Rogers’ “Italy,” truly Italian; a valuable original copy of Jacob “Cat’s” works, in folio, tooled in a pane pattern; some calf, vellum, and richly illuminated books, showing the great resources of this house to obtain excellence, not the less to be commended because not painfully laboured. In most of the other examples of bookbinding on the British side we have the other extreme—nothing novel, all the patterns being copies of old forms, executed with a painful expenditure of labour, as if the rich mine of art-manufacture was exhausted and nothing more could be done. Of Mr. Bedford’s display his work is excellent and good, the forwarding solid and durable, though in forms and colours not remarkable for new combinations, except in the case of the fine folio volume designed by Mr. Shaw, F.S.A., much to be commended for its disposition of parts, being quite the reverse of a Louis Quinze folio, which, apart from its appropriateness to a book of the nineteenth century, is a warning of what to avoid, the “beef-bone and chequer” ornament being happily on the wane. The library calf books of this exhibitor are very nice. Mr. Holloway, we must say, is more judicious in his ornament than the last-named exhibitor, showing more leather and colour. His quarto volume, illuminated, though heavy in some of its parts, is very nice. For insides he is not to compare with Chatelin, or for precision with Zachnsdorf. Of M. Chatelin’s display many good words may be said, the exteriors being novel and pleasing. They are sharply forwarded; the tooling, especially that upon silk, admirably worked, though we cannot praise the taste that leads to the delineation of the human figure on the side of a book. That on the “Belle Inconnue” would be better unknown; it is a difficulty nearly overcome, but not vanquished. Rammage, of Edinburgh, has a nice illuminated side, well worked, but of old design again. Of the display of Wright, a line Grolier upon purple morocco is the best; his other books are coarse and heavy. Bemrose, of Derby, deserves great praise for his attempts at novelty of design, though not always successful. Potts and Bolton have some good work, though placed rather out of the way. But, after all is said and done, in extra bookbinding we do not excel the French, or excite their admiration by our blind adherence to conventional traditions. In clothwork this order is just reversed. In this we have created a style the admiration and wonder of all foreigners—toile Anglaise being known for its excellence of workmanship and taste over the whole world, a thing greatly due to the efforts of such men as Mr. Owen Jones and Luke Limner, aided by firms like Leighton, Son, and Hodge. This may be seen by their varied and excellent display, the large size of some of their blocks, the quality and rapidity with which are worked the adaptation of new materials, more than one being worthy of the highest praise apart from the introduction of steam power and development of trade, on which thousands are dependent. Very many old friends that have graced the drawing-rooms of polite society will here be recognised with pleasure; bindings that we see in the shop windows of Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and all the capitals where they can boast a bookseller. Messrs. Westleys and Bone are also exhibitors of this class of work, the former displaying good extra books as well, the latter many illuminated and stamped. With a glance at the well- known designs of Mr. John Leighton, to be seen here and all over the building, being borne to every clime on the cover of “The Official Catalogue,” we will quit class 28 in the north gallery, feeling that something has been done in that class since 1851 to indicate the onward march—straw-paper, chromo-typography, and British publishers’ bindings being the most important. But now to France, or rather Paris, to view the case of M. Gruel Englemann, whose works are the very perfection of workmanship and delicate manipulation, making our own look clumsy and coarse, putting us to the shame in everything but design (lavished on a genre France knows not—clothwork). So fine and sharp are they that we— as is always the case with French work—fear their durability in the hands of a less light-handed race. Of the large book in red and dark green, perfect as it is, we could have wished the colours reversed— the primitive put upon the tertiary, and the ornament perfectly flat instead of imitated from a scroll-shield—some of the diapers and harmonies are very choice, the enamels being delicious, the clasping and hinges well disposed, ornamental, and suited to their office. All the books are simple, not overlaid, though some of them depend upon the embroiderer, the goldsmith, the carver, and enameller for their effect. Not so M. Mame, of Tours. He binds his own books in first-rate style, depending alone upon tooled leather for his effects; and very good they are—choice in form, novel, bright, clear, and harmonious in colours; the lines, scrolls, and flowers worked with precision, even into the inside boards and silk lining. To describe the many good works would take more space than we have to spare. A few are less happy than others, but very few. Of Belgic bookbinding we have but one display, that of M. Schavye, of Brussels; well finished and forwarded books, not always to be commended for style, the best, perhaps, being “Catalogue do la Bibliotheque de la Chambre,” a nicely-covered side in red morocco, well tooled; one or two in old style, including a pigskin with the title under horn, in imitation of Low Country binding of the sixteenth century. Of the Austrian books much may be said in favour of the covers, though little in that of the solidity of the volume itself, the sewing and general getting up not being good; the most remarkable feature is their method of modelling and raising the leather, which is afterwards painted and gilded. The most noteworthy are by Habenicht, of Vienna; a missal, with vessica pattern and brass corners, coarse, but with much character; also a folio, in pigskin, with iron or steel ornaments, bold and good; and an album, or solandor-case, with an archangel in raised leather, painted and illuminated. Of the big album in mosaic leather, by Hollinger, of Vienna, whilst it is ingenious, little can be urged in favour of its design or the policy of its author sending two pirated designs, exhibited by Mr. Leighton in 1851. Of Italian bookbinding little can be said, except that it is spongy and only good for a certain way in which forril is used; of German, that it has the soft quality so common in paper bookbinding, though cloth is working its way and gold stamps coming in—Denmark, even, showing good blocking and engraving, ill adapted to the purpose by Clément, of Copenhagen. Russia sends some bookbinding—a sort of raised leather, metal, and mosaic work, good in design, but rather unsuited to the wants of a volume. C. Haig, of St. Petersburg, and A. Kantor, of Warsaw, are the contributors. Portugal sends a specimen by Ferin, of Lisbon, a red morocco volume, tooled in silver and gold, rude and rich in its workmanship, but with some character; and also a blind pattern on calf of much beauty. We need not remark that our criticisms are little guided by the prize awards, so eagerly displayed by the small exhibitors and neglected by the Iarge. How such a bouleversement of affairs as we find in class 28 could have passed the council of chairmen is beyond our comprehension; and we have good reasons for stating that her Majesty’s commissioners do not consider the administration of the juries their least errors, and heartily wish they had treated the whole exhibition as the Fine Arts, as meditated in the first instance.”]


“Minor Topics of the Month. Mr. Bedford’s Photographs.” ART JOURNAL ns 1:10 (Oct. 1862): 211. [“This is the most interesting series of photographs that has ever been brought before the public. There must have been many failures, but nothing can be more beautiful than the precision of these views; they give us that which is masked in pictures, that is, the ground surface, on which most frequently is written ruin and decay. In comparison with these obdurate realities, all pictures of Egypt and the Holy Land are pleasant dreams. We have, for instance, the Vocal Memnon; we are disabused of his being now a monolith; he has been repaired in vulgar piecemeal, at least so he looks here, and he does not look either so human or so mythological as Roberts paints him. Again, the Pyramids appear small, and the ground around them is strewn with a kind of desolation that reminds us the curse lies heavy on every part of the land. The series commences with Cairo, of which there are not less than twelve views. we know not whether the Pasha has seen thoso views; if he have not, he has lost an opportunity of congratulating himself on the contrast presented by the region under his immediate sway with those under the direct dominion of the Porte. From Cairo we proceed to Gizeh, where are shown the Pyramids; after which comes Philae, whereof there are six views, comprehending, of course, the famous Hypnaethral Temple, known as the Bed of Pharaoh. Then follows the Temple of Edfu, a building of the time of the Ptolemies. The figures and names of several of them are commemorated in the sculptures on the pyramidal towers of the gateway, and on the faces of the temple. Thebes supplies not less than nineteen subjects, as the Hall of Columns and other portions of the Temple of Karnak, the Memnonium, the Colossi, the Temple of Medinet Habu, the Temple of Luksur, and the Egyptian subjects, and with the gateway of the Temple of Dendera. The Views in the Holy Land and Syria commence with Joppa, which is followed by seventeen of the most interesting sites in and about Jerusalem, as the Mount of Olives, the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock, the Golden Gate, the Valley of Jehoshaphat, the Garden of Gethsemane, the Monuments of Absalom, James, Zacharias, the Village of Siloam, the Hill of Evil Counsel, &c.; then come Bethany, Mar Saba, Hebron, Nablus, and then Damascus—” O Damascus, pearl of the East, as old as history itself.” The views number one hundred and seventy-two, and in some of them are grouped the Prince of Wales and the distinguished persons in attendance on his Royal Highness. the tour terminates at Malta, and the series is, perhaps, the most interesting ever offered to the Christian and the scholar. We had almost forgotten to mention that the exhibition is held at the German Gallery, in Bond Street.”]


“Antiquarian and Literary Intelligencer. Cambrian Archaeological Association.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Oct. 1862): 445-454. [“The annual meeting of this Association for 1862 took place at Truro, and began on Monday, August 25th, lasting throughout that week….” “…The temporary museum, formed in the Council Chamber of the public buildings at Truro, was unusually rich in rubbings, drawings, and photographs. We understood, indeed, from the gentleman who remained in charge of the museum during the whole week, that the Society had never exhibited so much nor so well before. The photographs comprised the whole of Bedford’s series of views, large as well as stereoscopic, of all the buildings and the natural scenery of North and South Wales and the Marches; and there must have been from 800 to 900 such views in the Welsh department alone. The Cornishmen also exhibited a large collection of excellent photographs; and among them a complete series of the views in the Scilly Islands. Upon enquiry, we were sorry to be informed that this collection, which could never have been previously paralleled in Cornwall, excited not much attention: the ordinary visitors gazed at the photographs with more of vacancy than of astonishment, and asked very few questions about them. Nobody expressed a wish to acquire any of them, though Mr. Bedford had sent down duplicate sets to meet a probable demand. It was much the same with the drawings and rubbings, some of which, such as Professor Westwood’s series of crosses and early inscriptions, were uncommonly fine; the visitors did not understand them. It was the duty as well as the policy of the Association to have instructed the public upon the peculiar merit and value of what was exhibited; and we cannot but think that it would be well for a morning, or else for an evening, to be specially devoted to an examination of the museum under competent guidance, followed by short lectures upon the leading classes of objects by members really competent for the duty….” p. 447.]


“Photography. A Triumph of Photographic Art.” POPULAR SCIENCE REVIEW 2:5 (Oct. 1862): 125-128. [(Francis Bedford; Alfred Brothers (Manchester, England); D. Campbell (Ayr, Scotland); Dallmeyer; R. M. Gordon; Vernon Heath; London School of Photography; James Mudd; Mr. Sidebotham; John Spiller; Mr. Warner (Ross, England); G. Wharton Simpson; Henry White; T. R. Williams; mentioned or discussed.) “…The other works by Mr. Mudd are hanging chiefly on the central screen in the photographic gallery, where they are considerably less liable to be affected by damp, and have consequently preserved all the delicacy and beauty of toning for which the photographs by this gentleman have long been celebrated. The same remark applies to the pictures exhibited by Mr. Vernon Heath; to the views in North Wales, by Mr. Henry White, and by Mr. Sidebotham; to those of Mr. D. Campbell, of Ayr; and likewise to the exquisite landscapes in Madeira, by Mr. R. M. Gordon: none of these disclose the least symptom of fading, and all are placed upon the central screens. In like manner, with regard to the portraits by Mr. T. R. Williams, and to the magnificent series of abbeys and cathedrals by Mr. Francis Bedford, not one of these shows the least indication of fading; but it must be stated that they occupy the more favoured position in the centre of the gallery. A remarkable instance of the formation of mildew is apparent on the leather binding of a book exhibited by Mr. A. W. Bennett, and entitled The Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain, illustrated by Photography.” This book is inclosed within a glass case, and hangs directly in contact with the wall….”


“Photography at the International Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:126. (Oct. 15, 1862): 153-155. [“There is scarcely a class in the Exhibition which does not profess, with more or less of truth, to have its peculiar grievances and hardships. Not one, however, has such just grounds for complaint as the contributors to Class 14 (Photography); and from none have fewer complaints and remonstrances been received. Not that photographers have been at all indifferent to the slights they have received or the way in which their once superb collection has been treated. As a body they were among the first of the many whom the Commissioners unfortunately managed to offend; and their association, therefore, early withdrew from cooperating in bringing about an exhibition which they knew was not only to be located in a place where few would see it, but exposed to such influences as would destroy their chances of successful competition with their foreign brethren. We would venture to say that only a very small percentage of the visitors to the building ever found by their catalogues that there was such a thing as a photographic collection in the Exhibition; and of this small number only a smaller number still have been tempted to scale the weary flights of stairs which give access to the room where the photographs are almost hidden away. For the information of those who may wish to see the little that yet remains worth looking at in this collection, we may state that the room is built above the brick tower of the Cromwell-road entrance—a height very nearly equal to the roof of the nave itself. A worse place than this could not possibly be given to it. The glazed roof, for a long time left unscreened, made the heat here during the summer quite unbearable. The heat peeled the pictures off their mounts, cracked and warped their frames; and the glare of the son’s rays ruined the tints of some of the finest specimens exhibited. Add to this, that the -whole space given was inadequate to the requirements of the class, and that more than half even of this little had to be shared with the maps and school-books of the Education Class. It must give foreigners (if any ever penetrate up here) a curious notion of our ideas on education, to -find that great dolls and cases full of the commonest kinds of children’s toys are thought more worthy of exhibition as educational objects than the artistic and beautiful results of one of the most important scientific and chemical discoveries of the age. It may possibly be due to this state of things that the collection is by no means divided or arranged with proper effect, and that the Catalogue is therefore far from being as good an assistant as the purchaser has a right to expect. Photography in 1851 had no class of its own, and, in fact, was scarcely represented at all, except by a few Daguerreotypes and Talbottypes, which, with their apparatus, were exhibited among philosophical instruments. The collodion process, to which is due the development which has taken place since, was then not known. In the present collection all the photographs, with very few exceptions, are by the collodion process, and include, of course, every variety of specimens of the art—large and small portraits, cartes de visite, landscape – views, instantaneous and otherwise, towns and buildings, stereoscope, and positive transparent pictures on glass. Compared to what might have been expected, only a small number of portraits are exhibited, and of these collections only three call for any remark, viz. those by Mayall, Williams, and Watkins. Mayall very wisely makes every spectator a judge of his perfection in his art by exhibiting the likenesses of such personages as Lord Palmerston, Earl Derby, Mr. Gladstone, and others whose features are familiar. The art with which he has transferred the features and expressions of these statesmen is something almost marvellous even for photography. The portraits of the two first named peers might be set before all photographers as models of the excellence which they should aim at in such works. Mr. Williams, among untouched photographs, only shows one very well-known face—that of Mr. Gladstone, of which we cannot say more than that it is as good a likeness as that taken by Mr. Mayall, with all the additional advantage derivable from Mr. Williams’s exquisite method of printing. His other portraits are chiefly those of less-known individuals; but one has only to look at them to see that the same success has been attained, especially with the likenesses of ladies. Mr. Watkins shows a fine series of portraits of Histoid in all her chief characters. It may be that these have suffered somewhat from exposure; for their printing is scarcely up to the high standard usual with this photographer. In coloured portraits, Claudet and Williams are the chief exhibitors in point of merit. Some of the former’s enlarged portraits are really wonderful efforts, as are also Williams’s photographic portraits, painted in oils, of the late Primate and the Earl of Malmesbury. Some very admirable likenesses, which can neither be said to belong to the plain nor coloured series, are exhibited by Mr. Eastham. These are taken upon opal glass by the tannin process. Several of these, from the peculiarly soft and delicate tone given by the glass, are exceedingly effective. Caldesi is, as usual, first in his photographs from paintings and miniatures. Of views and landscapes there is great variety. The place of honour in this class, whether for the wildest mountain scenery, for towns or buildings, for interiors of grand old minsters, likenesses of quaint old country inns or ivy-covered ruins—in short, for perfection in all that relates to out-door photography in its wildest and highest sense, belongs to Francis Bedford. Many landscape artists show in this collection, each of whom in his own peculiar walk may equal what Bedford does of the same kind in that branch, but he stands alone in being the only one who can equal all, no matter how long they may have practised, or how peculiarly their own they may have made any single department of landscape photography. Let the visitor look at Ludlow Castle, the Feathers Inn, Ludlow, Raglan Castle, Tintern Abbey, and the interior of Wells Cathedral, and then turn to such views as the Cheddar Cliffs, Pont Aberglaslyn, and the Pass of Llanberis. With the wild, solemn, stony grandeur of the latter, with its pile of overhanging cliffs and rugged crags, he fails, as all photographers have and must do, when they cope with mountains of this class; but the Pont Aberglaslyn is wonderfully rendered in all its endless variety of rocks and pines; and the Cheddar Cliffs are equally good. Mr. Rouch exhibits near these -views a beautiful series of instantaneous pictures of Ventnor and Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. These, especially some of the latter, on the beach, are exceedingly good in the minute clearness of their detail, from the first ripple of the inshore wave out to the regularly marked though distant undulations of the sea in the background. Of the same kind, and equally praiseworthy, are those shown by Mr. Wilson. Than his small view of Land’s End there is nothing better in the collection. The picture of the ‘Cambridge’ at gun exercise, with the smoke wreathing out of her heavy broadside, is also very commendable, and the result, we presume, either of a wonderful piece of good luck or else very carefully timed preparation. Mr. Stephen Thompson shows some remarkably well-developed cathedral pictures; and in the small but very good display made by the Amateur Photographic Association will be found some of an excellence which well-to-do professionals might envy. Conspicuous among the amateurs, though not exhibitors under the association, arc the pictures of the Earl of Caithness, Lady Jocelyn, Sir A. Macdonald, &c. The Earl exhibits many very good views indeed, one of the best being a snow-scene, though in this, as is usually the case in the effort to secure detail in the light flaky effects of the new-fallen snow, all other objects are rendered of an intense blackness. Lady Jocelyn’s pictures are conspicuous for their clear detail, though some appear to have been rather overprinted. Messrs. Sidebotham, Robinson, Mudd, and Piper each send a careful selection of their best effects in landscape and other news, all of which are remarkably good, and some, especially those of Mr. Mudd, are not to be surpassed in their way by any in the gallery. Mr. J. Spode also shows some good views of Stoneleigh-park, which make one wish for more of the same kind. Mr. Vernon Heath exhibits very largely, and, what is more, everything he shows is of the best description. There are views in this collection which are equal in clearness, softness, and detail to any shown by Bedford himself, and which are as exquisitely printed as the portraits of Williams. Sir Henry James, the Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, exhibits a process known now as photozincography, by which photographs can be transferred to a zinc plate, and thus reproduced in common printer’s ink to any extent. This process is used by the Government in the production of maps and plans, either enlarged or reduced in the camera; and a great saving is effected by it. Specimens of it, including a modification of the process called photopapyrography, as well as photolithography, and showing its adaptation to the reproduction of printed matter, engravings, and, above all, MSS. (whether old or modern), are exhibited. For MSS., or for maps and plans, these zincographs are admirably suited, but the more ambitious effort of copying engravings is far less successful. Mr. Paul Pretsch calls to the aid of photography the electrotype process, producing thus not only the engraved plate but blocks for surface printing. The prints, however, especially of portraits, no matter how carefully done, are coarse and thick. The minute detail of a photograph, which an electrotype just as faithfully reproduces, is far too much for the action of such a thick viscid agent as printer’s ink. No doubt this obstacle will be overcome in time, but at present it is still a desideratum. The London Stereoscopic Company, as usual, carry off the palm for stereoscopes. Negretti and Zambra exhibit a -very beautiful series of positive transparent pictures on glass. For a long time this process was exclusively practised in France, and it was believed to be the forte of French photographers till Negretti and Zambra entered the field and latterly distanced all competitors. Their series includes some of the stereoscopes taken for them by Frith in Egypt and Nubia, and their book published on the antiquities of Egypt, the first of the kind ever issued with stereoscopic illustrations, and the forerunner, we believe, of many valuable works of the same class. Mr. Breeze also shows some excellent transparent pictures, among which is one of a statue taken by moonlight. Even now, after all the ill-usage the collection has experienced from atmospheric influences, there is still more than enough left to show how well our photographers have maintained their reputation against all comers. Few, however, have visited it without feeling that they deserved better at the hands of the Exhibition authorities than having their works huddled away in such a remote and almost inaccessible corner of the building.—Times.”]



1 b & w (“Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives.”) on p. 552 in: “Jerusalem and the Holy Places.” and 1 b & w (“Principal Entrance to the Sultan’s New Palace at Constantinople.”) on p. 552 in: “Jerusalem and the Holy Places.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 41:1175 (Sat., Nov. 22, 1862): 550, 552. [“From a photograph by Mr. F. Bedford, who accompanied the Prince of Wales in his tour of the East.” “When it was determined that a photographer should accompany the Prince in his Oriental tour, Mr. Bedford was selected as in every way fitted for the post of Royal photographer during the tour. The great beauty of the specimens brought home, and the general success of Mr. Bedford when working in the East, in the face of obstacles of various kinds which would have discouraged a less persevering artist, prove that the choice was well made. Mr. Bedford describes some of is trials and adversities in the pursuit of art with great humour, especially the difficulties he had to contend with when photographing the Mosque of Omar at Jerusalem. The general View of Jerusalem given on page 552 is from a very successful photograph taken by Mr. Bedford from the Mount of Olives, the distance being about half a mile from the city. the morning which Mr. Bedford had selected for his view of the city from that commanding position turned out very hazy—a gleaming, shimmering light playing in the air, and especially over the city, which he thought would be fatal to photographic operations; but he was agreeably surprised to find that, even in the first negative taken, the actual character of soft, Oriental haze was reproduced in the photograph in a most accurate manner, and yet the outline of every edifice in the city was as distinctly defined as if traced out with a sharp knife. The Mosque of Omar, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, every irregularity of the walls, every pebble of that stony soil, and every branch of the olive-trees, which so many centuries ago gave their name to the hill over against Jerusalem, were perfectly reproduced in his photograph. Nothing can be more interesting than this inevitably truthful view of Jerusalem. In made-up artistic pictures there is always more or less of exaggeration of principal parts. Masses of light are cast cleverly athwart some point of interest, while other portions of the landscape are thrown into deep shadow, merely for pictorial effect. In ordinary subjects we do not object to this. A “Turner” version of Dover Castle and Cliffs, full of the best poetry of art, is very charming; but Jerusalem is a subject not to be tampered with, even by a Turner. It is the naked, unadorned reality that we seek in a representation of a site made for ever sacred as the centre around which all the events in the life of the Saviour were enacted. Photography alone would give us that absolute reflex of the scene in which nothing is added and nothing taken away; and this aspect of truthfulness, which we feel confident must of necessity exist in the photograph, has, we believe, been most conscientiously preserved by our engraver. The summit of the Mount of Olives rises about 180ft. above the highest part of the city, and being, as stated, only half a mile distant, the view of the whole of Jerusalem and its environs is remarkably firm. Mr. Bedford placed his camera on a spot at some distance from the top of the hill, preferring the prospect there obtained to that from the higher ground, and also to the far more extensive one from the top of the minaret near the Church of the Ascension, or that from the roof of a tower which stands at some distance to the north-west. The best time for the view of the city, as before stated, is the morning, when the valleys are still lying in a soft dewy shade and the early sun is brightly lighting up the buildings of the city. It is at this time that most visitors to the Holy City come to Olivet, map in hand, as it is a point from which they are then able with little difficulty, in the clear atmosphere of Judaea, to identify every prominent or interesting building and witness its exact situation and aspect. The spectator looks down from his elevation, through the olive-trees, towards the barren glen of the Kedron. In the foreground, beyond the ravine, is the inclosure of the hareem, the octagonal-domed mosque (occupying the site of Oman’s threshing-floor and Solomon’s Temple), with the paved space which surrounds it, and beyond an area partly filled with olives and cypresses. At the left-hand extremity is the mosque El Aksa, with its pointed roofs and dome. The group of buildings to the right of it, with a tall minaret adjoining, forms the present residence of the Pacha. At the southern angle of the wall some massive masonry may be distinguished, which is part of the ancient inclosure, and the arohes of the Golden Gate, now walled up, may be plainly distinguished. Further to the right, north of the hareem area, is St. Stephen’s Gate, with the path winding up to it. Northward from this point the city wall is a principal object, its lines varied with the conspicuous towers. The ridge to the right of the hareem, it will be seen (this is the hill of Bezeth), is but thinly inhabited, and the houses are mixed with gardens, among which there is a mosque. These objects occupy the city hills—Bezeth, Moriah, and Ophel. On another ridge, on the eastern side of the city, the Latin Convent is situated, and below the convent one sees the two domes and square tower of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. To the left is Zion, still the most prominent of the hills, its northern limits marked by the massive turrets of the citadel. Close to these is the fresh-looking architecture of the English church, and further to the left the irregular, straggling buildings of the Armenian Convent, with small central dome. The Jewish quarter occupies the steep slope of the hill; and outside the walls at this point a white square mass and high minaret mark the site of the supposed, and probably true, tomb of David. About three miles from the city, on the south, the Convent of Elias may be distinguished, on the road to Bethlehem; and another object on the distant hills is the ancient Mizpeh. On the way down from the Mount of Olives, by the path indicated in the Engraving, the traveller may reach the Garden of Gethsemane, a spot so closely connected with the closing scene of the life of the Saviour. On the night of his betrayal, we are told that he went forth, passing the Brook Kedron, “to the garden where he oftentimes resorted with his disciples.” The spot believed at the present day to be the Garden of Gethsemane, and which, if not the actual spot, cannot be far from it, is situated in an inclosure of high white walls, near the dry bed of the Brook Kedron, just below St. Stephen’s Gate and between the paths that lead up to the Mount of Olives. This inclosed space is under the charge of an old Latin monk, who for a small fee admits the pious traveller. The ancient olive-trees within the walls are venerable in their ruin, and some of them may actually have existed at the time the events took place which have caused the spot to be considered holy ground. The great number of subjects which Mr. Bedford has succeeded in obtaining in the Holy Land, under adverse circumstances, is very extraordinary, and his results are, in almost every instance, highly successful, greatly surpassing the celebrated series of Egyptian photographs executed by M. Maximi [sic] du Camp for the French Government. The entire series of Mr. Bedford’s photographs, made for the Prince of Wales, is being, by the Royal permission, published by Messrs. Day, of Gate-street, Lincoln’s-inn-fields, by whose kindness we have been enabled to engrave the “View of Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives” previous to its publication.”]


BOOKS. 1862.

[Advertisement.] “New Photographic Gift-Book.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 41:1179-1180 (Sat., Dec. 20, 1862): 657. [“…Ornamental binding, fcap 4to, cloth. 21s.; morocco, 31s. 6d., Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain, By William and Mary Howitt. The Photographic Illustrations by Bedford, Sedgfield, Fenton, Wilson, and others. “Among illustrated books the newly-published volume entitled ‘The Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain’ is at once the most conspicuous and the most beautiful. As a gift-book the volume is in every respect to be commended, and, better than most gift- books, it will repay whoever shall carefully examine, and peruse it.”— Westminster Review. “Probably few persons would believe how pleasantly to the eye and gracefully the photographs interweave with the typographic, as they most faithfully supplement the topographic, department of the Work.”—Illustrated London News.”]



[Advertisement.] “Bedford’s Photographs of the East,” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 41:1181 (Sat., Dec. 27, 1862): 698. [“…taken during the tour in which, by command, he accompanied H.R.H. the Prince of Wales in Egypt, the Holy Land and Syria, Constantinople, the Mediterranean, Athens, &c., Exhibiting by permission, and names of subscribers received, at the German Gallery, 168, New Bond-street, daily, from Ten till Dusk. Admittance, 1s.”


“Photography.” ART JOURNAL ns 2:1 (Jan. 1863): 38. [“The exhibition of the Photographic Society was opened in the rooms of the Society of British Artists, by a private view, on the 10th of January, with a collection of subjects numbered in the catalogue up to four hundred and seventy-nine; but the numbers on the walls went far beyond this, and presented a variety of interest greater than we have yet seen in any similar antecedent collection. In novelty and enterprise we are behind the French, but we have worked out old formulae to a higher perfection than they have ever attained. The imitations of Limoges enamel by M. Laon de Camusac are so perfect as not to be detected save by minute inspection; admirable also are the transparencies by Ferrier, and the examples of the charbon, and photo-lithographic processes. We regret, by the way, we cannot give the names of those who have carried these methods to such perfection. There are many brilliant and highly-finished portraits exhibited by M. Claudet and others; in these we enter the region of Fine Art, for the utmost power of oil colour is called forth in their production. Mr. Williams’s vignettes are peculiar in colour, but in softness and gradation they excel everything that has appeared in this way; and we have to observe of the portraiture generally (Vernon Heath, Robinson, Mayland, McLean and Co., Caldesi, &c.), that the former coarse skin textures are superseded by that kind of softness which is characteristic of painting. There is so much excellence in all the landscape pieces, that it were almost invidious to mention any names; the taste, however, displayed in the selection of subject, and the success in securing effect, give to a great many of these views a rare merit in addition to their photographic quality. The instantaneous views at Naples, by Colonel Stuart Wortley, present well-chosen subjects, and the effects, such as no artist could improvise, immediately suggest Turner, and the truth of his versions of nature. Mr. Bedford exhibits a series of his Eastern views, perhaps the same that were shown in the German Gallery. In such as the Temple of Isis at Philie, that of Medinet Habu at Thebes, and the remains at Baalbek, we are lost in an attempt to penetrate the dim antiquity that veils the history of the remains; but we become fully alive to the thrifty and uncompromising detail of photography wherever there is anything, either in the way of ragged and picturesque objects and surfaces to be represented, or of stately and more formal foregrounds, with retiring distances, as instanced in ‘Four Views in Perthshire,’ and two views near Burnham, and two views of the lock on the Thames at Maidenhead; ‘View up the Llugwy — Bettws-y-Coed;’ ‘The Miner’s Bridge on the Llugwy,’ and ‘ The Lledr Cottage;’ ‘Melrose Abbey,’ ‘Dry burgh Abbey;’ ‘Calton Hill, Edinburgh;’ ‘A Leafy Nook;’ ‘Chedder;’ ‘On the Tay, above Dunkekl;’ ‘The Mill Stream;’ four subjects by the Fothergill process: ‘View near Rokeby;’ ‘An Old Chalk Pit;’ and others. At the meeting of the Photographic Society, and in the journals that treat exclusively of photography, new processes are from time to time announced, and it is sometimes professed that the methods whereby certain effects are produced are accurately detailed; but experimentalists frequently try in vain to arrive at the same results. It is difficult to believe that there is anything disingenuous in the explanations, but successes bear a small proportion to the failures. The great majority of the photographs are taken with collodion. Instances occur of the employment of dry plates, and there are occasional examples of the tannin method. The first instances we have seen of printing on resinised paper are here exhibited; they are vignettes, heads, and figures, and brilliant beyond what we were prepared to see. Mr. Robinson’s (of Leamington) ‘Bringing Home the May,’ makes a figure in the room; the composition has many beauties, but the time and expense indispensable to the production of such a photograph, or rather set of photographs, can scarcely be less than what would be necessary to the painting of a picture of the samo size.”]


“Fine-Art Gossip.” ATHENAEUM no. 1838 (Jan. 17, 1863): 91. [“A very good Exhibition of Photographs has been opened by the Photographic Society, in the galleries of Suffolk Street. Landscape has a more prominent place this year than usual; but there are endless examples of album portraits and a few attempts at elaborate compositions. Among the landscapes our readers should examine carefully a series of studies by Col. Stuart Wortley…. Thurston Thompson… Bedford… A large composition by Mr. Robinson, called ‘Bringing Home the May,’ which stands over the mantelpiece, is worthy of attention. It is an illustration of Spenser, and is perhaps the first picture yet composed mechanically. It has some very beautiful effects…. “]



“The Exhibition of the Photographic Society.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 42:1184-1185 (Sat., Jan. 17, 1863): 66. [“The ninth annual exhibition of the Photographic Society was this week opened in the large and two of the smaller rooms of the Society of British Artists, Suffolk-street; the remaining two apartments being occupied by the Exhibition for the Relief of Lancashire Distress, noticed elsewhere. This year’s photographic exhibition is more variously illustrative of the art, and especially of its many new applications, than any previous collection. We regret, however, that unforeseen demands on our space oblige us to defer till next week a detailed notice of the many interesting and valuable features of this display….” “…Very noteworthy also are the Eastern and other subjects by Mr. Bedford; the skies and eruption of Vesuvius by Colonel Stuart Wortley; the figure-studies by Viscountess Hawarden; the large and fine foreign contributions in the south-west room, and the works of Messrs. Mudd, Dixon Piper, Henry White, H. P. Robinson, Bullock Brothers, and Vernon Heath. There are no portraits for purity and beauty equaling the vignettes of Mr. T. R. Williams; but there are many striking likenesses by Claudet. Among the coloured photographs the miniatures of Messrs. Lock and Whitfield decidedly bear the bell, not only for artistic excellence but also for the respect paid to the likeness.”]



“Fine Arts. The Exhibition of the Photographic Society.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 42:1185 (Sat., Jan. 24, 1863): 102-103. [“We last week announced the opening: of this very interesting exhibition in Suffolk-street, and now proceed to give the more detailed notice of its contents we then promised. We need merely make the preliminary observation that, for whatever the subject, the marvellous preparation of gun-cotton, collodion, has almost entirely superseded every other process; and that, although we miss some of the “old familiar names,” such as Delamotte, Rejlander (except attached to comparatively unimportant studies), Lake Price, Frith, jun., and Fenton, there are many new aspirants of great merit. It has been already remarked that the future of some branches of photography will consist in the development of the “enlarging” system….” “…The landscape photographer’s greatest (difficulty is with foliage, from the activity of its minute lights and its colour—green, from its component yellow ray, having little photographic power, and tending, therefore, to become black. Otherwise, the grey and humid atmosphere of this climate is well known to be more favourable to the photographer than the brighter blue and fiercer sunlight of Southern Europe and the East. The most important series of landscapes, &c., by a single exhibitor, are Mr. Bedford’s admirable views, taken while, “by command,” accompanying the Prince of Wales on his Royal Highness’s Eastern tour, a series we have already reviewed on their original exhibition. Mr. Bedford also contributes a number of home scenes in Devonshire and elsewhere, of conspicuous merit. We may here observe that photographers—Mr. Bedford in common with his brethren—seem disposed to force the power of their lenses more than heretofore; hence the curvature in the lines of architecture which is becoming so frequently perceptible….”]


“Photographic Society of London. Annual General Meeting.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:130 (Feb. 16, 1863): 219-228. [“King’s College, London. Tuesday, February 3, 1863. The Lord Chief Baron in the Chair…” “…The Secretary next read the following report from the gentlemen appointed to award the Medals in the Photographic Exhibition:—
As to four of the medals, we have had no hesitation in fixing upon the names of those best entitled to the honour of the award. 1. To begin with the Amateurs’ Medal. There is a beautiful picture exhibited by the Earl of Caithness; but it is simply a translation, though very faithful and artistic, of an accidental effect of nature. Greater merit is, we think, shown in the series of studies from nature exhibited by Lady Hawarden. 2. In the class of elaborate figure compositions, we can see nothing that can be placed on a level with Robinson’s “Bringing Home the May.” 3. As for reproductions, Thurston Thompson is facile prlncept in this Exhibition. 4. Of instantaneous views, the series exhibited by Col. S. Wortley stand alone in their excellence. So far it has been easy for us to assign the places of honour. In landscape subjects we had much more difficulty, and have not without much hesitation made up our minds as to the rightful claimant of the medal. Messrs. Bedford, Annan, Mudd, Vernon Heath, Dixon Piper, and White have each exhibited pictures of the greatest beauty. If the medal were to be the reward of the best single production, we might have found the duty of deciding even more difficult than it is. The medal, however, is to be given as the reward of the greatest general excellence. We find instances in the works of each of the gentlemen already named, either of happy choice of subject, or of skill in the composition of their picture, or of due attention to contrast of light and shade, and to gradation of distance and atmospheric perspective; but we think that we see in Mr. Bedford’s works the most complete union of all the qualities which must be united in a good photographic picture. Taking the same principle of general excellence as our guide in examining the merit of the portraits in the Exhibition, we consider that M. Claudet is entitled to the first place; but we must add that, in delicacy of treatment, nothing can be finer than Mr. Williams’s vignetted portraits. The carte-de-visite portraits of M. Joubert are unsurpassed, we think, by any of that class of pictures. We were also much pleased with the portrait of Thomas Carlisle, by Jeffrey, and with one of the large portraits exhibited by Mr. Voigtlander. R. Fenton. J. Durham.” p. 220-221.]


“Award of Medals.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 10:184 (Feb. 16, 1863): 69-70. [Six medals awarded at the London Photo Soc. Exhibition to: A. Claudet, Francis Bedford, Lt. Col. Stuart Wortley, Lady Hawarden, H. P. Robinson and Thurston Thompson.]


“Fine Arts.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 42:1190-1191 (Sat., Feb. 28, 1863): 234. [“The Photographic Exhibition closes to-day. The society gave a brilliant soiree yesterday week, in the rooms in Suffolk-street, containing the exhibition; and at the last meeting—it having been determined to offer prize-medals for the best contributions—the following awards were announced:–For portraits, Mr. Claudet; for landscapes, Mr. Bedford; for instantaneous photographs, Lieut-Col. Stuart Wortley; for composition, Mr. P. Robinson (whose chief work we have engraved); for copies of pictures or reproductions, Mr. Thurston Thompson; for best amateur contributions, not instantaneous, Viscountess Hawarden.”]


“Foreign. The Samaritan Pentateuch.” NEW YORK EVANGELIST 33:10 (Mar. 5, 1863): 3. [“…If we mistake not, a photograph of this, taken by the photographer who accompanied the Prince of Wales to Palestine, was exhibited in Bond street not long ago. The manuscript shown by Mr. Mills is of the fourteenth century…” – London Guardian.” (The photographer was Francis Bedford.)]



[Advertisement.] “Free Exhibition of Bedford’s Photographs of the East,” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 42:1193 (Sat., Mar. 14, 1863): 266. [“…taken during the trip, in which by request, he accompanied H.R.H. the Prince of Wales in Egypt, the Holy Land and Malta, Constantinople, the Mediterranean, Athens, &c. daily at the German Gallery 128 New Bond street, from [illegible till Dark. Admittance by presentation of address card.”]


Wall, A. H. “Bits of Chat: The Royal Marriage from a Photographic Point of View.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 10:186 (Mar. 16, 1863): 123-124. [Wall describes attempts by photographers to photograph the royal procession from Gravesend to Cheapside. Wall states that Bedford, Downes, Harmon and other photographers were at Gravesend, Blanchard was at the dock, Sydney Smyth was at King William Street (failed to get an image.) England was positioned before the Mansion House, and others were at work as well, documenting the festive events on March 7.]


“The Samaritan Pentateuch.” CHRISTIAN RECORDER 3:12 (Mar. 21, 1863): 47. [“At a meeting of the Syro-Egyptian Society, held on the 13th of January, the Rev. J. Mills read a paper on the copy of the Samaritan Pentateuch, which he exhibited. He had spent some months at Nablous, and had been allowed to examine the scroll said to have been written by Abishama, the grandson of Aaron. If we mistake not, a photograph of this, taken by the photographer who accompanied the Prince of Wales to Palestine, was exhibited in Bond Street not long ago. The manuscript shown by Mr. Mills is of the fourteenth century, and was lent him by a Samaritan priest. He is collating it with the Hebrew text, and with the Samaritan version as given in “Walton’s Polyglot,” with a view to its publication.- London Guardian.”]


“Art. VIII.–Theological and Literary Intelligence. The Samariatan Pentateuch.” AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN AND THEOLOGICAL REVIEW (Apr. 1863): 344-345. [At a meeting of the Syro-Egyptian Society,…. Rev. J. Mills read a paper on a copy of the Samaritan Pentateuch, which he exhibited…If we mistake not, a photograph of this, taken by the photographer who accompanied the Prince of Wales to Palestine, was exhibited on Bond street not long ago. The manuscript shown by Mr. Mills…”]


“Minor Topics of the Month.” ART JOURNAL ns 2:4 (Apr. 1863): 82. [“Messrs. Day and Son are publishing, in parts (of three prints), Mr. Francis Bedford’s Photographic Tour in the East, in which, by command, he accompanied his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. As photographs they are of the very highest merit. Mr. Bedford is among the best, if not the best, of our English landscape photographists, while no more interesting series of subjects could by possibility be brought together; it is sufficient to say it comprises views in Egypt, the Holy Land, and Syria, Constantinople, Athens, the Mediterranean, &c.”]


“Photography.” POPULAR SCIENCE REVIEW 2:7 (Apr. 1863): 440-443. [(Mr. Francis Bedford; M. Claudet; Mr. A. F. Eden (London, England); Viscountess Hawarden; Mr. Mongo Ponton; Mr. Pouncey, (Dorchester, England); Mr. Andrew Pritchard; Mr. H. P. Robinson; Mr. Spiller; Colonel the Honourable Stuart Wortley; Mr. Thurston Thompson; Mr. G. Wharton Simpson; M. Bayard; MM. Davanne & Girard; M. Duboscq; M. Fargier; MM. Gamier & Salmon; M. Meynier; M. Poitevin; mentioned or discussed.) “The adjudicators appointed by the Council of the Photographic  Society have awarded the prize medals for the best contributions in six distinct branches of photographic art, as follows…:— M. Claudet, for the best portraits. Mr. Francis Bedford, for the best landscapes. Colonel the Honourable Stuart Wortley, for the best instantaneous pictures. Viscountess Hawarden, for the best amateur contribution. Mr. H. P. Robinson, for the best composition picture from life. Mr. Thurston Thompson, for the best reproduction….”]


“Minor Topics of the Month. Panorama of the Prince of Wales’s Tour.” ART JOURNAL ns 2:5 (May 1863): 101. [(Background.) “The Easter novelty at the Haymarket Theatre is the production of a series of panoramic views, illustrative of the tour made in the East by the Prince of Wales. To ensure the utmost accuracy, Mr. Buckstone sent his scene-painters—Mr. Telbin and his son—the same journey, and the result has been a series of pictures of singular fidelity and beauty. The series begins at Cairo and ends at Constantinople, including the sacred Island of Philae on the Nile, Jerusalem, the Jordan, the Dead Sea, Nazareth, Mount Hormon, Damascus, Beyrout, and other interesting localities. It is an especial merit in these pictures that they are quite free of all conventionalism, and the artist has boldly delineated the atmospheric and topographical peculiarities of the Holy Land. The glaring sunlight, the arid desert, the deep green foliage, the gorgeously tinted sunsets, the brilliant moonlights, the sky studded with lamp-like stars, is all reproduced in these clever pictures. We may especially note the grand and comprehensive view of Cairo as an admirable day-scene, and that of the Dead Sea as an equally good picture of evening in the East The deep shadows and blood-red lights from the setting sun, the fleecy clouds of rosy hue in a sky of gold, could only be painted by an Eastern traveller, and certainly not appreciated by any one who knows no other than an English autumn evening. The beauty of Mr. Tolbin’s work will appeal to all, but his true critics must be few—the few who have travelled where he has travelled. In truth, to the large mass of theatre-goers the whole series may have little attraction; indeed the interest of many of these views depends on associations, which render them more fitted for a lecture-room, in which we some day hope to see them, with more views added, and a sensible description in place of the dramatic trash that now introduces them so unfitly. It is due, however, to the public to say, that they fully appreciated what they entirely understood; and the wonderful reality of the water in the scene on the river Jordon was rapturously applauded; it was almost impossible to divest the mind of the idea that the eye rested on glass. The night entertainment in a Turkish kiosk on the banks of the river, near Damascus, was also a great popular success; here the combined effects of lamplight and moonlight were most happily given. It was a veritable Arabian night’s entertainment, and for the moment the spectator was fairly carried away by the illusion of the scene. The intended grand climax—the marriage scene at Windsor—was flat after all this; it was “of the stage—stagey,” and had not the truth and freshness of the Eastern series.”]


“Home Correspondence. Photoelectric Engraving.” JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, AND OF THE INSTITUTIONS IN UNION 11:557 (July 24, 1863): 606-607. [“Sir,—In bringing my process of engraving photographs, Photoelectric Engraving, before the notice of your Society, I am desirous of making a few observations of a general nature. In consequence of the very questionable protection afforded by the Patent Laws, I deem it advisable at present not to publish the details of my process. I have already sacrificed much to the “idea” of engraving photographs, and as I believe I have now solved the problem in a satisfactory manner. I am naturally anxious to remunerate myself. At a future time I may make a proposal, the effect of which, if agreed to, will be to enable others to work my process. From the encomiums passed by highly qualified judges on the specimen I now submit* (*The specimen may be seen at the Society’s House, on application to the Secretary.) —Kenilworth Banqueting Hall, from a photograph by Bedford—I think I am warranted in saying that I have solved the problem of successfully engraving photographs. But I should not consider myself entitled to the merit of this discovery were the specimen above mentioned touched up by the graver, or oven the result of a happy chance. 1 am glad to be in a position to say that the specimen has only required careful cleaning, and that unless my head and my hands fail me, the result is certain. I can guarantee to produce, in a period varying from one to three weeks, an engraved plate from a photograph. In this plate, that which constitutes the essence of the photograph and the despair of hand labour—fac simile even to minute and almost microscopic detail—shall be present. To attain this result, all that I require is a good reversed negative (easily produced by revising the glass), and a positive print merely fixed with hypo, not toned. The methods which have hitherto given most promise are the bitumen process, photoglyphy, and photogalvanography. The other processes of photolithography and | photozincography, from their very nature, cannot rival the richness of plate printing. The bitumen process and photoglyphy are essentially etching processes, and involve much hand labour and consequent loss of fidelity. Photoglyphy is the least satisfactory of the two, as the etching ground employed is of a very delicate nature, and the photographic chemical, bichromate of potash, has the unfortunate quality of destroying detail, the longer it is submitted to actinic influence. The most important step in advance was photogalvanography. This process came into my hands when in a most crude and impracticable condition, and after it had been given up as useless by others. By much patient labour I succeeded in making it practical, and the process has ever since been worked with the improvements which I effected. I was not permitted to reap the fruit of my labours, and after a considerable sum had been expended, by my then partners, to develop the process in a direction to which it was wholly unsuitable, the process has been almost abandoned. Photogalvanography, like photoglyphy, depends on the peculiar action of bichromate of jwtasli, in combination with gelatine. In this lies its weakness. It loses detail —the more so as it requires a very long exposure, sometimes upwards of six hours, and then without any certainty that the right exposure has been attained. There are consequently numerous failures from this one cause alone. I experimented long with this process, and found that the result was due to chromic acid. In other words, that with a composition merely of chromic acid and gelatine, a raised image with granulation could be produced. From this raised image the electrotype plate was subsequently made. Independently of the loss of detail, and the uncertainty in the exposure—both defects inherent in the process—the. granulation was of a peculiar zig-zag and wiry character, which was of great value in the vigorous parts of the picture, but became broken or unconnected in the half tones and fine details. This led to a pretty free employment of the graver and roulette, just in the very parts which made hand-labour expensive. The process, indeed, was never capable of the high flight which was attempted, and, as 1 predicted, it broke down. Where expense was no object, the graver was a great assistance, but it lessened the value of the fac simile. In photoglyphy and photogalvanography, the results are obtained from a positive impression. It was after experimenting some time with photogalvanography that it occurred to me to strike out in a different direction. Anyone acquainted with engraving is aware that aqua-tint and “chalk,” or stippling, produce tine grain, half tones, and detail. The problem I set myself was how to imitate this combination. The aquatinter employs common resin dissolved in spirits of wine. This poured over his plate evaporates, and leaves numerous globules of resin attached to the surface. The size of these globules depends on the proportion of resin to spirit. When the acid is put on the plate the resin acts as a resist, and a tint is produced in the intermediate parts. If the plate were now electrotyped before the removal of the resin, and a print taken from the electrotype, the resin parts would give a kind of stipple or “chalk” marks, interspersed with tint. It is something similar to this which I have succeeded in imitating, with peculiarities sui generis, by photography and the electrotype. I can also, as it were, modify the size of the dots, obtaining them so fine as to carry almost microscopic detail; but if too tine there will be deficient depth in the dark. In this as in all things there is the happy medium, and this I believe I have secured. I commence with the negative. This should be reversed. From the negative a positive proof is taken; this I prefer not toned but merely fixed in the sepia colour by the “hypo.” I cover the negative, which must be varnished with a material from which I obtain a latent positive. This latent positive I turn by a simple process into a suitable negative, and it is with this negative that I subsequently manipulate. I can time the exposure to a nicety, a few seconds over or under making an inappreciable difference. The excess or deficiency must not however extend to minutes. If necessary I can electrotype direct upon my material; but as this might lead to the discovery of part of my process, I prefer to make a different kind of matrix. I should have been glad to have taken out a Patent in order to grant licences, but as the lawyers say no Patent is valid till well litigated, I prefer to run the risk of competition, which after all is of more benefit to the Arts than monopolies such as the present Patent Laws permit. Trusting I have not trespassed unduly on your space, I am, &c, Duncan C. Dallas.”]


“Photography Applied to Book Illustration.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 10:195 (Aug. 1, 1863): 309. [Discussion of Scott’s Lady of the Lake, published by A. W. Bennett, photos by Thomas Ogle, and the Howitt’s The Wye, with photos by Bedford and Sedgfield.]


“Literary Items.” LITTELL’S LIVING AGE 78:1001 (Aug. 8, 1863): 286. [Book notices. “Mr. Alfred W. Bennett of Bishopsgate Street, who is availing himself to a considerable extent to the use of photography as a medium for landscape illustrations of our descriptive poets, has just issued the “Bijou Photograph Album,” containing twenty-four photographs of the scenery of the “Lady of the Lake,” most admirably executed by Thomas Ogle in carte de visite size, and elegantly bound in morocco or in gilt cloth. It is a pretty gift-book, and one that is sure to be appreciated. Mr. Bennett has also published the poem itself in small quarto, with fourteen photographs by the same artist, and a view of the poet’s tomb at Dryburgh Abbey, by G. W. Wilson. From that charming book, “Ruined Castles and Abbeys of Great Britain,” by William and Mary Howitt, for the benefit of summer tourists he has struck off separately “The Wye: its Abbeys and Castles,” with six photographs by Bedford and Sedgfield.]


“Photography as an Industry.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:137. (Sept. 15, 1863): 361-364. [(From London Review. London Stereoscopic Co.; Mayall; Bedford; De la Rue; Bisson Freres; others mentioned.] “Almost as numerous and as various as the scenes that the orb of day itself shines upon are the sun pictures we see in our stationers’ windows and in every house we visit. How few of us who remember distinctly the first efforts of photography in taking the imprints of feathers, leaves, and bits of lace, would have predicted from those childish essays, so great, so wonderful, so rapidly produced, an industry as photography has now become! Not that we are at all disposed to sing an unmitigated praise of photographers or their pictures, for with thorough artist’s feelings we see in their ordinary productions the defects of composition, the absence of that picture-painting of unspoken thoughts, and the want of many an other quality that goes to make a perfect picture, while we as painfully perceive in many a way the deleterious effects of their productions on the prospects and qualities of painter-artists; but its good outbalances its evils, and photography flourishes and increases. A portrait is, however, not a likeness became it is taken with a lens on a chemical preparation….” “…There is nothing perhaps more laborious than drawing architectural details, and there are few things that people generally feel more interest in than ancient buildings. The fine cathedral and the beautiful church—built in days when, whatever the faults of the monks, men strove earnestly and well to make their houses of religious worship as worthy as human art and human hands could make them of the great Being to whose honour they are dedicated—are the first-sought objects of the tourist; the ancient castle, with weather-beaten battlements and towers exciting memories of past history, comes next; while a mouldering house of three or four centuries ago is cherished as a domestic relic of our ancestors in an age when tables and chairs were stouter than cabinet-makers now produce, and photographers were not. These all require in their pictures thousands of details, from the form, size, and aspect of a stone or brick, to every cankering touch Time’s ruthless hand has put to the florid sculpturing of the lofty facade and the innumerable chisellings of the mouldings. Such labour and such skill as this requires was rarely bestowed, and if bestowed was costly in the extreme and ranked amongst the highest efforts of art in the hands of Roberts and such like men. Here and there and now and then some enthusiastic architect made sketches of some bit or portion as an example of the rest, but all this was desultory and fragmentary; we were never sure that the face or form of the statue was correctly given, the tracery exactly outlined, or the mere builder’s work truthfully rendered. And here photography has done real good service. We may regret the sudden blackness of the shadows -under arches and doorways, the want of perfect clearness in the half-lights, but the main mass of the portion of building taken in by the camera is rendered in the photograph with such perfection of detail as no human patience could attain to, no hand acquire the power of rendering. The exact symmetry and proportions are retained; every film flaked by the winds and weather from the once smooth stone, every roughness, every joint, crevice, and cranny comes out, and half-effaced bas-reliefs often appear with more distinctness than in the object itself, the slight condensing of the rays of light by the lens, and their consequent stronger action on the silver-salt, producing intenser chemical action, and consequently more power of defining shadow. The smaller views of buildings are of course no more than other views; but to these the stereoscope gives advantages no mere artist’s sketch could possibly possess; while the larger photographs by the Bissons and others—such as the Escalier de Francois Premier in the Chateau de Blois, the Hotel de Ville of Louvain, the Church of St. Ouen, and the pinnacles of the Palais de Justice at Rouen, the apsides of Bayeux and Caen Cathedrals are not only works of art, but transcripts of the highest interest and value to architects and antiquaries, so much so as to have given rise to a special society for their production and distribution. The still larger details of the statues over the central doorway of Notre Dame, by Bisson, in which the figures are 13 inches in absolute height, even more decisively show how appropriate and useful the photographer’s art is for such purposes. In Mr. Bedford’s charming scenes in Egypt and the Holy Land, taken during the travels of the Prince of Wales, there is the same remarkable clearness and precision of architectural details, although his pictures are on a fur smaller scale than those we have referred to, and this notwithstanding his great and successful efforts to pictorialize his views. In this latter respect his use of his optical instrument, his judicious choice of figures and selections of their positions, with the various delicate and unexposed manoeuvres to produce effects, and the tender manipulation of his pictures, render them really works of art, and take Mr. Bedford out of the ranks of mere manipulators, and place him in that of true artists….” p. 363. “….Pictures, too, have been already subjects for photographers. It is true we only get a sepia-like sketch of that which is gorgeous or sombre with colour in the original painting, according to the subject, and thus lose half the effect the artists had produced. But even this is much. Engravings, whether on metal or wood, are costly, and, like photographs, deal only in black and white ; moreover the copyist has to reduce in size, and his drawing is therefore very likely to be inaccurate and out of proportion. So far, then, in this respect photography is a gain….” “… Prize pictures and the new works of modern painters, as well as the pictures of the old masters, may thus be rendered familiar in every household where the inmates are educated; and controversy with the finer and more subtle picturings of the human imagination can but be conducive to intellectual habits, and to the development of those finer and more sensitive feelings which are the priceless pearls and ornaments of human existence. —London Review.”]


Wortley, Lieut-Col. Stuart. “On Photography in connexion with Art.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 8:138 (Oct. 15, 1863): 365-368. [“…To give an illustration of my meaning: — A view may be very beautiful from a certain point, but it might happen that by moving two or three yards one way or the other you may make exactly the same view more available, as a picture, by including some object for the foreground, such as a mass of rock, an old gate, the trunk of a tree, or any object that may happen to be within reach. Attention to this is conspicuous in the works of a talented photographer, whose name you doubtless know, Mr. Bedford. There are many other branches of photography to which I might call your attention— the copying of pictures, photolithography and its various processes, and composition photography. But I am, in this paper, anxious to confine myself to photography in connexion with its claims to be considered as a fine art….” p. 367.]


BOOKS. 1863.
“Reviews: Books Illustrated by Photographs.” JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF LONDON 8:138 (Oct. 15, 1863): 381. [“Lady of the Lake”. Sir Walter Scott Photos by Thomas Ogle, “Ruined Abbeys & Castles” William & Mary Howitt. 6 views by Bedford and Sedgfield. Both published by Bennett.]


“Our Photo-Electric Engraving.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 8:278 (Jan. 1, 1864): frontispiece, 1-2. [Photoelectric engraving of landscape by F. Bedford.]


“Minor Topics of the Month. Stratford-on-Avon.” ART JOURNAL ns 3:2 (Feb. 1864): 58. [“… and whatever other place is in any peculiar manner associated with Shakspere, will this year be certainly regarded with even unusual interest, and consequently good photographs, whether for the stereoscope or not, which represent Stratford itself and its neighbourhood, will not fail to be in great request, and to receive a cordial welcome. Mr. Francis Bedford, the photographer to his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, has very opportunely published a series of stereoscopic pictures, which are exactly such as will be in harmony with the public feeling; they are of the highest order of excellence as photographs, and possess all the best qualities for which Mr. Bedford’s works are justly celebrated, and they also are as varied as they are excellent. The Stratford-on-Avon group comprises seventeen pictures; there are four exterior, and as many interior, views of the church, the latter showing the Shakspere monument; the House of the Poet is represented in two other pictures, and another pair are devoted to Ann Hathaway’s Cottage; the remaining pictures are views of the Room in which Shakspere was born, the Grammar School, the Guild Chapel, with the vestiges that yet remain of Now Place, the High Street and Town Hall, and the Old Bridge. The other groups— , kindred groups they may be styled—which Mr. Bedford has included in his series, consist of twenty-seven views of Kenilworth Castle, with five others of the Church, and of other points of especial interest in the immediate neighbourhood of the famed castle; thirty-seven views of Warwick Castle, and fifteen others in Warwick, which include the Monuments of the Beauchamp Chapel and St. Mary’s Church; twenty-one views of Guy’s Cliff; twenty-five views of Coventry; six of Charlecote; ten of Stoneleigh Abbey; twenty-seven of Leamington; fifty of Cheltenham; and six of Tewkesbury Abbey—in all 247 stereoscopic pictures, which are published by Messrs. Catherall and Prichard, of Chester, and may be obtained of the London Stereoscopic Company, and of other eminent dealers in photographs in London.”]


“A Good Plan.” NEW YORK EVANGELIST 35:7 (Feb. 18, 1864): 6. [“—The Prince of Wales has presented to the library of Harvard College copies of the photographs of the Samaritan Pentateuch preserved in the Monastery of Mount Gerizim, the oldest manuscript in the world, and said to have been written by a grandson of Aaron.” (These photographs taken by Francis Bedford. See NYE 33:10 (Mar. 5, 1863): 3.)]



 “Fine Arts.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 44:1246 (Sat., Feb. 20, 1864): 194. [“Mr. Francis Bedford, the well-known photographer, has published a set of photographs for the stereoscope, which will be acceptable to many at the present time. These are seventeen views of scenes and localities at Stratford-on-Avon connected with the memory of Shakspeare. They comprise four exterior, and as many interior, views of the church – the latter showing the Shakspeare monument – two of the poet’s house, and two more of Ann Hathaway’s cottage. The remaining are views of the room in which Shakspeare was born, the grammar-school, the Guild Chapel, with the vestiges that yet remain of New-place, the High-street, and Townhall, and the old bridge.”]


“Stereographs: English Scenery. Photographed by Francis Bedford.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 11:210 (Mar.15, 1864): 99-100.


“Photographic Society of Scotland. Ordinary General Meeting. Report of the Prize-Committee.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 9:143. (Mar. 15, 1864): 8. [“March 8, 1864. Sir David Brewster, K. H., President, in the Chair…” “…The Committee to award the Society’s medals’, for this season met on the 16th of February; and after each had individually gone over the photographs sent for competition, they were unanimous in their selection in every class, viz., the best portrait, that of George Harvey, R.S. A., by Mr. Moffat, of Edinburgh; the best group, “Somebody’s Coming,” by Mr. H .P. Robinson, of Leamington; and the best landscape,” Deer Park, Stonleigh,” also by Mr. Robinson: and to these they accordingly awarded the- Silver Medals offered by the Society. Besides being unanimous in this decision, the members of the Committee were equally agreed as to the great excellence of those photographs which in their estimation rank next in order of merit,—in landscapes particularly noticing those of Warwick Castle, by Mr. Francis Bedford, of London, to one of which, “Warwick Castle from the Avon,” they awarded a Bronze Medal; while some of the landscapes by Messrs. Annan, Gillis, Mudd, and Thompson they note as deserving of special commendation. To the group, “Colonel and Mrs. Maitland Dougal,” by Mr. Roger, of St. Andrew’s, they also awarded a Bronze Medal for its great excellence. The Group of Children, by Mr. G. Barrett, Torquay, was also greatly admired. Of the portraits, they consider one of Professor Syme, by Mr. Moffat, and one of John Steel, R.S.A., by Messrs. M’Glushon and Walker, scarcely in any way inferior to that of Mr. Harvey. Mr. Dallas has also sent some excellent portraits; but they are of smaller size than those already mentioned; and, where anything like an equality exists in point of execution, the larger picture will generally have the advantage. Some confusion has this year arisen from a misapprehension of the terms on which landscapes were admitted to compete; but, on referring to the advertisement issued by the Society, it will be seen that the only restriction therein contained, except as regards the “group,” is that ” the prints sent for competition must be untouched.” The Report was approved of, and the President presented the Medals, in the name of the Society, to the successful competitors.”]


“Review.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 9:143. (Mar. 15, 1864): 16. [Review. Stereographs of English Scenery. By Francis Bedford. Chester: Catherill and Pritchard. “Mr. Bedford has just issued a further series of his charming stereographs, these consisting chiefly of Warwickshire scenery. Warwick Castle presents some fine views and valuable interiors. Stratford abounds with interesting subjects. Coventry has many rare architectural beauties. Leamington is surrounded by many pretty views. The whole district, in fact, abounds with choice photographic subjects, to the whole of which Mr. Bedford has done full justice.”]


“Critical Notices: Stereographs of English Scenery. By Frances Bedford. Chester Catheral and Pritchard.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 8:289 (Mar. 18, 1864): 136.


“Photography as an Industry.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 8:290 (Mar. 24, 1864): 153-154. [Actually a comment on the state of the art – Mayall, Claudet, Bisson Freres, Bedford are mentioned. From the London Review.]


“Water Supply of Jerusalem–Ancient and Modern.” JOURNAL OF SACRED LITERATURE AND BIBLICAL RECORD 4th s 5:9 (Apr. 1864): 133-157. Illus. [(Throughout this article this author mentions traveling with the Prince of Wales on his trip to Palestine. Then he mentions using a photograph of Jerusalem for his measurements. Francis Bedford was the photographer who accompanied the Prince of Wales on that trip. On the other hand, both a British team, under the Rev. H. B. Tristram, and a French team of archeologists, led by the Count Melchior de Vogue, was also photographing in Jerusalem at this time.) “The immortal interest attaching to the city of God from its sacred-historic associations, will naturally elicit attention to a proposal for the benefit of its present inhabitants. Jerusalem, once the City of the Great King, and hereafter to be the joy of the whole earth, is notoriously, at the present period of its degradation, rendered insalubrious and defiling to the senses by the absence, comparatively of water. The consequences of such a privation to a large population in a torrid climate, surpass any description….” “…For the discovery of the “springing” of the arch of the eastern abutment of this bridge we are indebted to Dr. Robinson; but the abutment itself, which formed part of the temple wall, is buried in the ground, beneath the detritus and ruins of many Jerusalems. I have marked upon the map the position of the bridge, restored. Its southern side was thirty-nine feet from the S.W. corner of the Haram wall, and its breadth was fifty-one feet. Part of the first arch still remains protruding from the wall. It consists of three courses of immense stones: one stone being twenty-four and a half feet in length, and another twenty and a half; and, measuring from a photograph, each of them is about six feet in height…. p. 153.]


“Photographic Society of Scotland. Annual General Meeting.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 9:145. (May 15, 1864): 40-44. [Held in The Society’s Hall, 117 George Street, May 10, 1864. C. G. H. Kinnear, Vice-President, in the Chair….” “…The Competitive Exhibition of this season was the means of bringing together a number of beautiful prints, sent from every part of the country—a proof that a medal from this Society is valued as one of the highest rewards a photographer can attain. The Exhibition was open for one month to the public, free of charge; and it must be gratifying to the Society that the Exhibition Rooms were well attended, and that many regrets were expressed when the Exhibition was closed. The gentlemen appointed by the Council to award the prizes were unanimous in their opinion as to the merits of the pictures selected for rewards, which were as follows: — For the best Landscape the Silver Medal was awarded to Mr. P. Robinson, of Leamington, for the “Deer Park, Stonleigh;” and Mr. Robinson also carried off another Medal for the best Group, “Somebody’s Coming.” Mr. Moffat, of Edinburgh, was the successful competitor for the best Portrait, that of ” George Harvey, R.S.A.,” for which he received a Silver Medal. A Bronze Medal was awarded to Mr. F. Bedford, of London, for his view of “Warwick Castle;” and another Bronze Medal to Mr. Rodger, St. Andrews, for his Group of “Colonel and Mrs. Maitland Dougal.” The Council have entered into an arrangement with Mr. Robinson for the supply of copies of the Prize Group, “Somebody’s Coming,” which will be delivered to all Members of the Society who have paid the current year’s subscription, as soon as the required number can be printed….” p. 44.]


BOOKS. 1864.
“Reviews.” ART JOURNAL ns 3:6 (June 1864): 192. [Reviews. Photographs. Printed and published by F. Frith, Reigate. A printed notice accompanying these pictures informs us that Mr. Frith proposes to issue to subscribers of one guinea annually, for four years, a series of fifteen photographs, “by the best artists of the day.” The first instalment is now on our table: a set of very beautiful views, selected with much judgment, and varied in character. Canterbury affords two, the fine old Christchurch Gateway, and the equally fine old Norman exterior staircase, leading, if we remember rightly, to what is now used as a grammar school. Another specimen of ancient architecture is the doorway of Barfreystone Church, Kent, one of the most striking photographs of the series. These three were photographed by Mr. Bedford. An interior view of a portion of Tintern Abbey, by Mr. Roger Fenton, though a little “foggy” in some of its details, is a forcible representation of that noble ruin. Mr. Rosling’s view of Conway Castle is brilliant and picturesque, and his Falls of the Ogwen, North Wales, has a rugged grandeur about it which is most impressive. A doorway in Riveaux Abbey, and an interior view of the same venerable ruin, by Mr. Bedford—but especially the latter, show his perfect mastery over the processes employed to produce the pictures. There are three Yorkshire ruins by Mr. Fenton—all good, but the first supremely so: the Wharfe at Bolton Bridge, the “Stepping-Stones,” Bolton Abbey, and a view on the Ribble. We have next three scenes by Mr. Rosling, in one of the most beautiful of our home counties, Surrey:—Betchworth Park, a closely-wooded kind of dell in winter-time, exquisitely manipulated; a view near Reigate, and another on the river Mole; the last beautiful in light and shade. ‘The Confessional,’ photographed by Mr. Goodman, is, we presume, from a painting. The priest is sitting in a recess of richly ornamented architecture, at the side of which, and seen through some open columnar work, is a young penitent on her knees. The composition is well put together. The photographs are about eight inches by six in size, and are carefully mounted. When the whole sixty are complete, they will form a truly acceptable series, provided they are continued as begun, of which no doubt need be entertained.”]



“Fine Arts. The Photographic Exhibition.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 44:1262 (Sat., June 4, 1864): 554. [“This exhibition opened on Monday at the gallery lately occupied by the Female Artists, 48, Pall-mall. We regret to find that the display is limited in interest, more even, in proportion, than the space for exhibition is curtailed, compared with that so well filled in Suffolk-street last year. We must postpone a detailed notice till next week, but we may mention that the most important novelty is Swan’s carbon process. The landscape specimens of this process retain far more of the best qualities of photography than any examples of “permanent” printing, either English or foreign, hitherto produced….” “…The best landscapes and architectural subjects are those by Bedford (a splendid series.), Cundall and Downes, Macfarlane (Indian), S. Thompson, the Hon. W. W. Vernon, J. Hubbard, Munroe (with panoramic lenses), Lieutenant-Colonel Verschoyle, T. Good, and C. A. D. Halford….”]



“Fine Arts. The Photographic Exhibition – Photosculpture, &c.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 44:1263 (Sat., June 11, 1864): 575. [“The Photographic Society acted wisely in excluding from this exhibition “touched” and all coloured photographs. The first are little better than frauds; the second conceal the true photograph. It was advisable, also, to open the exhibition later in the season than in former years. We cannot, however, congratulate the society upon the removal to the gallery in Pall-mall, lately occupied by the Female Artists, seeing it is so small that not only is the collection greatly diminished, but there is no space for stereoscopes, photo-microscopes, enamel-photographs, and many applications of photography of popular interest. For this and–it is only fair to say- for other reasons, many well-known names are dropped out of the catalogue—such as those of Rejlander, Delamotte, Lake Price, Mudd, &c. We miss also the fine copies of works of art by Thurston Thompson, Caldesi, and the London Stereoscopic Company. Wynfield’s very remarkable series of portraits of artists, called “The Studio,” are not here, nor the holographs lately taken by Hering from Dyce’s frescoes. Colonel Stuart Wortley, whose views, last year, of the eruption of Vesuvius were of such interest, contributes nothing of importance. What would strike a gossiping chronicler most is the number and merit of the amateur exhibitors. Scions of the aristocracy and veteran officers win even greater triumphs in this art than the “Wandering Minstrels” gain in music; and ladies of rank, so far from fearing to stain their delicate fingers, achieve the greatest successes of all….” “…For landscape photographs Mr. Bedford carries off the palm. His views of old cedars and oaks, and of Kenilworth and Warwick Castles, are scarcely equalled, and could not be surpassed, except in the colour. His view of “Warwick Castle from the Avon” is the most exquisite landscape photograph in this exhibition. Next to these, we must select for special commendation the woodland and other studies by the Hon. Warren Vernon, one of our most enthusiastic and successful amateurs, and whose photograph of the international rifle match at Lord Vernon’s famous range at Sudbury we engraved. Among the architectural subjects (by-the-way, perhaps the most valuable application of photography) the photographs of cathedrals, &c., in the south of France, taken by Cundall and Downs for the Architectural Photographic Society, and already reviewed in our columns, are the most important. The same photographers exhibit some good stereographs, together with views in Cliefden House and of other interiors, which, making allowance for the necessary forcing of the power of the lenses in such sudden perspectives, have much merit. On a table in the room there is a photographic copy of the famous Grimani Breviary, to which we recently alluded.”]


Diamond, Hugh Welsh. “Report of Jurors. (Concluded from p. 50.).” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 9:146. (June 15, 1864): 62-68. [(The International Exhibition, held in London in 1862, was a very large exposition of all sorts of goods, modeled after the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851. The 1862 exhibition created a storm of controversy in the photographic community because “Photography” was classed as a “Useful Art,” rather than a “Fine Art,” which strongly divided the photographic community for and against exhibiting. Nevertheless many photographers contributed and when the official report of the Photographic Jurors was finally released in 1863, the Photographic Journal published it in parts over several issues in 1863 and 1864. Bedford was discussed in the final part, two years after the exhibition opened.) “We have already seen that great strides have been made in photography in the superiority of its processes, in the increased certainty which has been obtained by regard to the chemical condition upon which success depends, in the improvement of its apparatus, and the widened scope of its appliances, aided by increased skill in the manipulatory details.’ We now proceed briefly to refer to some of the examples of the various applications in which this progress is strikingly manifest….” p. 62.  “…In landscape and architecture the progress of photography is illustrated in a most satisfactory manner, as well in the results of the wet- as the dry-collodion processes. The pictures of Mr. Bedford (United Kingdom, 3039) possess a degree of excellence beyond which it would seem impossible to go. In his productions are admirably united great artistic excellence with perfect command of his materials. His interiors are probably the finest which have ever been obtained by photography, and illustrate the importance of a cultivated knowledge in the selection of time, light, and position….” p. 65.]


“The Photographic Exhibition.” ART JOURNAL ns 3:7 (July 1864): 210. [“With respect to the number of the works this exhibition is by no means so full as others that have preceded it. This arises from resolutions passed by the Council that nothing but pure photography should be admitted,—that is to say, that all painted photographs, and those that were touched upon in anyway, should be rejected; and moreover, that all—such, we believe, was the determination—should be subjected to the test of washing: and it must be said that these resolutions are highly commendable, as in former exhibitions it was most difficult to determino the merits of personal photographs; and with respect to those that were painted, a great show was made by the employment of a skilful artist. We look, therefore, upon the selection as a concentration of rare excellence. Mr. Robinson, of Leamington, sends a composition of figures and landscape, which he calls ‘Autumn,’ excelling beyond all description his former photographs of this kind. Besides this, Mr. Robinson has sent ‘Interior of a Study, from Nature.’ and also a ‘Portrait,’ both of which are veritable pictures. Many of the small and larger vignette heads are very beautiful, being a great improvement on everything that has hitherto appeared in this way; they are extremely delicate, so much so that in some a little more force in the markings would be desirable. Those that most strike the visitor are (4) ‘Six Portraits,’ T. R. Williams; (5) ‘Twenty-five Portraits, &c.,’ F. Joubert; (3) ‘Ten Vignette Portraits,’ no name; ‘Portraits of Children’ (13), Claudet; and others by Lucas Brothers, Debenham, Rolf, and D. F. Winser. By the Viscountess Hawarden there is a study (187) of which the pictorial effect and arrangement are excellent. But the strength of the exhibition lies in its landscapes, and in these there is observable even a greater advance than in portraiture. Those noted are a few that are remarkably prominent: T. Annan (207), ‘Willows by the Watercourses;’ (203) ‘Studies from Nature,’ Lt.-Col. Verschoyle; (197) ‘Banyan Tree, Barrackpore,’ D. K. Macfarlane; (193) ‘The Path through the Woods,’ Brownrigg; (188) ‘Mill at Ambleside,” J. Spode; (179) nine plates by the Hon. W. W. Vernon; (212) ‘Old Bridge of Saulve Terre,’ T. Gilles; (53) ‘Water Lily Tank, Barrackpore,’ T. Macfarlane; (96) ‘ Old Cedar,’ and many others, by F. Bedford; (110) ‘Path cut out of the Rock,’ Major Gresley, &c. The exhibition is held in the Gallery of the Society of Female Artists, 48, Pall Mall.”]


“Photographic Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 9:148 (Aug. 15, 1864): 86-87. [“If the progress and prospects of photography should be estimated by this, the tenth Exhibition of the Photographic Society, they would appear to be very unsatisfactory indeed. It is decidedly the least interesting display that has yet been set before the London public. There is no new application of the principles of the art, nor is there anything remarkable in the practice or manipulation of those whose specimens make up the contents of the Exhibition. As compared even with that of last year, the present collection is dull and dreary in the extreme….” “…We take Mr. Bedford’s views to be amongst the best examples of what is called good photography; but, although they give abundance of detail, they fail to express, in any appreciable degree, the more important effects of atmosphere. Lieut.-Col. Verschoyle has made some attempts to photograph atmospheric effects —not altogether without success; but the powers of photography are at present limited in this direction, so far as we know, and we are only reminded of the suggestiveness and mystery of nature by impressions which, photographically speaking, are failures. After all, the process, invaluable though it be as an aid to the artist, conveys a very limited amount of truth to the mind: it gives the true impression of neither persons nor places; and, unless we have some previous knowledge of the scenes or of the individuals that it professes to represent, we almost invariably conceive a false notion about them….” “…[We have inserted the above cleverly written notice of the Exhibition, taken from the Reader; for although we cannot agree in many of the observations of the writer, yet we believe that photographers may read it with some interest.—Ed.]


BOOKS. 1864.
“Reviews.” ART JOURNAL ns 3:10 (Oct. 1864): 316. [Book review. The Ruined Castles of North Wales. With Photographic Illustrations. Published by A. W. Bennett, Bishopsgate Street Without. “A charming little book—a “gem” for a drawing-room table. The photographic illustrations are in the best style, by Bedford, Sedgfield, and Ambrose, and we can testify to their fidelity. The letterpress owes its interest to extensive quotations from William Howitt’s Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain, and the volume closes with Mary Howitt’s pleasant account of the Eisteddfod. The author (?) has the somewhat rare merit of honesty, for he acknowledges the source from whence he draws his information. The work should be followed by the Ruined Castles of South Wales, such as Piaglan, Pembroke, and Carew.”]


[Salsbury, Lord.] “Art. VII. Photography:” ” QUARTERLY REVIEW 116:232 (Oct. 1864): 482-519. [Book review. 1. A Manual of Photographic Chemistry, by T. Hardwich. 2. The Tannin Process, by C. Russell. (Review of the books listed expands into an extensive discussion of the role of photography in society, its aesthetic potential, etc.) “Of all the marvellous discoveries which have marked the last hundred years, Photography is entitled in many respects to take its rank among the most remarkable….” “…Practically they have been sufficient to deter photographers generally from carrying the wet process into distant fields. Occasionally an opportunity occurs when it can be done with comparative facility. Mr. Bedford, for instance, followed the Prince of Wales to the Holy Land, and produced a number of pictures upon wet collodion of the scenes through which he passed. The specimens that were shown in London leave no doubt that he was perfectly successful in conquering the difficulties with which he had to contend. The American photographers following in the rear of the Federal troops have also, it is said, been very successful in out of the way places….”]


“Notices of Books.” CHEMICAL NEWS AND JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE vol. 10 (Dec. 17, 1864): 296-298. [Book review. Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid. By Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, Astronomer Royal for Scotland. Alexander Stratum and Co., London. 1864. Pp. 400. “This book will be read with interest by the general public, but for the scientific reader it possesses unusual charms, on account of the depth of its information, the mathematical ingenuity displayed in its leading arguments, and the interesting historical references to problems in the way of standard weights and measures, and to the discussion of metrical systems which have lately been puzzling the House of Commons, the British Association, and other learned bodies. The frontispiece is a reduction from the excellent original photograph of Mr. Francis Bedford, representing a good view of the Great Pyramid of Jizeh, and there is a coloured map of the ancient pyramid-field in Egypt, besides several well-executed diagrams illustrating points of construction. The work is dedicated to the late John Taylor, Esq., of London, who appears to have devoted his life to the study of everything relating to the Great Pyramid, and upon whose previous literary inquiries in the form of the book entitled The Great Pyramid: why was it built? the argument of Professor Smyth is mainly founded….”]





“Photographic Societies. The Photographic Society of London.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1865. (1865): 14.  [“Founded 1853. Patron—Her Majesty The Queen. Council and Officers. President—The Right Hon. Sir Frederick Pollock (Lord Chief Baron). Vice-Presidents—Lieut.-Col. Stuart Wortley, James Glaisher, F.R.S., and Francis Bedford, F.R.S. Members of Council—-C. Thurston Thompson, Henry White, Joseph Durham, F.S.A.,, The Earl of Caithness, T. R. Williams, Dr. H. G. Wright, J. B. Sedgwick, F. Joubert, H. P. Robinson, E. Underwood, Hon. W. W. Vernon, J. P. Gassiot, F.R.S., J. Spode, Sebastian Davis, Henry Pollock, J. J. Cole, A. Claudet, F.R.S, and T. H. Hennah. Treasurer—Arthur R. Hamilton, Esq. -Secretary- H. W. Diamond, M.D., F.S.A. The ordinary Meetings of the Society are held at King’s College, on the first Tuesday of each month, with the exception of July, August, September, and October. The Annual General Meeting is held on the first Tuesday in February. The Chair is taken at Eight, p.m. There is no announcement of any Exhibition to be held in 1865.”
This listing of the Officers of the Photographic Society was printed every year, and Francis Bedford held the offices of Vice-President, or Council Member in most of the years through the 1860s through the early 1880s. His son William is also frequently listed on the Council throughout this period.
Francis Bedford is also briefly quoted in various ads for tents, collodion, lenses, etc. in the advertisement section of this annual and many other of these annuals throughout the period.)]   


Macleod, Norman, D. D. “Eastward.” GOOD WORDS 6:1-12 (Jan.-Dec. 1865): 33-40, 113-123, 233-241, 286-295, 389-396, 525-542, 587-601, 665-677, 753-764, 823-834, 914-924. 70 illus. [(The editor of Good Words, Norman Macleod, toured the Near East and published reports of his travels through Malta, Egypt, Jerusalem and Palestine. Reports were illustrated with maps and with woodcuts credited “From a Photograph.” In some cases the individual views were credited to specific photographers, i.e. “Jaffa from the South. ‘From a Photograph by James Graham.'” on p. 289 and “From a Photograph by Francis Bedford” on p. 393. There are several panoramic views of Jerusalem credited to James Graham and the majority of the Palestine photos are so credited.) [“We embarked at Alexandria on Sunday evening* in a Russian steamer which was to start at early dawn for Jaffa. When I say we, I do not at present use Macleod, normanial, or the modest “we,” instead of the too personal and obtrusive “I.” It is intended to express the party which embarked at Alexandria to visit Palestine together.” p. 286. “”The illustration of El-Jib (Gibeon) is copied from a photograph by Nr. Francis Bedford, taken during the tour of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales, and published by Messrs. Day and Son. I have pleasure in directing attention to this magnificent series of photographic views.” Footnote, p. 396. “I have already stated that there are two great thoroughfares from Jaffa to Jerusalem-the one by Ramleh, and the other by the Beth-horons and Gibeon-and that we chose the latter. We did so that we might traverse the scene of Joshua’s great battle with the “five kings,” and also obtain our first general view of Palestine, including Jerusalem, from Neby Samwil.” p. 399.]


BOOKS. 1865.
“Contemporary Literature.” WESTMINSTER REVIEW (NEW YORK, NY) 83:163 (Jan. 1865): 117-160. [Book review. The Lake Country. By E. Lynn Linton. With a Map, and one hundred Illustrations, drawn and engraved by W. J. Linton. London: Smith and Elder. 1864. [No photographs.] “Hyperion: a Romance.” By Henry W. Longfellow. Illustrated with twenty-four Photographs by Francis Frith. London: Alfred William Bennett. 1865. The Gossiping Photographer on the Rhine. Frith. London: Bennett. 1864. The Gossiping Photographer at Hastings.” Frith. London: Bennett. 1864. Normandy: its Gothic Architecture and History. A Sketch. By F. G. Stephens, London: Alfred W. Bennett. 1865. The Ruined Castles of North Wales. With Photographic Illustrations by Bedford, Sedgwick, and Ambrose. London: Alfred W. Bennett 1864.“…A beautiful volume on the Westmoreland Lakes'” is the joint production of Mr. and Mrs. Linton; the lady contributing the letter-press, and her husband the illustrations—one hundred in number. The nature of the book will best be described in the words of her own preface: —” It seemed to my husband and myself that a pleasant book could be made by treating the lake country with the love and knowledge— artistic and local—belonging of right to natives and old inhabitants. We hope that what we have done will bear out our design. Though a faithful description of scenes and places, it is not a tour made up of personal adventures; neither is it a handbook, telling what inns to go to, and how much to pay for breakfast and dinner; nor yet an exhaustive monograph, for which we should have needed thrice the time and space afforded; but it is merely a book on the lakes, giving such of the general and local history as fell in with our plan, and what we thought would interest the reader, while doing our best to worthily illustrate and describe the most beautiful places—both those popularly known, and those which only the residents ever find out” How completely this excellent purpose has been carried out will be readily admitted by any one who merely skims these delightful pages, in which pen and pencil have so happily united to aid each other in making the record as perfect as possible. The descriptive writing is both accurate and picturesque, and is greatly set off by the little drawings which represent some favourite mountain scene or lovely sequestered dell, and the strictly scientific portion is relegated to an appendix containing the botany geology, mountain altitudes, and rainfall of the lake district So long as such illustrated works are produced, photography can hardly win the first place in public favour, though it appear; to great advantage in some of the Christmas books, more especially in those of Mr. Frith, whose three volumes contain some admirable examples of what the camera can achieve, A sumptuous edition of Longfellow’s Hyperion, contains twenty-four photographs taken in Switzerland, the Tyrol, and on the Rhine, and the result is a volume that not inappropriately calls itself the Giftbook of the season. The subjects are as well chosen for pictorial effect as for their association with the wanderings of Paul Flemming, and those of the “Entrance to the Valley of Birkenau.” “The Staubbach,” and “Landeck,” are as truly beautiful specimens of landscape, as “The Market-place, Stuttgard,” “Tomb of Maximilian, Innspruck,” and “Stolzenfels ” are of architecture. Mr. Frith publishes on his own account a series of the better-known views on the Rhine, to which he adds descriptive and explanatory matter sufficient for a thin volume,’ in the funny, confidently confidential tourist’s style; and another series, similar in size and composition, of some of the most interesting places about Hastings and its environs. Both volumes deserve the good word of those who give and those who receive a present for the drawing-room table. Of smaller dimensions, but of equal beauty, is the volume modestly styled “A Sketch,” by Mr. Stephens,” containing twenty-fire exquisite small photographs of some of the finest buildings of Normandy, and a concise well-compiled summary of the historical events connected with them, and a short account of their architectural history. For the representation of rich and florid ornament, such as that of the West front of Rouen Cathedral, or the marvellous decorations of St. Ouen, science and art combined have invented no more perfect method than that of photography as now practised. Another sample of the art, though small, must not he overlooked, namely a pretty little volume upon the Ruined Castles of North Wales, decorated within and without with photographs, and obtainable for the small sum of three-and-six-pence….” p. 156.]


“Antiquarian and Literary Intelligencer. Archaeological Institute.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Mar. 1865): 324-327. [“Feb. 2. The Very Rev. Canon Rock, D.D., in the chair…”… Dr. Wynn Williams exhibited a Flemish mortar of bronze, from Caernarvon Castle, bearing the date 1598. Photographs of Maxstoke Castle, Warwickshire, were brought by Mr. Fetherston, and a series of photographs of the Beauchamp Chapel and monuments, by Mr. Bedford. Some fine photographs also of the Gothic crowns discovered near Toledo, and now in the Musee de Cluny at Paris, were exhibited by Mr. Burtt; they had been presented by the Director of the Museum, M. du Sommerard….” p. 326.]


“Medical News. Guy’s Hospital.” LANCET 85:2170 (Apr. 1, 1865): 353-354. [“The treasurer of this hospital held a conversazione on the evening of the 28th ult., at which a large number of persons eminent in the literary and scientific world were present. Amongst the distinguished visitors were the President of the hospital, Sir Lawrence Peel, the Earl of Harrowby, Lord and Lady Sandon, Lord Kirkaldie, Sir William Page Wood, the Treasurers of St. Bartholomew’s and St. Thomas’s Hospitals, Archdeacon Hale, and many of the governors and medical officers of the hospital. Several of the large rooms in the new wing ware thrown open and filled with numerous and well-selected objects of interest. The magnesium light was shown at intervals at different parts of the room ; and a photograph of the assembly was taken by its assistance in the course of the evening. A large collection of microscopes and scientific instruments were exhibited by Messrs. Smith and Beck, Casella, Highley, How, Browning, Marratt and Short, Novra, Baker, Home and Thornthwaite, Powell and Lealand. Some magnificent jewellery, and the well-known original piping bulltiuch, now 200 years old, were sent by Mr. Ëmanuel, and some splendid electroplate by Elkington. One room was filled with the celebrated anatomical models made for the hospital by Mr. Towne. A large number of most brilliant electrical experiments were shown by Mr. Atkinson, and also by Mr. Browning. The photomicrographs of Dr. Maddox were exhibited on a screen by Mr. How, and the process of photomicrography by the magnesium light was practically illustrated. On the walls were some splendid horns, antlers, and stuffed animals, exhibited by Mr. Leadbeater and Mr. Sowerby, and many pictures and some beautiful photographs by Mr. Francis Bedford. About 1500 persons were present, including many ladies, and most of the students. Altogether the soirée was a most interesting one.”]


“North London Photographic Association.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 10:156 (Apr. 15, 1865): 41. [“The Annual Meeting of this Association was held in Myddelton Hall, Islington, on Wednesday evening, March 22, G. Dawson, Esq., in the Chair. The Minutes of the last Meeting having been read and confirmed, the following Gentlemen were elected by ballot Members of the Association:—Mr. R. Temple, Mr. W. A. Clark, Mr. W. Bedford, Mr. H. Smith, Mr. W. Malby, and Mr. R. M. Gordon. Mr. W. W. King then read the Annual Report of the Committee for the past year. Your Committee have great pleasure in reporting the continued prosperity of the North London Photographic Association, and the addition of several new Members, amongst whom are photographers of the highest eminence. Although papers have not always been forthcoming, yet the following subjects will prove that there has been no lack of interesting matter for discussion at the various Meetings … Several manufacturers have contributed new apparatus,… To Mr. Francis Bedford the Society has been much indebted for the occasional exhibition of some of his finest photographs, especially those illustrative of our national antiquities. Allusion has been made to the want of papers at our Meetings. Your Committee have good reason to hope that this for the ensuing year will be fully supplied, as they have received several promises of papers from Members and others well known in the photographic world….”]


“The Photographic Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 9:348 – 349 (May 5 – May 12, 1865): 205-206, 217-218. [11th annual exhibition. H. P. Robinson; Twyman; Blanchard; Silas Eastham; James Ross; Dr. Hemphill; H. Cooper; F. Bedford; J. Mudd; Wm. England; MacFarlane; Buxton; Dr. Maddox; G. Wharton Simpson; others mentioned.]


“Echoes of the Week.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 46:1314 (Sat., May 6, 1865): 438. [“…As the warm weather sets in, exhibitions open and novels die out. If anyone wishes to see how truly Shakespeare has described photography, let him go to the Architectural and Photographic Exhibition, in Conduit-street. Our operators are no longer mere mechanics. Mr. Robinson, in his “Brenda,” and “Evening,” really enters—and that as no novice, but a master—the domain of art. There are some fine examples of permanent pictures on opal glass, which has been named, from its inventor, Mr. G. Wharton Simpson, the Simpsontype. Messrs. Mudd and Bedford have some very fine landscapes, charming in their soft detail and brilliance; and Mr. Blanchard some remarkable instantaneous views, wherein the very bursting of a wave has been rendered; and there are some large compositions, especially one of a musical party, which, for arrangements and accessories, are lessons to our best oil painters….”]


“Soiree of the Photographic Society.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 12:262 (May 12, 1865): 249. [Soiree held by Photographic Society, awarded medals to Bedford, Buxton, England, Macfarlane, Mudd and H. P. Robinson. Quote from a statement by the Committee, disapproving of the careless technique of J. M. Cameron.]


“The New Testament.” LITTELL’S LIVING AGE 85:1093 (May 13, 1865): 324-326. [From the Athenaeum. Book review. The New Testament. Illustrated by a Plain Explanatory Comment, and by Authentic Views of Places mentioned in the Sacred Text from Sketches and Photographs taken on the spot. Edited by E. Churton and W. R. Jones. 2 vols. (Murray.) (This is possibly the only instance, or certainly a very rare instance, that I have seen in the literature of this era, of a critic privileging photography over the other visual arts.) “The noblest art, the keenest criticism, the amplest scholarship have all been lavished without stint on the sacred story; yet the glorious theme is so far from being exhausted by this splendid treatment, that we may safely assert, as a position capable of immediate proof; that the illustration of this story has, for Europeans and Americans, only just commenced. The gospel histories are peculiar even among histories. Setting aside for a moment (as not necessary to be considered in pure lay criticism, which treats a book only so far as it is a product of human effort) the great fact of their being inspired, the gospel narratives have this striking peculiarity — that while the scenery, the manners and customs, the politics, the popular opinions, and the current events, are all implied in the story, — influencing its progress, modifying its meaning, pointing its lessens, — the scenery, manners, opinions and events, are not described by the evangelists, to whom they were familiar as the light of day and the stars of night… Scenery and manners make the background on which the sacred history is limned. The great events of this history grow out of the common politics of the time, — out of the debates in Jewish schools, the conflicts in Roman councils; and its personal incidents are moulded by such things as the Flora and Fauna, the domestic architecture, the customs and habits of the country. There is probably no other book in literature in which common things have so much to do with the actual text, in which the reader’s acquaintance with these common things is so completely taken on trust…. Yet, unless we possess some true knowledge of these things the lesson of the text will be lost upon us. Here, then, we find an office for the-illustrator; both the artistic and the literary illustrator; each of whom has a function to discharge. Let us take the artist first. A mighty corpus of illustration has sprung from the pencil, a small but choice selection from which has recently been made available to the English public by Lady Eastlake. The greatest painters have devoted their highest efforts to this task of pictorial representation;… Raphael and Da Vinci were painters. They felt an artistic interest in their themes. They were in love with beauty. But they were strangers to the supreme sentiment of truth, whether that truth were general or local. Thus, they made the Virgin a young and beautiful woman, even at the foot of the Cross, though she was then fifty years old; an age at which a Syrian female, a mother at fifteen, usually a grand-mother at thirty, is a worn and ancient dame. They painted her of an Italian, not of a Hebrew, type. Their landscapes were Italian, their edifices Italian, their viands Italian…. In short, they painted their own life in a series of allegories, which are not only worthless to the student of the sacred story, but positively injurious to his eye and mind. All that artistic frippery must be rooted out of the memory before a man can begin to study with benefit, and enjoy with profit, the actual life of Our Saviour on the earth. Of late years, we have begun to feel the need of a more serious study; and our younger race of painters have travelled into the Holy Land before presuming to paint sacred subjects. Mr. Holman Hunt set a good example of serious study; Mr. Seddon and others followed in his wake; and the consequence is, that our public, taught by example, are beginning to demand that illustrations of the Gospel narratives shall be true…. But while waiting for a new body of Sacred Art to appear, — Art that shall not sacrifice truth to beauty, — we must take what we can get. Art, in its many capacities, has recently put out a new branch — photography; and in this new form of copying nature we may look for some real addition to our stock of knowledge respecting the Holy Land. Scenery, costume, physiognomy, at least we may now obtain of a kind to satisfy all our doubts. The most faithful sketchers in the past could not resist helping nature. We never look at David Roberts’s drawings in Palestine without vexation of spirit; for the artist will give you a picture where you ask him for a fact; show you the Dead Sea when it is out of sight; stain the gray limestone with the tints of marble; mottle his blue sky with clouds…. Tipping and Catherwood may be excepted from a general censure; yet even their very careful drawing is far from the stern accuracy of line with which the sun copies a building and a landscape. For some time to come we shall put the sketchers on one side, and put our trust in Bedford, Robertson and Graham. Mr. Murray’s New Testament is a noble commencement of the new era of illustration which we desire for the Scriptures. The plan allows of both photographic and pictorial explanation, so as to illustrate events as well as scenery. Overbeck, Laborde, Mrs. Walker, Texier, and Bartlett supply the subjects, Mr. Malan and Mr. Graham the sceneries. The former series of artists work upon a rather dangerous plan; for the subjects are often fanciful in choice, and the surroundings are not always Syrian. Yet, on the whole, this peril is pretty well avoided; a vague general truth being substituted by Overbeck for that particular truth of which he had no knowledge. Of Mr. Malan and Mr. Graham we can speak with greater confidence. The latter supplies an incomparable series of photographic studies, in which the actual places— Bethlehem, the Jordan, the Sea of Galilee, Jerusalem — stand before the reader visible, bright in colour, sharp in outline, like themselves, and unlike anything else on earth. Mr. Malan’s drawings are often excellent; but we cannot trust them as we trust the sun. Compare his sketch of Nazareth against Mr. Graham’s photograph of Bethany; how vague and indistinct the human sketch, how detailed and direct the sun-picture! Still, it is only in comparison with the fine truth of the photograph that we should lower the labours of Mr. Malan; his drawings have many good points, and if. Mr. Graham were absent we should be quite content with Mr. Malan…. This edition is meant to be popular rather than critical; to be a book for the fireside, the summer lawn, and the autumnal shore. Mr. Murray’s editors and illustrators bethought them of the wants of those busy men who desire to know the latest thoughts of the best scholars, and to possess the last results of travel and discovery; they provided for these wants, and this edition is, therefore, the New Testament for the general reader.”]


“Photographic Society of London. Report of the Exhibition Committee.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 10:157 (May 15, 1865): 62-64. [“Ordinary General Meeting. King’s College, London. Tuesday, May 9, 1865.  J. Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S., V.P., in the Chair….” “…The Committee appointed by the Council of the Society to award the Medals to those pictures in their Exhibition they thought worthy of receiving that honour, and to superintend the arrangements of the Exhibition, beg to make the following report:— Your Committee have pleasure in congratulating the Council on the numerous and beautiful pictures which form their Exhibition, and which are equal to, and in some instances excel, those of any former year, notwithstanding the numerous Photographic Exhibitions open in Dublin, Berlin, and elsewhere, and which must have absorbed a large number of the best productions of the year. Although the available space has been somewhat limited, sufficient room has been afforded to enable them to do justice to the many fine works sent for exhibition in every branch of the art. Your Committee regret that one of the most important applications of the art, that of reproduction, is not adequately represented, and they also remark that portraiture, in its conventional and routine aspect, forms a less prominent feature in this Exhibition than in those of former years. Coloured miniatures are not numerous, but some very excellent specimens are exhibited; one by Madame Brunner, a member of the Society, may be especially mentioned as worthy of attention. Landscape-photography has taken the lead in quantity; and there are so many landscape photographs of such great excellence, that your Committee have felt bound to award no less than five Medals to that department alone. Each of the exhibitors in this department produce pictures so essentially different from each other that they must not be considered as to their relative excellence. Prominently must be mentioned the wonderful series contributed by Mr. Bedford, whoso marvellously beautiful transcripts of English and Eastern; scenery have been the admiration of all photographers, as well as the public, for many years; while those by Mr. England, although of a smaller size, deserve no less praise, his series of views in Switzerland far surpassing anything that has ever been done before in that country. Your Committee have therefore awarded to each of these gentlemen a Medal. Two gentlemen, Mr. Buxton and Mr. Macfarlane, exhibit views taken by themselves in India. These pictures are so different from any which have been produced in that country, and exhibited ns specimens of photography in India, being free from the chalky high lights and black shadows hitherto regarded as inseparable from the results obtained in tropical climates, that the Committee felt it would be injustice to give a Medal to one without making a similar award to the other; each of these gentlemen, therefore, has been awarded a Medal. To Mr. Mudd, as the ablest exponent of dry-plate photography in the Exhibition, the Committee have awarded a Medal. This gentleman has worked out the process of M. Taupenot with a commendable degree of pains and assiduity, and has obtained results commensurate with the excellence of the process and the care and skill brought to bear upon the method to which he has devoted himself, his large pictures especially having an amount of force, free from much of the hardness which has usually characterized the pictures obtained by dry plates, which is worthy of attention….”


“Minor Topics of the Month.” ART JOURNAL ns 4:6 (June 1865): 194. [“Messrs. Catterall and Pritchard, of Chester, have sent us some photographs and stereoscopic slides, the productions of the eminent photographer, Bedford, which we have examined with exceeding pleasure. Those of size represent interiors in Hereford Cathedral; more especially views of the rood-screen and reredos, manufactured by Skidmore, of Coventry, which attracted so much attention at the International Exhibition in 1862. The smaller views are very varied: they represent the more attractive objects to be found at Hereford, Warwick, Cheltenham, Gloucester, Malvern, Coventry, Stratford-on-Avon, Kenilworth, and Chester. The points are in all cases well chosen. They thoroughly exhibit several of the most interesting “historic” cities and towns of England. In execution, the stereoscopic slides are clear, sharp, and of great excellence in all respects. The publishers have our thanks for the instruction and enjoyment they have thus afforded us.”]


“The Dublin Exhibition—Photographic Department.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 10:158 (June 15, 1865): 93-94. [“The Exhibition was opened in state on the day appointed, the 9th of May, by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. Notwithstanding the immense exertions that had been made to bring the contents of the building into something like order, the state of chaos that reigned during our visit immediately after the opening day (although greater progress seemed to have been made in the photographic department than in any other) rendered an earlier review of the photographs exhibited impossible. We have therefore considered it more just to the exhibitors to delay our notice of the principal contents of the photographic department of this Exhibition until next month, when we shall be able to make it much more perfect and complete. We have very great satisfaction in noticing that photography has had greater justice done to it in this Exhibition than in the International of 1862. It is classed amongst the Fine Arts, and at the same time it retains the medals not awarded to other departments of the same class—painting, sculpture, and engraving. It is respectably lodged in three well-lighted rooms, about 30 feet square, and, being on the ground-floor, a tedious staircase like that which led to the photographs in the central tower of the 1862 Exhibition has not to be climbed to reach them, acting, as it then did, as an insurmountable barrier between the photographs and the public. For all these advantages photographers have to be grateful to the indomitable perseverance and indefatigable energy of the principal manager of this portion of the Exhibition, Sir J. Joscelyn Coghill, whose gentle courtesy in his communications with photographers when he was collecting specimens won the goodwill of all, andsecured many works for the Exhibition which would not otherwise have been sent. The catalogue (the first editions of which, by the-by, were not so complete or instructive as they might have been) contains the best names in the art, with scarcely an exception. Mr. Bedford exhibits a splendid collection of his inimitable landscapes. Mr. Robinson has sent a complete series of his well-known works, pictures that will be mentioned when the history of photography comes to be written in future time. Mr. Mudd has a series of prints from collodio-albumen negatives, superior to the results of any other dry process yet invented. Mr. England’s pictures in Savoy and Switzerland will attract much attention. Messrs. Joubert, Claudet, Mayall, Silvy, and others worthily represent portraiture. Messrs. Lock and Whitfield exhibit some Royal portraits; one, probably from the fact of its being a portrait of the Prince of Wales, has obtained the post of honour. Mr. Rejlander exhibits a large number of studios from life, which, we are sorry to find, do little towards securing the high reputation his first works promised him. Mrs. Cameron’s poetical but badly manipulated portraits and groups occupy a considerable space. Mr. Brothers exhibits some interesting specimens taken by the aid of the magnesium light; and Messrs. Marion and Son send some of Mr. Thurston Thompson’s superb copies of Turner’s pictures….”]


“Photography.” POPULAR SCIENCE REVIEW 4:16 (July 1865): 530-534. 1 illus. [“The Photographic Exhibition.—The annual exhibitions of the London or King’s College Photographic Society and that of the Architectural Union, have, for some years since, been pecuniary failures; this year they combine their attractions, and we hope the result will be more satisfactory….” “…The exhibition also contains some admirable landscapes by Bedford, Mudd, Thompson, England, Blanchard, Annan, Gordon, Macfarlane, and others of our best landscapists, and several specimens of new printing processes in carbon, printer’s ink, &c., on various surfaces. The specimens of apparatus shown are some stereoscopes by Murray and Heath, a graphoscope, and a very tastefully and highly finished piece of cabinet work, in the shape of a handsome cabinet stereoscope, in polished walnut-wood, by Mr. Meagher….”]


Hughes, Jarez. “About Light, and about Lighting the Sitter; with some Reflections about the Room in which he is Lighted.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 10:159 (July 15, 1865): 103-110. [“Read April 13th, at the South Loudon Photographic Society.” “Light is verily the Alpha and the Omega of the photographer, yet it has received less special study than any of the agencies he employs. Hitherto our energies have been directed to the understanding and perfecting our processes—in securing good tools and proper materials; but having attained considerable success in these directions, it should now be our purpose to study how best to use the power we have obtained. We have conquered mechanics, controlled chemistry, subsidized optics, and now we should attack Old Sol himself, and seize him by the beams, as a lion by his beard, and so assume the mastery, light is very much as the proverb says of Fire—a good servant, but a bad master. One must not let it have its own way; it must be governed, ruled, controlled, held in check. The Sun is far too liberal with his power; he darts his rays just as freely in the wrong as in the right direction, and is as ready to spoil as to make a picture. It is for the photographer to use and not abuse this prodigality. And I this leads to the question of questions, how to use the light….” “…I think the true test of good lighting is the preservation of delicacy of half-tone. Ruskin says that he can only find one thing common to all great artists—delicacy. May we not say the same of our clever photographers? Consider the works of Bedford, Robinson, Williams, England, Wilson, Blanchard, Mudd, Heath, Thurston Thompson, and the many others equally skilful; and in what do they excel so much as in their wondrous delicacy? And what is delicacy but another name for soft and tender half-tone? Remember, there is quite as much beautiful and delicate half-tone in the deepest shades as in the highest lights, and all is produced by a harmony of opposing lights. The first condition, however, is for a person to feel and love these delicate gradations, to be happy when they are present, and miserable when they are absent. When this condition of mind is produced, the quick hand and sensitive eye will find means to register them on the plate. The grand claim of photography is, that it is true. Deprive it of this virtue, and all its other merits are valueless. But the presence or absence of half-tone is the principal element of photographic truth. It is not usually thought so, but it’s a fact….” p. 106.]


“The Exhibition of the Photographic Society.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 10:159 (July 15, 1865): 115-118. [“The following review of the Exhibition, from the Illustrated London News, appearing to be an independent criticism from a non-photographic writer, we have transferred it to our columns as a record of public opinion:—It may well appear not a little surprising that, after struggling on for ten years, the Annual Photographic Exhibition can no longer maintain an independent existence; and that, after removing from place to place, almost every year seeking a new home, it now appears as a modest adjunct to the Architectural Exhibition in Conduit Street. When we think of the enormous extension, both of the practice of, and demand for, photography,—when we recollect the varied applications of the art, and that it is now cultivated by high and low, at home and abroad by an army of amateurs as well as by professionals, by ladies and men of rank as well as by the intelligent mechanics who contribute to industrial exhibitions,—that it has a literature of its own, and supports several journals,—and that there is hardly a home in the three kingdoms without a sun-picture of some sort,—it does, we say, appear remarkable that a self-supporting exhibition cannot be established. Yet for some years, we believe, the receipts from the Exhibition have not equalled the expenses; and the last and present exhibitions especially have been very inadequately representative of the progress of the art in various directions. Doubtless some blame must be attached to the management for these untoward results. The repeated alterations of the place and season of exhibition have alone been sufficient cause for numbers of the general public overlooking the show altogether. But the body of photographers must also be charged with unaccountable and, we suspect, illiberal neglect of a great means of advancing their art, and securing it a definite and respectable status. A new complaint to be made this year is the absence of a catalogue. It is true that the title, method, and name of executant are affixed to each contribution. But, though this innovation is so far entirely commendable, it does not supersede the uses of a catalogue to those who wish to make comparisons and preserve a record. A more serious deficiency, however, is, as we have already intimated, the absence of examples of some new processes, of several valuable applications of the art, and of some of its most skilful practitioners. The only specimen of the too much .vaunted Wothlytype is completely, and we need not add tastelessly, obscured by colour. There are no specimens of the photozincography and photolithography employed by Colonel Sir Henry James, in conjunction with the methods of chromo-carbon printing developed by Captain Scott for the multiplication of copies of the “Ordnance Survey,” ” Domesday Book,” &c. Some other processes of heliography, affording means for using printers’ ink, and carbon printing, are likewise not represented. In this Exhibition surely there should also be specimens of the admirable photography from the Farnley Hall Turners, by Messrs. Caldesi, and other recent photographs after the same master; together with sheets of the photographic fac-similes of Shakspeare’s first folios. Photosculpture, “crystal cubes,” and other useful and ornamental applications of photography would also contribute to give the display a more popular character. As regards photosculpture, however, we may repeat what we said on its first appearance—namely, that it is not likely to win any but most qualified admiration from persons with a just conception of the nature of sculpture as a fine art. Moreover, until photosculptures are produced in London, as at Paris, by the aid of a large number of simultaneous photographs from different points of view, and not merely from a half-dozen of such photographs, we shall not be disposed to accord to the invention even the moderate amount of credit it may fairly claim when properly carried out. It is utterly impossible for a photosculpture from a small number of views of a figure or object to have the actual or closely-approximate photographic accuracy claimed for the invention, whatever the degree of resemblance it may (but is not likely to) derive from the generally inferior sculptors employed to round off the ridges left after using the pantograph. The peculiar value of photography in copying architecture and sculpture should be more fully illustrated in such fine studies as those of the Architectural Photographic Society (though even these are surpassed by the French), and in such examples as have been on former occasions contributed by the Stereoscopic Company and by Messrs. Thurston Thompson, Lake Price, Dixon Piper, and others. We miss, too, from this Exhibition the exquisite “studies” of the Viscountess Hawarden, the artistic “out-of-focus” portraits of painters by Mr. Winfield, the beautiful vignettes of Mr. T. R. Williams, and the productions of some proficients in the management of figure-subjects. However, notwithstanding these drawbacks —notwithstanding that the Exhibition is far from being so comprehensive as we think the Society ought to strive to make it, yet it is very interesting and in many ways instructive. The great discovery of the year is Mr. Wharton Simpson’s new method of printing with the collodio-chloride of silver, and it is here exemplified (we wish it had been more fully) in three or four diverse tones of colour, one lane-scene in a bistre tone being marvellously delicate and aerial. The process is as simple as it is beautiful; and, to Mr. Simpson’s great honour, it is presented to photographers at large as common property unfettered by restrictions of any kind. The principle of the process is founded on the possibility of suspending chloride of silver in collodion in such a fine state of subdivision as to constitute something very nearly resembling a solution—a chemical fact so unexpected as to excite the surprise of every member of the Photographic Society present on its announcement. The nearest approach to art, or rather the most bold and successful application of the principles of fine-art to photography, will be found in several portraits of literary men and painters, and studies from women and children, intended as illustrations of “Faith,” “Hope,” “Charity,” &c., by Miss Julia Cameron. These photographs are “out of focus,” but, for the most part, not extravagantly so, like some former works by this lady. We are disposed to think that some of their softness of outline, breadth, and (as we might almost say) their apparent lifelike capability of movement is obtained—so general and equalized are these qualities—by some mechanical contrivance other than by simple manipulation with the lenses. At all events, these attempts by scientific means to imitate nature not only as she is, but as we see her, afford rare pleasure to artists, and irrefragably establish many leading principles of art which have been ignored even by a certain class of painters themselves. How it is that these principles have not been more generally adopted by portrait-photographers we are at a loss to understand. How it is, above all, that greater attention is not paid to lighting we cannot conceive. Light, instead of being the greatest friend, is, we verily believe, the greatest enemy to the mass of photographers; and until we see three-fourths of their glass houses bricked up they will never be able to secure the one great charm of art within their reach, the broad, simple, and regulated chiaroscuro of Rembrandt, Correggio, and Velasquez. These productions by Miss Cameron, a portrait composition by Mr. Twyman, with two or three portraits by Mr. H. P. Robinson, one or two by Claudet, a few vignettes, and a solar-camera enlargement of the head of Tennyson by Mr. Mayall, are among the few figure-subjects here which have any very decided art-value in their lighting; and the remark can apply in very limited degree to vignettes. The portrait composition by Mr. Twyman, just mentioned, represents a musical club, “Our Society,” as it is called. The various members are well arranged; but what is more remarkable is the very diverse gradations of tone and degrees of definiteness with which they appear, according to their relative position—variations that are excellent in intention, though carried somewhat too far. But this, like all photographs produced from “positives ” joined together from several “negatives,” is open to the charge of violating our faith in the understood, or what should be the understood, of photographic representation. The same objection applies in a more limited degree to Mr. Robinson’s “picture compositions,” of which the most noteworthy is “The Lady of Shalott.” After making this deduction we must, however, admit that Mr. Robinson’s contributions are, as usual, preeminent for artistic feeling in idea, arrangement, breadth, selection of models, and accessories, combined with manipulative skill. But the most curious examples from more than one negative, and the most successful in their concealment of all traces of joining, are the “doubles” or ” Siamese ” photographs of Mr. Gill, in which we see a man shaking hands with himself, or drinking to himself, or squaring up to himself, a little girl wheeling herself along in a perambulator, and such like supernatural phenomena. The more ordinary “ghost trick” in photography, of which there are examples here, was noticed on a former occasion. Several beautiful subjects have been obtained by Mr. Rouch from the statuary and flowers in a handsome conservatory. Much taste is displayed by Mr. S. Thompson in his vignette “book illustrations.” We have given warm commendation to some photographs of the face and figure that appear to us to indicate artistic knowledge or feeling, because, without a certain amount of artistic treatment, photographs, more especially of the face, are, from various imperfections of the process, false to our impressions and destructive of the beauty of nature. But it is not to be concealed that there are many classes of subject in which any such treatment, or anything short of the utmost sharpness and accuracy of which photography is susceptible, would be wholly out of place. It must also be admitted that photography is never more legitimately employed than as a scientific record, wholly independent of art. Its value when so employed is indicated, for instance, in the photographs, by Mr. How, of numerous microscopic organisms and structures. It will be readily understood that applications of photography such as this must be an immense assistance to chemistry, medicine, geology, and many branches of scientific inquiry. The photographs also by Mr. Bedford of buildings, sites, and scenes in the East are unsurpassed for delicacy and multiplicity of details, and have therefore the quality which, in photographic representations of such subjects, is of primary importance. On the other hand, Mr. Walker’s photographs of more familiar scenes are also to be highly esteemed, because, while they have less detail where detail is of less interest, they are equally records of natural effect, although they render paramount those broad gradations which it is the aim of the artist to secure. The contributions of the two last-named exhibitors are instructively placed side by side, and evince how entirely distinct may be the works of the photographers—distinct, almost, as their several handwritings, or as the styles of different artists. Mr. Mudd, the results of whose manipulations lie, for the most part, between these two last, is represented in several admirable examples. The highest praise is also due to the Indian photographs of Messrs. Macfarlane and Buxton, their purity and beauty being the more remarkable on account of the greater difficulties imposed on the photographer by the climate. Some instantaneous stereographs, by Mr. Blanchard, of seaside views, with clouds and breaking waves, and a series of photographs of the animals in the Zoological Society’s Gardens, by Messrs. Melhuish and Hayes, exemplify two of the many useful applications of the more rapid processes. The carbon process of Mr. Swan we should have mentioned before as a novelty promising most valuable results. It may be remembered that we last year spoke in high terms of this process of printing (in which indestructible carbon takes the place of always more or less fugitive silver); but we spoke with some reservation, because the process was only illustrated in landscapes, not in portraiture. This year, however, there is a portrait, and we must say that it is the best example of the employment of carbon we have seen. Though unnecessarily black, and still lacking the extreme delicacy of a silver print, we have never yet seen the gradations and modelling of flesh so tenderly rendered by the material. Mr. Pouncy, who claims to be the originator of carbon printing, exhibits some examples; but, as these are prepared for enamelling, they are not fair specimens of his method. By-the-way, there are some beautiful monochrome and also several coloured photographic enamels. Lastly, Mr. Burgess exhibits specimens of ordinary printing on a material he calls “eburneum,” resembling in its soft tone and semi-transparent texture the finest ivory. The material is, we believe, gelatine, opalized, in a state of fusion, with white lead.”]


“North-Eastern London Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 10:160 (Aug. 15, 1865): 121. [“The Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures for North-eastern London will be opened on the 16th, with a grand ceremony, in which the National Choral Society, of one thousand voices, under the direction of Mr. G. W. Martin, will take part. Through the energy of the indefatigable chairman, Mr. W. Hislop, and the Committee of the North London Photographic Association, the photographic section of this exhibition will be one of the largest and best that have been held in London. All the most eminent names connected with the art will be represented. Bedford, England, Robinson, Mudd, and a host of others, with whose works our readers are familiar, have sent selections from their finest works; and there is every reason to hope that this will be one of the most complete displays of photography that has yet been brought before the public.


“The Dublin Exhibition—Photographic Department. (Second Notice.)” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 10:160 (Aug. 15, 1865): 123-127. [“In our June Number we gave a general glance at this Exhibition; we now propose to enter into a more detailed account of the specimens exhibited. As in all exhibitions of English photographs landscapes are preeminent, so also is Mr. Bedford preeminent in landscape-photography. It is true, he has nothing in the present Exhibition but what we are perfectly familiar with, and it is a test of merit that a picture once seen cannot be forgotten; yet we always feel satisfaction in looking upon his beautiful works, so perfect in manipulation and so artistic in selection and treatment. The sadly deficient catalogue informs us that Mr. Bedford exhibits “Portraits and Studies,” the compiler having evidently mistaken a frame of Mr. Dallas’s photo-engravings, which contain some copies from Mr. Bedford’s negatives as specimens of his process, for this gentleman’s contribution. One of the most beautiful of Mr. Bedford’s pictures is “Glen Lledr.” He exhibits twenty subjects, amongst which are “Warwick Castle,” “The Castle Grove, Kenilworth,” “The Rood Screen, Hereford Cathedral,” “Interior of Beauchamp Chapel,” “Coast View, Ilfracombe,” and “The Temple of Philae.” There are also some of his cabinet views exhibited in Mr. Frith’s frames; why, is not explained. Closely following Mr. Bedford’s pictures in merit, though widely different in subject, Mr. England’s Alpine views claim admiring attention. He exhibits several frames of 9 x 7 views, and a large collection of stereoscopic pictures of Swiss scenery, all exhibiting the well-known perfection for which this artist’s works are famous….” p. 123. “…Col. Stuart Wortley and the United Association of Photography both exhibit specimens of printing by the Wothlytype process, which are nearly as good in tone as prints on albumonized paper. Mr. Swan sends some fine specimens of his process for printing in carbon. Mr. Dallas’s specimens of landscapes, reproductions, and portraits by his photo-engraving process, and which are named in the blundering catalogue “Bedford, F., London—Portraits and Studies,” are exceedingly interesting, and make us anxious to see his invention worked out commercially; nothing could be better for a book-illustration than the “View of Kenilworth,” done by this method….” p. 126.]


“North-Eastern London Exhibition. Report of the Jurors of the Photographic Department.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 10:160 (Aug. 15, 1865): 148-150. [“In presenting a Report of their labours in the Photographic Department of this Exhibition, the Jurors have much pleasure in noting the great excellence of the majority of the contributions. In some departments the uniformity of this excellence rendered the task of deciding upon the highest merit one ‘which required much deliberation, and the Jurors will feel it necessary, in stating their reasons for their awards, to qualify in some instances the degree of merit which they represent. The following Medals have been awarded:— For the best Portraits, Mr. E. W. Foxlee. For the best Landscapes, Mr. F. Bedford. For the best Pictures from Dry-plate negatives, Mr. J. Mudd. For the best Enlargements, no award. For the most Artistic Pictures, no award. For the best Instantaneous Pictures, Mr. V. Blanchard. For the most important Invention, Mr. W. B. Woodbury. For the best Camera, Mr. Meagher. For great excellence in lenses. Mr. Dallmeyer\ Mr. Ross. In deciding upon the award for the best portraits, the Jurors had to distinguish between various degrees of excellence possessed by many highly meritorious contributions. The portraits by Mr. Foxlee, by Mr. Jeffreys, by Mr. Rejlander, by Mr. Whaite, by Messrs. Maull and Co., by Mr. Downer, and some others, all presented distinct points of merit, and were worthy of very high commendation. Some of the contributions just named possess qualities of a higher artistic order than the pictures to which the Medal was finally awarded; but, in estimating the degree of merit in portraiture, the Jurors felt that the size of the pictures and the degree of technical photographic excellence attained were considerations which, in an Exhibition of this kind, demanded attention; and, in estimating the aggregate of good photographic qualities, it was decided by a majority of the Jurors that this Medal should be given to Mr. Foxlee. In determining upon the best landscapes the Jurors had not much hesitation. With the exception of those of Mr. England and those of Mr. Mudd, which claimed consideration on other grounds, there were no other landscapes, notwithstanding a goodly number of fine pictures contributed, which could compare with those of Mr. Bedford in all the qualities which constitute good landscape-photography….”]


“The Dublin International Exhibition, 1865.” ART JOURNAL ns 4:10 (Oct. 1865): 345-346. [“The Exhibition in the metropolis of our sister island has nearly run its course. The juries have made their awards, and with the end of October the Exposition will have closed, leaving behind it, however, something more than a memory,—a fine building, catching every gleam of sunshine, within which, in the long, cold, rainy days of winter, one may pass many an hour of recreation and instruction; and charming pleasure-grounds wherein to wander in the bright, dry, frosty noons. But better than all this, there will remain something as substantial, let us hope, though perhaps, as yet, not as palpably visible,—permanent results in the advancement of Art, the progress of manufactures, the improvement of machinery, and the development into a higher state of all those blessings, physical, social, and intellectual, which may be summed up in the word ” civilisation.”…” “…The whole contents of the Exhibition have been arranged under thirty classes, each having its own jury. To enter into even a brief consideration of each of these classes would transcend the functions of our Journal, and exceed the limit of space at our command; we shall, therefore, content ourselves with noticing some that peculiarly solicit our attention. In mining and mineral productions the display was, upon the whole, creditable, though we do not think that the United Kingdom has done herself full justice….” “…In the section of substances used for food, the collection is large and varied, so that the produce of every variety of climate and soil is exemplified….” “…The advantages of such exhibitions as this are well illustrated in the section for agricultural and horticultural machines and implements….” “…We have in a former article noticed the excellent specimens of glass and ceramic manufactures contributed by the leading firms,…” “…We must, however, pass over many subjects less intimately connected with Art—though there are very few from which Art can be altogether excluded—and come to those specially within our own province. In Photography, upon the whole, the display is successful; but it does not realise our anticipations, as many eminent photographers in England, France, Germany, and America, have not contributed; but some new processes, invented since the International Exhibition of 1862, are to be seen here, and give to the Dublin Exhibition a character and an interest that go far to compensate for its deficiences. These processes are, the Wothlytype; the developing by formic acid; the Sympsontype, the casket portraits, photo-sculpture, and carbon processes. Mr. Simpson’s very interesting discovery will be found detailed in the publications of the Photographic Society, and we have noticed the photo-sculpture in a recent number of this Journal. The casket portrait—by the way, not a very appropriate name—the invention of Mr. Swan —is an ingenious, original, and scientific contrivance. Without being conscious of it, the observer has before his eyes, as in the ordinary stereoscope, a picture composed of two different photographs superposed, each one separately visible to one eye and invisible to the other. These two pictures, placed at right angles on the two sides of two rectangular prisms, with their hypothenuses in contact forming a quadranglar block of glass, are conveyed to the eye, one from the back surface by refraction, and the other from its hypothenuse by reflection, after having been refracted upon it by the other prism. By the optical law of the angle of incidence and reflection the reflected image is seen only by one eye, the axis of which coincides with the reflected ray, and is invisible to the other eye; and by the law of refraction the other imago is seen only by the eye, the axis of which coincides with the refracted ray, and is invisible to the other. So that when the observer is placed exactly in the position from which each eye has the exclusive perception of the image, whose perspective belongs thereto, the two images coalesce on the two retinae, and the stereoscopic perception is brought out in all its beauty and force. the only defect of the apparatus is, that the observer is obliged to find the exact position from which the phenomenon takes place exclusively, and if he lose that position, by the slightest movement of the head, he sees only one or the other image, and there is no illusion of relief, the picture having the flatness of the single photograph which represents it. Notwithstanding that imperfection Mr. Swan has succeeded in contriving a most ingenious instrument, which elegantly illustrates a very extraordinary phenomenon of optics. The exhibitions of photography in 1862 and now in 1865, go far to support its claims to be ranked among the Fine Arts; and we think the observations of the reports of the jury on this question well worthy of being quoted. In alluding to Bedford, Maxwell, Lyte, Mudd, England, Heathy and others, they say, “When we examine the specimens exhibited by such artists we cannot but acknowledge their excellence; that they do the greatest honour to photography, and are capable of elevating it to the rank of Fine Art.” Landscapes, mountain and sea views, architectural subjects, ancient and modern, all these are a field which cannot be worked out except by those who understand the beautiful, The mere choice of the subjects, the moment at which it is to be represented, when the effects of light are the most favourable, require the eyes and feeling of artists. In their hands photography is only the means of catching the picture they have selected, to represent nature in some point of beauty. For this, they must, of course, make use of perfect instruments, and manipulate well; but the principal merit of their works is due to the selection of the subject, and to the treatment of its reproduction. In concluding our remarks on this subject, we may observe that the Dublin Exhibition affords a very interesting and manifest proof of all the advantages and merits of photography, and shows that the new art has become the indispensable auxiliary of both Art and Manufactures in. furnishing the illustrations of all their productions. There is hardly a department of the Exhibition in which the exhibitors have not availed themselves of photography to represent the articles they exhibit, or the instruments by which they are made. But it is particularly in the department of machinery that photography has rendered eminent services in showing the mode of their productions and their various applications. A remarkable example of such illustrations is seen in the Prussian department, showing the machines under their various aspects, and the extensive works in which they have been manufactured, with the appliances used in their construction. We have already spoken at length of the sculpture and paintings, and have little to add to those remarks….”]


“Photography.” POPULAR SCIENCE REVIEW 4:17 (Oct. 1865): 674-678. [“Transferring Photographs to Metal for Printing.—Some months since we called attention to some very promising experiments in this direction, conducted by Mr. Woodbury of Manchester. These have resulted in a process recently patented, which is likely to assume a very important position in the arts….” “…Photographic Exhibitions.—The display of photographs at the Dublin International Exhibition was a very admirable and interesting one, comprehensive in its scope and of a very high class. Most of our best photographers and artists were represented. The sunny atmospherical effects which are almost peculiar to Mr. Bedford’s productions; the humour, pathos, and beauty of Mr. Rejlander’s pictures, abounding with evidence of artistic feeling, taste, and conception; the clean, sharp, delicate, yet forcible effects of Mr. Robinson’s productions; the pictorial merit of Mr. Mudd’s, the charming transcripts of Scottish scenery by Mr. Annan, together with the fine works of Mr. V. Blanchard, Mr. Dixon Piper, Thurston Thompson, Vernon Heath, Rouch, Breese, Sir Joscelyn Coghill, M. Roussett, Johnson & Co., and many others, have won palms from new circles of admirers….”]


“The Dublin International Exhibition. Reports of the Juries.” ART JOURNAL ns 4:11 (Nov. 1865): 361. [“The Exhibition has closed. Without being a large financial success, we understand it has been by no means a commercial failure. Indeed, it is understood, and we hope correctly, there will be a “surplus.” That it has done good is certain: it has induced many strangers to visit Ireland. As we have said often, “for every new visitor Ireland obtains a new friend….” “…In photography, medals were awarded to the London Stereoscopic Company, Mr. Ross of Edinburgh, Mr. Rejlander, Messrs. Mawson and Swan, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, Messrs. Locke and Whitfield, Mr. Robinson, Leamington; the Cashel Portrait Company, the Viscountess Jocelyn, the Amateur Photographic Association, the Earl of Caithness, Mr. Vernon Heath, Dr. Hemphill (Clonmel), Dr. Madox, Mr. Bedford, Mr. England, Mr. J. Mudd (Manchester), Mr. Thurston Thompson, Messrs. Breeze (Birmingham), Mr. Joubert, Major Russell, Mr. Bourne, Mr. Simpson, Mr. Blanchard, Mr. Rough, and Mr. Mayall. Mr. Claudet was excluded, as he was one of the jurors—who has written, indeed, the somewhat elaborate and very learned and interesting ‘Report.’….”]





“Fine Arts.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 48:1354 (Sat., Jan. 27, 1866): 86. [“…At Mr. M’Lean’s gallery, in the Haymarket, are being exhibited two large pictures, by Mr. Selous, of Jerusalem—the one professing to represent the city as it now is, the other giving a “restoration” of it as the painter supposes it to have appeared in the time of the Saviour. The pictures have been previously exhibited in the city, and need not therefore be reviewed at length. Yet it is our duty, on their reappearance, to say that they cannot rank above clever, but un- trustworthy, scenic or panoramic paintings, executed to meet a popular demand. Taking the picture of the present city,—either it is in many respects inexact, or the photographs of Mr. Bedford (which lie before us) and the paintings of Mr. Seddon, Carl Werner, and other careful artists who have studied on the spot, are untrue to the great leading facts of the sky, the soil, the vegetation, and much besides, which gives the actual aspect of the Holy City and its environs. The “restoration ” must, of course, be so very largely conjectural that only if it had emanated from such an architect as Mr. Fergusson could it have much interest or value. The pictures are, doubtless, showy and taking, and it would not be fair to doubt that the artist has been at much pains to secure accuracy; yet the superficiality, artifices, and exaggerations—whether consciously or not—of a facile scene-painter are everywhere apparent. Severe criticism would go further, and affirm, with much truth, that most of the class of pictures “got up” for a purpose, as these, belong to a sort of art analogous to the lower kinds of sensationalism in literature; that they trade on the most respectable feelings of religious reverence; and that they seem obviously to aim not so much at simple actual truth or unsophisticated probability as at imposing on vulgar, un- educated taste….”]


Macleod, Norman, D. D. “Homeward.” GOOD WORDS 7:2-5 (Feb.-Apr. 1866): 104-109, 172-180, 267-278. 8 illus. [(Reports of a return journey from the Near East.  Woodcut views “from photographs.” One view from a sketch in February. Three views of Athens in March. Four sketches and three views of Constantinople credited to F. Bedford in April.) “We changed steamers at Syra, which is the great steam-boat station in the Levant, and the centre from whence passengers depart on their respective routes to every point of the compass within the shores of the Mediterranean. We did not land, but admired the picturesque view of the town from the sea, with its tier above tier of streets scaling the hill-side.” p. 172. “We photograph the scene in our minds, and afterwards study it, and enjoy it …” p. 173. “I never sailed in a more comfortable steamer than the French “Messageries” screw “Mainham” which conveyed us from Athens to Constantinople. The “state rooms”-so designated, I presume, by some cynic in the agonies of a sleepless hot night had neat iron bedsteads, instead of those shelves, or coffins without the lid, which seem to be the approved nautical model of “berths” in passenger ships.” p. 267. “On our way to the steamer a tall gipsy passed us,… I have seldom seen such a picture of stately dignity and commanding beauty… Her look as she passed, so full of piercing inquiry and pride, photographed itself in our minds…” p. 278.]



“Exploration of Palestine.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 48:1357 (Sat., Feb. 17, 1866): 171. [“A further report has been received from Captain Wilson, in charge of the first exploring party of the association formed for the purpose of exploring Palestine. It was written from Banius (Caesarea Philippi), and is dated Jan. 2. The party left Damascus on the 28th of December, and, travelling by S’as’a and Jeba, reached Banias on the 31st. They had very bad weather, with sleet and snow every day. The country between Jeba and Kuneiterah was half under water. Topography.- The positions of Damascus, Kaukal Jeba (not marked on the maps), Banias, and the junction of the Hasbany and Banias Rivers, have been fixed astronomically, and the calculations made both for latitude and longitude, A reconnaissance sketch of the route from Damascus to Banias has been made, showing great discrepancies in the best maps. A reconnaissance sketch, was in progress of the district round Banias to show the junction of the three streams of the Jordan and the course of the Wadys near the town. The snow is, however, so thick and so low down as to prevent much being done in the Wadys themselves. Archaeology.— Plans have been made of the great mosque at Damascus, of Bab Shurky (the Roman Eastern Gate), and of the Mound of Tel-Salhiyeh. Excavations had been made in three places in the mound, but with no decisive result except the discovery of one sculptured slab of quasi-Assyrian character. The mound was originally formed of a compact mass of sun-dried bricks, with, terraces, of which traces still remain. It is now much ruined, and the masonry has probably been used in the buildings at the foot of the mound. Mr. Consul Rogers has undertaken to transport the slab to Beyrout, and the further exploration of the Tell will probably be carried on by him. Photographs have been taken as follows:— of the Mosque at Damascus (8), which, with those taken by Mr. Bedford at the Prince of Wales’s visit, will afford a very good illustration of this remarkable basilica; of Bab Shurky: of the city wall opposite the Tomb of St. George: of arch and pediment in book bazaar: of house in the city: of Banias from Wely Khudr: of niches and grotto: of the fountain head: of the castle from various points (5). The Geology of the country passed through had been carefully observed and  noted. It was intended to leave Banias, on the 6th of January, for Deir Minms at the bend of the Litany, and thence to follow the ridge to Kedes: proceeding from Kedes by Kefr Birim, Meiron, and Safed, to Tell Hum and Khan Minyeh, on the Lake of Galilee, This would give opportunity for surveying the ridge dividing the Hasbany and Litany and the district round Jebel Jurmuk and Safed, whilst excavations, plans, and photographs are being made among the ruins at Tell Hum. The health of the party was good.”]


“Miscellanies. Palestine Exploration Fund.” JOURNAL OF SACRED LITERATURE AND BIBLICAL RECORD 4th s 9:17 (Apr. 1866): 243-246. [“The following is a summary of the first report received from Captain Wilson, chief of the first expedition of this association, dated Damascus, December 20:—The party arrived at Beyrout at the end of November, and left it for Damascus on the 10th of December.—Astronomical observations have been obtained fixing the position of Beyrout, Mejdel-Anjar, Baalbek, Surghaya, Suk Wady Barada, Damascus, Tell Salhiyeh, and Harran el-Awamid. The lakes east of Damascus were in course of exploration. Plans with detailed drawings and photographs have been made of the old temple at Deir el Kalah (near Beyrout), the temple at Mejdel-Anjar, the old city of Chalcis, a small Greek church at Masi, the basilica of Theodosius at Baalbek (in the great quadrangle abutting on the western end of the great temple, the back of the apsis resting on the steps), the temple at Ain Fijeh, and the Roraan gate at Damascus—Bab Shurky. The exploration of the Assyrian Mound at Tell Salhiyeh, near Damascus, had been commenced. A plan of the great mosque at Damascus, with photographs of details, was in course of execution. In addition to those above mentioned, careful photographs of a large size had been taken of various objects of interest along the road between Beyrout and Damascus; some of these for the first time. At Tell Salhiyeh and Harran el-Awamid inscriptions had been found appaparently not hitherto known….” p. 243. “…Photographs have been taken as follows:—Of the Mosque at Damascus (8), which, with those taken by Mr. Bedford at the Prince of Wales’s visit, will afford a very good illustration of this remarkable edifice; of Bab Shurky, of the city wall opposite the tomb of St. George, of arch and pediment in book bazaar, of house in the city, of Banias from Wely Khudr, of niches and grotto, of the fountain head, of the castle from various points (5). The geology of the country passed through had been carefully observed and noted. “It was intended to leave Banias on the 6th of January for Deir Mimas, at the bend of the Litany, and thence to follow the ridge to Kedes; proceeding from Kedes, by Kefr Birira, Meiron, and Safed, to Tell Hum and Khan Minyeh, on the Lake of Galilee. This would give opportunity for surveying the ridge dividing the Hasbany and Litany, and the district round Jebel Jurmuk and Safed, while excavations, plans, and photographs are being made among the ruins at Tell Hum. The health of the party was good.”…” p. 244. “…The ruins of Chorazin at Kerazeh turn out to be far more important than was previously suspected; they cover a much larger extent of ground than Tel Hum, and many of the private houses are almost perfect, with the exception of the roofs; the openings for doors and windows remaining in some cases. All the buildings, including a synagogue or church, are of basalt, and it is not till one is right in among them that one sees clearly what they are; fifty or a hundred yards off they look nothing more than the rough heap of basaltic stones so common in this country. Drawings have been made of the mouldings, etc., and a plan of the large building as far as it could be made out. Photographs.—Two views of niches and fountain of Banias; seven views of castle of Banias; three views of town and citadel of Banias; one view of Hazor, Oak Grove; three views of sarcophagi at Kedes; one view of large tomb at Kedes; seven views of temple at Kedes; four views of ruins at Kerazeh; five views of ruins at Tel Hum. The broad cutting in the rock above Ain et Tin proves to be a portion of a large aqueduct which formerly conveyed the whole of the fountain at Tabighah into the plain of Gennesareth for irrigation; the water was raised in a tank and carried round the contour of the Tabighah valley to the plain. The aqueduct still stands in small portions at several points, and can be easily traced the whole way by the number of stones with cement adhering to them lying on the surface of the ploughed fields. Specimens of the waters of the fountains have been kept, and their temperatures taken. At Irbid some progress had been made in excavating the synagogue. Two additional photographs had been taken; one of an aqueduct hewn in rock, and one of the plain from above Khan Minyeh. The reconnoissance had been advanced to Mejdel, and observations made at Khan Minyeh….” pp. 245-246.]


“Notes. Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 34th Annual Exhibition.” JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, AND OF THE INSTITUTIONS IN UNION 14:719 (Sept. 28, 1866): 707. [“As the notice of this exhibition in a former Journal was printed before the opening of the exhibition, not a full account could be given of all the objects of interest. In the mechanical department Blake’s ore crushing machine was shown at work,…Messrs. Griffin and Sons’ oil-lamp furnace were tested before the public…. The most prominent pictures in the fine arts department are the “Eurydice” and “Fate of Icarus,” by Thompson, …Mr. Bell has kindly lent a series of small paintings by Landseer, R.A., which were extremely interesting….. The show of water colour drawings is by no means despicable, …. In the department of drawings… the section of photographs is not so large as might be expected in a country which offers such an abundant variety of rock scenery. It is true that the photographer cannot, like the artist, reproduce those glorious tints for which some of the Cornish coast is so famous, still rock scenery has this advantage over ordinary landscapes, that it does not require such perfectly still weather for a successful picture. By far the greater part of the photographs were by persons not resident in the country. Some views of Switzerland, Normandy, and Belgium, by Stephen Thompson, of London, were charmingly executed, and the photography of Cornish scenery, by May and Devonport, and H. Hayman, of Launceston, as well as the contribution of F. Bedford, were much admired….. The natural history department included collections of bird’s eggs, birds, shells, butterflies, moths, and minerals. The large and carefully-arranged collection of Mr. Thomas B. Provis, a young working miner, was particularly good, and fully deserved the prize of £5 (or a 1st bronze medal) which was awarded to it. The plain and fancy work was no doubt interesting to the female portion of the visitors, …A number of models were exhibited in the naval architecture department, and were of course closely criticized in a seaport town…The exhibition was opened during the day and also in the evening, when lectures were given. On Friday the Rev. Mr. Scrivener gave a lecture on “Modern Literature;” and on Monday Mr. Vivian, of Torquay, chose “Prehistoric Man” as his subject. Professor Tennant lectured on Wednesday, and the exhibition closed on Friday, 21st inst.”]


“Miscellanies. The Samaritan Photographs by the Palestine Exploration Fund.” JOURNAL OF SACRED LITERATURE AND BIBLICAL RECORD 4th s 10:19 (Oct. 1866): 241-243. [“In your Journal of Saturday last, a brief account is given of the list of photographs of Samaritan objects taken under the auspices of the Palestine Exploration Fund, and submitted by that society to the inspection of Mr. Deutsch of the British Museum, with his report thereon. As I take great interest in Palestine archaeology, and especially in Samaritan matters, I trust I may be allowed to make a remark or two with regard to the photographic copies of the Samaritan Law, especially since the photograph made for His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, On the occasion of his visit to the Holy Land, seems to be a blunder, if we are to judge from the copies of it published. And, firstly, it is a mistake to suppose that the Samaritans at Nablous have but one scroll. I have myself seen and examined three, which bear much similarity one to the other, and are kept in similar gilt cases. It is, therefore, of importance to know what assurance we have that the photographs in question were made from the famed ancient roll, and not from one of the others. I have been a witness, on more than one occasion, when the priest imposed upon travellers, who were anxious to see the celebrated scroll, by shewing them one of the other two rolls instead of the true one itself, and this need cause no surprise when it is remembered with what jealousy it is guarded, and how rarely it is exhibited to any one but themselves…. In conclusion, let me add, it is equally a mistake to suppose that the quartos are regarded with any peculiar reverence. It is true they are carefully kept as valuable transcripts; but they are never used by the priest to read publicly from, as they are not esteemed sufficiently sacred; none but the rolls are used for that purpose, and the most ancient of these is only shewn to the congregation once a year, namely, on the day of Atonement.—Rev. John Mills in Athenaeum.” Since the preceding appeared, the Athenaeum has printed the following:—After reading Mr. Mills’s letter of the 7th of July, I saw Priest Amram, and noted down from him the following statements:—1. That H.R.H. the Prince of Wales did see the most ancient roll of the Samaritans. 2. That the portion of it photographed by Mr. Bedford was written, and added to till a decayed place, about sixteen centuries ago. 3. That he (Amram) would only undertake to affirm positively that the book Deuteronomy (excepting a gap, now patched with paper, before the record of the Law) is in the handwriting of Abishua. 4. That the Tarikh (Deut. vi. 10, etc.) runs as follows:—” I, Abishua— son of Phinehas, son of Eleazar, son of Aaron, the priests, to them be honour from Jehovah and His Will—wrote this holy book in the door of the Tabernacle, on Mount Gerizzim, in the year thirteen in the reign of the children of Israel in the land of Canaan, with its boundaries. Praise Jehovah.” 5. This roll is exhibited at the seven feasts each year. 6. In conducting service, reading from a roll, reading from a quarto, and repeating from memory, are considered modes equally sacred. 7. Lieut. Anderson was not permitted to photograph the ” Abishua MSS.” One of the three rolls usually shewn to visitors was opened to him for that purpose. 8. The Samaritans assert that when Ezra changed the letters, he also partially altered the matter of the Pentateuch. 9. In their chronology stands the entry, “that in the year 4281 from Adam, and in the nineteenth year of the priesthood of Jehoiakim, Jesus, the son of Mary, was crucified in Cursed Salem ” (Arusalem). 10. The relationship between Jews and Samaritans remains pretty much as of old. Yours, etc., Joseph Barclay.”]


“Fine Arts.” ATHENAEUM no. 2034 (Oct. 20, 1866): 503. [Review. Photographs. (Reigate, F. Frith.) “These photographs have been, for the greater part, produced by Mr. Frith. They are thirty in number, and represent many scenes that are high in popular esteem, taken from well-chosen points of view, and, generally speaking, with admirable photographic success… exceptions are two the Fall at Aberdulas, South Wales and the Valley of the Lledr, North Wales …have the name of Mr. Bedford attached to them…” (Followed by a listing and praise for Frith’s views, which range from churches to glaciers on Mont Blanc, although the majority are of British views. The reviewer then goes on to complain that some of the images seem to be “touched,” or worked over by hand—a practice he feels to be incorrect.)]



”Metropolitan News.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 49:1403 (Sat., Dec. 15, 1866): 575. [“Sir Frederick Pollock. late Chief Baron of her Majesty’s Court of Exchequer, presided, on Tuesday over a crowded meeting of the council and members of the London Photographic Society, held at King’s College, London, presented the silver medals to the gentlemen who had won those distinctions, and delivered an address on the progress and improvement of photography. Medals were awarded to Lord Hawarden, Mr. Fenton, Mr. Bedford, Mr. Robinson, Mr. Thompson, Colonel Wortley, Mr. Claudet, Mr. T. R. Williams, Mr. Jubert, Major Gresley, Mr. Toovey, Dr. Maddox, Mr. Buxton, Mr. M‘Farlane, Mr. England, and Mr. Mudd.”]


“Illustrated Gift-Books for Christmas.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 49:1404-1405 (Sat., Dec. 22, 1866): 598. [Book review. The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople, and Athens: A Series of Forty-Eight Photographs taken by Francis Bedford. With Descriptive Text and Introduction by W. M. Thompson. (Day and Son.) “Mr. Bedford is a skillful photographer who accompanied the Prince of Wales in his visit to Palestine and the other countries of the Levant in 1862. A larger series of views taken by him on that occasion having been exhibited and subsequently published with success, it has been thought advisable to reproduce a selection of them on a reduced scale, and at a moderate price. The descriptions are sufficient, and written in a popular style.”]




Bedford, Francis. “Landscape Photography and its Trials.” YEARBOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC: (1867): 23.


“Short Notices: Bedford’s Photographs of the Holy Land, etc.” FINE ARTS QUARTERLY REVIEW ns 2:1 (Jan. 1867): 208. [Review. The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople &c. A series of Forty-eight Photographs, taken by Francis Bedford, for H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, &c., &c, London, Day and Son (Limited), 1866. “Mr. Bedford was honoured with the command to accompany the Prince of Wales, in that Eastern Tour, made in the year 1862, in accordance with the plans of H.R.H. the Prince Consort, before his decease. And he published, by permission, the result of his labours in a series of 172 large and fine photographs. This work consists of an abridged series, reduced in size, but not at all diminished in excellence, and is accompanied by descriptive text, &c., by W. M. Thompson, Esq. Even for those who possess the larger work, this cannot fail to be of interest; whilst as a substitute for it, the quality of the photographs, and the selection, make it especially valuable.”]


“English Photographs.” PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER 4:37 (Jan. 1867): 17-18. [(Mentions and discusses works by G. W. Wilson, Wm. England, F. Bedford, B. J. Sayce, Frank Haes, J. Mudd, V. Blanchard, H. P. Robinson and Walter Woodbury.) “Through the kindness of our friend, G. Wharton Simpson, Esq., editor of the London Photographic News, we have been favored with a parcel containing a number of specimens of photographic work done in England, of carte-de-visite, stereoscope, and larger size. The former are by over a dozen different artists, printed in a variety of styles, and altogether showing the work to be tasty and good. The stereoscopic views are “Wilson’s Scotch,”‘ “England’s Swiss,” “Blanchard’s Isle of Wight,” “Bedford’s “Kenilworth Castle and Churches;” views made from collodio-bromide of silver negatives, by B. J. Sayce; on Dr. Hill Norris’s rapid dry plates, by Sampson, and a number of the animals in the Zoological Garden, photographed from life by Frank Haes. The latter we have previously spoken of as very curious, interesting, and successful, and reflecting great credit upon the patience and perseverance of the artist. Only the removal of the iron bars of the cages is needed to make them most perfect. With the work of Wilson, England, and Blanchard, our readers are familiar. Blanchard’s Isle of Wight pictures are charming views of charming places, and are new and fresh to us. Some of his instantaneous marine views are specialy fine. Bedford’s “Kenilworth Castle” is remarkably successful. These are followed by a very pleasing landscape view by Mr. J. Mudd, made with his collodio-albumen process, and a number of subject pictures, made with the new Dallmeyer portrait and group lens, by Messrs. Robinson and Valentine Blanchard. Mr. Robinson’s picture of the “Mountain Dew Girl, Killarney,” is a print about 16 X 20, and shows beautifully the skill of the photographer, and the great power of the lens. “The Flower Girl,” “The Ballad Singer.” and a “Pleasant Gossip”‘ (group of three ladies), by Blanchard, also show great taste and skill. The first is a remarkably fine picture in every way, as is also the second, except the effect of the background, which is apparently painted, but again looks like a woodbine with its thousands of leaves in motion. The “Pleasant Gossip” is certainly purposely made out of focus, no doubt to give it more of the effect of an oil painting. The effect is not pleasing at first, being the exact reverse of that we are all trying to attain here, but one learns to admire and like it very much. The figures are arranged to look somewhat cross-eyed, as, some one has maliciously remarked, two ladies cannot look straight at each other while having a picture taken, without laughing. “The Zealot” and “The Scholar,” by Blanchard, are not with the same lens, but are of a gentleman who impersonates “The Scholar” in one and the vehement, exhorting priest in the other. The lighting is very effective in them. “The Zealot” was a presentation print to one of the societies, if we are not mistaken. Mr. Robinson’s “Somebody Coming.” closes the list, was also a presentation print, we believe, and is an admirable thing, both in design and execution. It represents a young girl seated on a log at the foot of some trees, listening, with marked pleasure on her face, to the “coming” footsteps of another. Both figures are dressed in sweet rural style, free from invisible bonnets, and crinoline, and waterfalls, and the whole is beautiful. “Subject pictures” are a branch of the art not yet much practiced here, though tending to improve the art of photography greatly. Mr. Simpson also sent us one of Woodbury’s photo-relievo intaglio plates, which is a great curiosity. We have yet had no time to experiment with it as instructed by Mr. Simpson, but hope to do so, and report hereafter. We have had a real photographic treat with the few friends who have seen these pictures, and wish that all of our readers could enjoy them with us. While we value them, we value more the good feeling and kindness that sent them.”]


“Photography.” POPULAR SCIENCE REVIEW 6:22 (Jan. 1867): 106-110. [“…Presentation of Medals.—The long-promised medals of the London Photographic Society have at length been awarded as follows:—To Roger Fenton, as Founder of the Society; to Lady Hawarden, for artistic and photographic excellence (two medals); to H. P. Robinson, for ‘composition’ photography; and to Messrs. Claudet, Williams, Joubert, England, Bedford, Thompson, Maddox, Toovey, Buxton, Macfarlane, Mudd, Lieut.-Col. Stuart Wortley, and Major Gresley….”]


BOOKS. 1867.
“Photography Applied to Book Illustration.” GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE (Feb. 1867): 172-183. [“The handsome pyramid of photo-illustrated volumes standing before us suggests the thought that photography, having passed through several stages or ages of application, is about to enter upon a “book-illustration period.” Glancing around the room in which we are writing, we get the idea of a sort of progressive series of formations in the photographic history of the past fifteen years: we have on our walls and in our portfolios a primary formation, of heterogeneous nature, comprising all sorts of subjects, done by all sorts of processes, and in various states of preservation. Then there is the stereoscopic series, now extinct; and then the carte de visite formation, on the decline; lastly we have the book-picture age, just dawning. Not that photographs so applied have any claim to novelty, for from the earliest days of their history there has been a desire to employ them for the purpose, and from time to time they actually have, in greater or less numbers, done duty as book-illustrations. But in the youth of the art,—for art it must be allowed to be when it is applied to an artistic purpose,—there were one or two serious difficulties to interfere with its extensive use in this direction. In the first place, there was the difficulty of procuring impressions from negatives in numbers large enough to furnish an edition of a book; and in the second, there was the ugly question, which the sight of every photograph brought to the lips,—will it last? A picture that was likely to become a meaningless sheet of stained paper in the course of a few mouths was not much use as a book-illustration; and this contingency was but too palpable. Then it was that, with a view to making sun pictures at once more permanent and more easily producible, attention was directed to the practicability of converting the photograph into a matrix from which impressions could be worked in some permanent ink or pigment. The idea of doing this was, indeed, almost coeval with the earliest attempts at photogenic drawing; but it was not till about the middle of the century that anything like tangible success was obtained. Since the year 1850 there have been several processes invented, having for their result the production of fac-similes of photographs in printing-ink. They have been mostly variations upon two systems, one of which aims at producing a metal plate engraved in intaglio or in relief from a photograph, and the other at converting the photograph into a grease picture to be applied to the ordinary lithographic process. The first of these may be thus epitomized: a plate of metal is coated with a solution of gelatine and bichromate of potash, a compound which becomes insoluble in water when exposed to sunlight; a photographic cliche being laid upon a plate thus prepared, the whole is exposed to light. The portions of the gelatine upon which the light falls are rendered insoluble, while the unexposed portions retain their solubility, and are washed away. An etching-fluid is afterwards applied to bite the unprotected portions of the plate, and a printing-surface is thus produced. Then a process was imposingly introduced under the name of “photo-galvanography.” In this also the gelatine and potash-salt solution were employed to give an impression in relief from a photographic negative, and from this an electrotype was taken, which served as an intaglio printing-plate. A company was formed to work this process commercially, but it soon came to grief, and the process has been a matter of history ever since. Photo-lithography also depends upon the above-mentioned peculiarity of a solution of bichromate of potash and gelatine. In its case a sheet of paper is coated with the solution, and exposed to the action of sunlight, shining through a negative. Upon being removed the sheet is covered all over with a greasy ink, and then immersed in water; the parts that have not caught the light have the gelatine and its covering ink all washed away, while the exposed portions remain untouched, with the ink upon them. Here, then, is a picture in printer’s ink, precisely similar to a lithographer’s transfer, ready to be transferred to the stone, and reproduced by the ordinary lithographic process. But these processes, especially the latter, have one very weak point: they will not produce half-tints and gradations of shade. They will copy a line-engraving or anything that has no soft shading, but they play sad havoc with those exquisite shadings upon which the beauty of photographs so much depends, and hence they have not as yet fully answered the wants of book illustration. A more hopeful process has been” introduced within the past few years, called after its inventor Mr. Woodbury. In it a gelatine picture in relief is obtained, as for the photo-galvanographic process; this is pressed by hydraulic power into a metal plate, and an intaglio design is produced. Transparent ink or colour is worked into the interstices of this plate, and a sheet of paper, being pressed upon it, takes off the ink, and a perfect transcript of the original negative is obtained. In ordinary engravings variation of tint is produced by large or small spaces covered with opaque ink; in a photographic print the shadows are the result of various intensities of reduced salts of silver; but in Woodbury’s process they are produced by varying thicknesses in the body of the transparent ink. The picture is actually a relief picture, although the relief is not sufficiently high to attract attention. This process gives shading almost as delicately as photographs themselves. We have not heard of it lately: let us hope it has not shared the fate of some of its predecessors. All substitutes having virtually failed, there was no alternative but to revert to the photograph pure and simple where it was desirable to employ photography for book-illustration. In the meantime some advances were made towards removing the difficulties that formerly stood in the way of doing this. Chemicals and materials cheapened considerably—a circumstance which we, no doubt, owe to the demands to which cheap portraiture gave rise: more systematic, and therefore more rapid means of multiplying impressions, came to be introduced; and a better knowledge of the chemical nature of the photographic image led to the adoption of fixing processes, giving hopes of greater permanency; and thus the stigma of instability which once attached to the character of the photograph became, to some extent at least, removed. The class of illustration to which photography can be applied is obviously limited. It cannot create, it can only copy; its results are descriptive rather than suggestive. Its subjects must be real, and we cannot therefore illustrate poetry or fiction by it. It is true, many attempts have been made to produce and multiply artistic compositions by its aid; but successful as those have been in their way, they have only been regarded as curiosities—seldom, if ever, as works of art. The use of photography as an illustrative art thus becomes restricted to the representation of natural scenes and objects, and artistic or architectural works. Hence the books which can be successfully illustrated by it are mostly of the topographical or descriptive class. Its application to portraiture, in the manner in which we see it applied in some of the volumes before us, is no exception to this rule. The works which it illustrates not being of ephemeral nature, but quite the contrary, it becomes important to renew the question as to the permanency of photographs. On this point there has been much discussion: it has been asserted upon high authority that a photograph properly prepared will never fade, the material composing it being as durable as the ink of an engraving. On the other hand, grave doubts have been often expressed upon the point; and it has been urged that all photographs are more or less liable to fade. Our own experience will not help us to solve the question. We have pictures hanging upon our walls that we took from ten to twelve years ago, and that show not the slightest symptoms of fading: they are as fresh and bright as when they came from their fixing bath. And we are sorry to say that we have pictures but a few months old—not of our own taking—that have already assumed the jaundiced tone that photographers well know seals the doom of a print. A photograph will certainly fade if one of two or three precautions are neglected. The formation in the print of a sulphurous salt of silver, which no washing will remove, is one prime cause of failure; but the printing process which involved this evil has, we think and hope, now fallen into disuse. Another is the imperfect removal of chemicals, consequent upon insufficient washing. This is the grand cause, the one which we have most to fear, and to which we may ascribe the fading of half the photographs that are sold. A third cause results from the use of an acid generating material as the cement used for mounting the pictures, or from the existence of some deleterious chemical in the paper upon which they are mounted. Where these causes of failure are, from carelessness or economy, unheeded by the photographer, fading is inevitable; but if proper means and care be taken to provide against them, there seems no good reason to doubt but that photographs will remain unchanged, if not for ever, at least for very many years. Can the respective publishers of the beautiful books before us guarantee permanency in the pictures they offer us, so fur as the above causes of fading are concerned? We trust they can. Taking the books from the pile before us in chronological order, the first that claims our attention is ” The Book of the Royal Horticultural Society.”* (* The Book of the Royal Horticultural Society, 1862-63. Bradbury & Evans, 1863.) The Royal Society, the mother of all subsequent and similar bodies, has had its history written several times—why should not the Horticultural have its also? But the volumes in which the story of the first has been told are clad in a plain and sombre garb, while that before us is decked forth in a luxury of ornament that would have shocked the staid historians of the parent community. From the birth of the society, on the 7th of March, 1704, in a room in the house of Mr. Hatchard, the celebrated publisher in Piccadilly, Mr. Andrew Murray carries us through its various vicissitudes and fortunes down to the time of its connexion with the International Exhibition of 1862. The book is furnished forth with all the adornments of high-class typography, with borders of various colours and designs surrounding every page, and woodcuts of the finest execution scattered through the text. The photographs, twelve in number, are from the camera— that is the correct terminology we presume—of Mr. Thurston Thompson, and it would be difficult to decide whether they most ornament the book, or the book ornaments them. They are all views of the gardens and buildings as these appeared during the Exhibition, and they represent the prettiest portions of Captain Fowke’s generally ugly structure. In spite of all that has been said about the unartistic nature of photographs, a comparison of some of those in this book with kindred woodcuts on the adjacent pages, shows that there is a “spirit” in the natural picture which no effort of illustrative art could exactly render. Next comes the “Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain and Ireland.”* (*Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain and Ireland. First and second Series. A. W. Bennett 1864.) Pen and light-pencil have been happily wedded in these interesting gift-books. How well the work has been performed may be inferred when we learn that the former has been wielded by William and Mary Hewitt, and the latter set to its work by such adepts as Bedford, Sedgfield, Thompson, Wilson, Fenton, and others. In each volume we have some five-and-twenty exquisite photographs of venerable piles, whose names are as household words upon our lips; and each subject is made the theme of from ten to twenty pages of well-told history and description. Some of these pictures are so artistic that they almost shake our faith in the assertion that photographs are not suggestive. We may especially notice, for example, the view of “Kenilworth Castle from the Brook,” which forms the frontispiece to the second volume, the view of “Holy Cross Abbey” in the same volume (with its sky “sunned down,” as photographers call it), and one or two little “vignetted ” head and tail pieces. This vignetting is so effective, that it is worth introducing more frequently. A noteworthy feature in these and some of the other books before us, is that the photographs are interspersed in the text, like ordinary woodcuts, and not, as is mostly the case, mounted on separate leaves, as plates: this is an advantage which a reader of books will appreciate. We would suggest to those who trim the edges of the prints, whether anything is gained, or rather whether something in appearance is not lost by rounding the top corners of some of them. These dome shapes were so hackneyed in the stereoscopic age, that they give one the idea that the prints are the halves of used-up stereograms: the clean square edge is much prettier. Mr. Stephens’ “Flemish Relics”* (*Flemish Relics; Architectural, Legendary, and Pictorial. Gathered by F. O. Stephens.” A. W. Bennett 1866.) is a work of the same character as the last mentioned. The photographs are fifteen in number, of full-page dimensions, and comprise views of the familiar architectural monuments of Belgium, such as the Town Hall of Brussels, the Cathedrals at Tournay, Mechlin, Antwerp, &c. The photographer’s work has been done by Messrs. Cundall and Fleming, who may be congratulated upon the success with which they have secured several interiors, free from the offensive glare which windows generally produce in this class of subjects. The attempts to introduce clouds into the skies of some of the pictures, are clumsy and injudicious: this sort of dodging, if necessity arises to do it at all, should at least be done creditably. Clouds form an important feature in every landscape, and their absence is one of the distinctive characteristics of photographed views: such a perfect balancing of the sensitiveness of the photographic chemicals, as will admit of clouds impressing their delicate shades upon the plate without detriment to the darker parts of the picture, is a cynosure yet to be reached: in the meanwhile let us be content with clean white or shaded skies. “The Oberland and its Glaciers: Explored and Illustrated by Ice-axe and Camera.” * (*The Oberland and its Glaciers. Explored and Illustrated with Ice-axe and Camera.” By H. B. George, M.A. A. W. Bennett. 1866.)—two tools that have not much in common, yet they have conspired to produce one of the best books we have yet seen illustrated by photography. Alpine scenery has been “done,” and done nobly, by some of the foremost continental photographers, and works on Alpine travel are by no means scarce. But in this work the two are combined in a most successful manner. The photographic journey was undertaken specially for the purpose of procuring the illustrations which we find in it, and, as a consequence, there are many little bits of scenery, elucidating certain parts of the text, which would escape the eye of an operator who had no such specific purpose in view. The text of the book, from the pen of Mr. George, editor of the Alpine Journal, is admirably adapted to the character of the work. The narrative portions are smart and racy; the descriptive clear and concatenated. Those to whom the question What is a glacier? is an enigma, may appeal with satisfaction for a reply to the twenty pages wherein Mr. George discusses the question, and gives a terse summary of the exploded and established theories— by-the-bye, the old theory of Charpentier has just been revived in a communication made during the past month to the French Academy of Sciences. Mr. Ernest Edwards’ photographs claim our good opinion, not only from their intrinsic merit, but also from the difficulties experienced and overcome to procure them. He worked the wet process, carrying with him tent and chemicals, and he expresses the nervous anxiety which at times he felt lest during his developing operations the camera, left to itself, should make a forced excursion down a crevasse. At one time he and his camera were obliged to be held fast (he by the coat-tails) during the taking of a picture, lest both should disappear for ever. These incidents, by increasing the trouble of the means, enhance the value of the ends. Since every possible pound weight should be spared from a tourist’s personal effects, we cannot consistently recommend the addition of this volume to the contents of a knapsack; but we can and do recommend its perusal to all who meditate an Alpine excursion, or who have ever in their lives made one. There is, too, a very large section of readers who, either from taste or of necessity, are never likely to see the grand works of nature that are wrought with snow and frost; for such, we take it, the book was largely intended, and by such it should be read. In the volume of “Memorials of the Rev. J. Keble”* (*The Birth-place, Home, Churches, and other places connected with the author .of the ‘ Christian Year.’  Winchester: Savage. London: Parker. 1866.) we have some thirty photographs of places with which the author of the “Christian Year” was associated. The volume is rather an album of scraps, pictorial and literary, than a complete work j indeed, the writer of the notes, which seem to be secondary to the photographs, regards the .book in the light of a help to the reader of any life of the poet, inasmuch as the disjecta membra he has brought together constitute such material as might, and possibly would, be neglected in any but an exhaustive biography. The photographs themselves, seeing that they represent ordinary houses and churches, are obviously more interesting than beautiful: they are on the whole well executed (by Mr. Savage, of Winchester), but there are here and there bungling efforts to hide defective skies by imitation clouds—as we have noticed in another work. There is a peculiar feature about these sham clouds, in addition to their utter dissimilarity to any form of cloud known to meteorologists—it is that they always accommodate themselves to the outline of the objects projected against the sky: this betrays their character. The author of the literary portion is the Rev. J. F. Moor, incumbent of Ampfield. The volume is handsomely printed and consistently ornamented. Dr. Lonsdale fills up a hiatus in art biography by his “Life of M. L. Watson,”* (*The Life and Works of Musgrave Lewthwaite Watson, Sculptor. By H. Lonsdale, M.D.” Routledge and Sons. I866.) the famous sculptor of the Eldon and Stowell monument at Oxford, the Frieze in Threadneedle-street, the Flaxman statue in the University College, London, and other works. He undertakes his task out of admiration for his subject, and because no one else would step forth to rescue his hero’s history from oblivion. The vicissitudes of Watson’s life, his early struggles, his artistic if not his pecuniary triumphs, the remnants of his private correspondence, afford abundant materials for the work, and these have been turned to good account in producing a book no less interesting than valuable as a contribution to biographical literature. Dr. Lonsdale enters warmly into all the circumstances of his favourite’s life, and speaks boldly, and therefore we suppose authoritatively, upon the conduct of great men who did Watson injustice. The volume is just long enough to tell what is worth knowing, and just short enough lo be read without a feeling of tiring. Photography plays an important part in it, for it has been employed to give representations of the chief of Watson’s works. Photographs are generally happy at sculpture, and seldom more successful than in rendering bas or alt-reliefs. There are several of these in the book: “Sleep and Death bearing off the body of Sharpedon,” “Lucifer and Cain,” and several others, which, although not the best of their class, are nevertheless depicted with a semblance of relief which no engraving process can realize. But the “art” has not done justice in all cases: the Flaxman statue is marred by awkward illumination, and the Eldon and Stowell monument still more so, for, from its situation (in the Library of University College, Oxford), it is so mangled with cross lights and shadows that it looks almost ludicrous in the picture. But if the monument is in a bad place to be photographed, it is in a bad place to be seen. The present year, scarcely a week old when we commenced this article, is nevertheless impressed upon the title-pages of two of the volumes of our pyramid. The first of these that we open is a “Blue ” one externally, is the work of a “Blue,” and is a sort of New Year’s offering to “Blues,” old and young. It claims to be a concise history of Christ’s Hospital,* (*Annals of Christ’s Hospital, from its Formation to the Present Time.” Lothian and Co. 1867.) from the origin of the order of St. Francis to the present day; and its dimensions, equal to those of a shilling monthly, justify the claim. But though concise, it is by no means scanty in matter or stunted in style, for it tells a good deal, and that in a plain and easy manner. To render the book the more fitting as a memento for old “Blues,” it is illustrated with half-a-dozen photographs of famous parts of the hospital buildings. These pictures will, no doubt, serve this purpose; but if we had a son destined for consignment, to that noble institution, we would rather keep them out of his sight, lest their gloomy aspect should inspire his youthful mind with forebodings of a nature to interfere with his cheerful departure from home. Not that this gloominess is the sole fault of the photographer: his art has been true to its nature, and has simply reproduced in form and in spirit the scenes and objects before which the camera was planted. The edifice may be venerable, but the bump of veneration is hardly developed in heads “from seven to ten years old.” A veteran law reporter must naturally have in his note-books a mine of matter for Biographical Sketches’* (*Select Biographical Sketches from the Note-Books of a Law Reporter.” By W. H. Bennet, Barrister-at-Law. Routledge and Sons. 1867.) of those with whom in his lifetime he has been brought into connection. Mr. W. H. Bennet does not pretend to complete biographies; but he has culled from his jottings a heap of scraps concerning Lords Ellenborough, Eldon, Truro, Campbell, Lyndhurst, and Sir Samuel Romilly; and with these for the stones of his structure, he has collected matter from ordinary sources to form a cement, and has united his fragments into continuous sketches of the lives of those distinguished chancellors and judges. The photographic portraits which accompany the sketches do not claim much remark: they are all copies of familiar paintings or engravings. The book will chiefly interest those who are in any way connected with the legal profession. A good share of the list of subscribers to the work consists of such. Portraiture has been, and to the last will be, the most popular application of photography. The desire to possess the likenesses of those whom we love or admire has always been a passion of the human mind; and since in late years the production of portraits has been so marvellously facilitated, this possession of them has risen to a necessity. Where is the house having the smallest pretensions to comfort that has not a photographic album in some sacred corner, filled with portraits of friends and relatives, and with those of popular favourites or famous characters? The rage for this hero-worship dates from the introduction of the carte-de-visite form of portrait, some five or six years ago; and one of the consequences of the enthusiasm, we take it, was the starting of a serial publication for the dissemination of Portraits of Men of Eminence* (*Photographic Portraits of Men of Eminence in Literature, Science, and Art, with Biographical Memoirs.” Lovell Reeve and A. W. Bennett. 1863 to 1866.) accompanied with memoirs of their lives and labours. This serial commenced in the year 1863, and has been regularly continued up to the present time. Its originator and first editor was the late Mr. Lovell Reeve, whose name appears upon the titles of three out of the four volumes that have been already completed. Each volume contains no less than twenty-four portraits, of carte-de-visite size, and each portrait is accompanied with from four to six pages of text, embodying the principal events in the public life of the individual portrayed. The portraits, in all cases we believe, are from the atelier of Mr. Ernest Edwards, and they have been “sat for” expressly for this work. That the majority are the work of one photographer is evident from the pervading similarity of style; for the works of a photographer, strange as it may seem, have as distinct an individuality as those of an artist; the same accessories, too, constantly recur in different portraits; but some of the pictures seem hardly up to the general standard of the whole collection, which leads us to suppose they are by another hand. The portraits are as a rule easy in pose and well illuminated, with a few exceptions, which we are quite ready to ascribe rather to the sitter than to the photographer. Having had some experience in photographic portraiture, the writer can testify to the trouble which the little idiosyncracies of some sitters give to the operator. There is really considerable art in sitting for a portrait so as to avoid a “spooney ” look on the one hand, and a “stagey” look on the other: any attempt on the part of the sitter to call up an expression of face indicative of what he considers to be his personal characteristic, generally ends in producing a caricature. The very fact of sitting for a portrait, and the doubts about your facial appearance, induce an unnatural expression. The writer has essayed to obviate this by placing a looking-glass in such a position that the sitter can see his or her face during the taking of the picture; and the result has been, especially with ladies, perfectly successful. If Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall could have seen themselves as others now see them in the picture before us, we venture to think they would have altered their pose and expression. But perhaps we mistake their intention; they may have wished to appear as if playing a charade, in that case the result is well and good. On the whole, Mr. Edwards has succeeded admirably in procuring easy-looking portraits, without resorting to a sort of “stock” pose for all sitters, as some “photographic artists” are wont to do. The work, if carried on, and we hope it may be, will form a valuable repository of illustrated biography, and an inexhaustible field of research for any future Lavater. In the year 1862, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, it will be remembered, made an extensive tour in the East; and in order to preserve faithful reminiscences of the scenes and objects he witnessed, he wisely commissioned one of the first photographers of our day, Mr. Francis Bedford, to accompany the expedition. A vast number of large and highly interesting photographs were secured, not merely of scenes which had been repeatedly done before, but of some places not accessible to less auspicious artists. Mr. Bedford subsequently obtained permission from his Royal Highness to publish the results of his labours; but from the size and costliness of his pictures, they were within reach of very few purchasers. In the volume lately issued by Messrs. Day & Son,* (* The Holy Land, Egypt, &c., &c.: Forty-eight Photographs taken by Francis Bedford. Day and Son.) the more interesting and important of them have been reduced to convenient size by Mr. Bedford; and, accompanied by a sufficient amount of descriptive letter-press, they make a very admirable book for reading or reference. The pictures number forty-eight, and they are of the highest class of excellence. True, they have been reduced, but the reduction has been done so carefully, that no one but an experienced photographer could detect it, and if any microscopic details have thus been lost, there are yet more left than any unassisted eye can discover. As photographs we regard some of them as the best that any of the books above noticed contain: the scenes represented require no comment of ours to enhance their interest. Turning over the book at random, we light upon views of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Hebron, the Lake of Gennesareth, Damascus, Baalbek, the Colossi of Thebes, and many other places of like interest; every picture has its own separate description, written in a style to suit any comprehension, and without attempt at elaboration. This may not satisfy a biblical critic, but it satisfies all the wants of the book. There is one regret which we feel, and it is one which we have often felt in looking over such pictures as these: it is the small angle that a photographic lens includes. What a grand tiling it would have been if Mr. Bedford could have embraced in his views about twice the extent of horizon he has! The means of taking panoramic scenes is the one thing needful to perfect landscape photography. It has been done, but on a very limited scale. Mr. Sutton’s plan, successful as it was in his own hands, no doubt proved too cumbersome and too troublesome, with its curved plates and circular apparatus, for ordinary out-door work. In our “Scientific Notes of the Month” mention is made of a scheme for taking such views on a flat plate; it is spoken highly of, but looks doubtful to a photographer’s eye. Let us hope that if it is not itself successful, it may lead to something that will be,—and that we may ere long have to review a book of panoramic views. Our pyramid’s base, which we have at length laid bare, is a handsomely appointed folio, entitled ” Marmor Homericum,”* (*Marmor Homericum. Day and Son, 1866.) and consisting of a series of photographs from designs executed in inlaid marbles of different colours, the work of the Baron H. de Triqueti. Such work is intended for a kind of mural decoration of a very permanent order. The designer has selected a Homeric tableau to illustrate his views: Homer reciting his verses to a listening audience forms a centre-piece, and scenes from the Iliad and Odyssey the borders, the corners being filled with, medallions in bas-relief. The picture is wrought in marbles of different colours, cut out according to the requirements of the drawing and inlaid; the details of the figures being engraved, arid the lines filled up with coloured cement. Having executed a specimen, it has been photographed, first en gros and then en detail, and here we have the result. The designs are well conceived and boldly carried out. Of the fitness of the material we cannot judge. The photographs are of ordinary character and of average excellence. The best is the last: it is from a medallion in sculpture,—”Penelope at her web, secretly destroying during the night the work of the day,”—and is so well illuminated that it is all but stereoscopic.”]


“North London Photographic Association.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 12:180 (Apr. 15, 1867): 22-25. [“The Monthly Meeting of this Association was held at Myddelton Hall, Islington, on Wednesday, April 3rd. W. Hislop, Esq., in the Chair….” “…Mr. W. W. King read the following paper by Mr. Grubb :— “On the producing of “Diffusion of Focus” in Photographic Images, and the Effects produced by the use of very small apertures (or stops), as required when including a large angle of view.” These subjects are not necessarily connected. With respect to the first—viz. that of “diffusion of focus”—much has been already put forward; and not being a subscriber to more than one of the journals, and seldom seeing any others, I may be only restating what has already appeared from other quarters. I may also premise that my observations on this head are not to be understood as expressing an opinion as to the advantage of producing the so-called “diffusion,” but simply in respect of the most appropriate and economical means of producing the same. On this point I have no hesitation in coming to the conclusion that Mr. Claudet’s method is the best as yet proposed, and for the following considerations:—All good portrait-lenses hitherto have included the condition of being well corrected for spherical aberration; and this condition necessarily includes another, viz. that the character of the indistinctness is the same at either side of (i. e. within or beyond) the focus. Now, keeping this latter condition in mind, it will be seen that Mr. Claudet’s method consists essentially in this, viz. the making of every part of the image (alias the images of the different planes of the object) alternately perfectly distinct and indistinct, and with the same character of indistinctness….” “…Lastly, the same character of image will be presented in the human eye by reducing its aperture, pro tern., by small apertures held close before it. These are facts which are readily proved, and cannot be gainsaid. But some will say, we admit the facts, but consider the effect in practice overrated. I have, however, proof, in the letters received from time to time, that first-class photographers are aware of the prejudicial effect. One says that his pictures (taken with small apertures, because required in covering the larger angle) are flat; another, that his pictures want vigour and brilliancy; a third, that they are map-like; a fourth, that the pictures he has taken with the aplanatic lens sell better than others; and a fifth (second in practice to none) offers an unlimited price for a large-angle (not the largest) lens which shall give an image of equal quality with the lesser angle,—which is, in fact, asking for a lens covering a larger angle, but with equal aperture and equal distinctness to those of the lesser-angle lens. If asked what proportion of aperture to focus is desirable in the case of view lenses, I would refer to experience for a reply. I think that the 12 X 10 views of Tintern Abbey and its neighbourhood, taken some seven years since by Mr. Bedford, in which he used an aplanatic of fifteen inches focus, and stops of five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch, are not surpassed, nor perhaps equalled, in artistic excellence by any subsequent performance of his or others. They are, in short, pictures as well as photographs. This I attribute to the dimensions of the stops used; and from this I conclude that we begin to sacrifice excellence in an important direction when the stop is smaller than 1/24 of the focus. There is a manifest difference in vigour between this and the 1/30 of the focus; but as we descend to 1/40, 1/50, 1/60 (not to speak of 1/80), we unavoidably approach still more closely to the character of a map instead of that of a picture. The peculiar character of a photograph, as distinguished from other artistic productions, is thereby intensified; and consequently the results will be less appreciated, more sparingly purchased, and sooner set aside….” p. 24.]


“The North London Photographic Association.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 12:182 (June 15, 1867): 56. [“The Members of this Association held their usual Monthly Meeting at Myddelton Hall, Islington, on Wednesday evening, the 5th instant, when there was a moderately good attendance. Mr. William Warwick King occupied the chair….” “…. The subject of the intended presentation print of the present year is “Holey Street Mill, Chagford, Devon;” and the Chairman remarked with reference to it that the fact of its being the work of Mr. Francis Bedford was sufficient to commend it to their notice. Several pictures by Mr. William Bedford (the son of the last-named gentleman) were also exhibited, and were regarded as very creditable productions, a vote of thanks being passed to him for bringing them under the notice of the meeting….”]



“The Gold and Silver Medals Awarded at the Paris Exhibition to British Exhibitors.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 51:1434-1435 (Sat., July 6, 1867): 28. [“….88 gold medals, about 325 silver medals, 400 bronze medals and 720 “honorable mentions” awarded to all British exhibitors… Award of Silver Medals… Group II. Class 9. Photographic Proofs and Apparatus.—Bedford, Dallmeyer, England, Mudd, Robinson, Swann, C. T. Thompson, Woodbury.”]


“The Award of Prizes at the Paris Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 12:182 (June 15, 1867): 65-76. [“Many communications having been received respecting the awards made by the Jury, we give the following list of the names of the Jurors, together with the awards which were made to English Exhibitors. In nearly every instance the decision of the Jury was unanimous. In continuation, we also print the list of recipients in other countries, taking our information from our contemporaries. The names in the original lists, of all countries, not being classed alphabetically, some exhibitors have claimed a sort of precedence of superiority in rotation as their names occur. This is certainly not the case with the Photographic section. The jurors ( having examined the exhibits in the order in i which they were pointed out by the delegates, and each juror having then made his notes, it was convenient to adopt the same order in voting the degree of merit when the decision of the Jurors was finally taken by the President….” “…The Jurors in Class IX. examined from all countries the exhibits of 720 exposants, to whom 251 awards were recommended, viz:—Gold 3. Silver 46. Bronze 82. H. M. 120. Total 251. In England the awards were as follows:— Silver Medals. Bedford, F.; England, W. Landscapes.
Thompson, Thurston C. Reproductions and Views in Spain and Portugal.
Robinson, H. P. Composition pictures.
Mudd, J Landscapes by his dry process.
Swan, J. W Carbon process; and Photomezzotints.
Woodbury, W. W. Process of Photo-relievoprinting.
Dallmeyer, J. H… For various Lenses of great excellence, especially for his new Rectilinear wide-angle lens….” pp. 65-66.
“…Grand Prix.—M. Garnier, Paris—Heliographic engraving.
Gold Medals.—MM. Tessie du Mothay, and Marechal, Metz; Lafon de Camersac.
English Department.—Silver Medals.
Bedford. Views.
England. Views
Mudd. Views.
Robinson. Landscapes.
Swan. Improving carbon-printing.
Thompson, Thurston. Views.
Woodbury. New mode of printing.
English Department.—Bronze Medals.
Blanchard, V Portraits.
Briggs, Col Indian views.
Caldesi Medallion photographs.
Cherrill Carbon prints.
Griggs Indian views.
Bourne and Shepherd. Indian views.
Joubert Photographic enamels.
Macfarlane Landscapes.
Mayall Enlarged portraits.
Meagher Photographic cabinet-work.
Ross, T Photographic lenses.
Tod Photographs, various.
Heath, Vernon Landscapes.
Wortley, Col. Stuart. Landscapes.
White Photographs, various.
No fewer than 124 have been awarded “honourable mention,” of whom we only insert the names of the recipients who are connected with this country….” pp. 66-67.]


“Notabilia of the Universal Exhibition. The Distribution of the Prize Medals.” ART JOURNAL ns 6:7 (July 1867): 195-197. [“On Monday, the 1st of July, a day of truly Imperial splendour, with a ceremonial altogether worthy as well of the occasion as of the presiding genius of the spectacle, and of the illustrious and eminent personages whom he had gathered together around him in the permanent palace of Art and Industry in the Champs Elysees, the Emperor Napoleon presented to the more distinguished prize-holders their gold medals of honour. The magnificence of the pageant, the varied yet concentrated interest of the scene, the presence of the Sultan and of our own Heir-Apparent, the admirable speech of the Emperor, the dignified and condescending gracefulness of the Empress, and the telling incident of the Prince Imperial, with the perfectly successful performance of the duty of actually distributing the medals, all this has been duly recorded with becoming care and minuteness, and the details of the event which constitutes the culminating point in the history of this year’s Universal Exposition are familiar to all who are interested in the Exposition itself….” p. 195. “…The only great prizes for engraving and lithography were adjudged to M. François, of France, and M. Keller, of Prussia. Of the remaining great prizes, in number only four, for the various other classes of “exhibits” with which we are concerned, not one has been assigned to an Englishman, in some cases because Englishmen have been (as the French artists were) jurors; but the whole group of these prizes has passed to Frenchmen for their bronzes, glass, printing and books, and heliographic engraving. The prizes of the second, third, and fourth rank are severally medals in gold, silver, and bronze. About sixty of these medals have been awarded, in addition to the eight great prizes for paintings and drawings. One gold medal has been allotted to an English painter, Mr. Calderon, now R.A.; one silver medal to Mr. E. Nichol, A.R.A.; one bronze medal to Mr. Orchardson, and one to Mr. Walker for a water-colour drawing. In reference to the rest of the medals of these three classes, it is unnecessary for us to do more than to state the names of those English prize-holders who have exhibited in groups 2, 3, and 4:— “Apparatus and Application of the Liberal Arts;” “Furniture and other Objects for the use of Dwellings;” and ” Clothing and other Objects worn on the Person,” including every variety of personal ornament. Of ten gold medals for printing and books, one has gone to Mr. Brooks for chromo-lithographs; and honours of a lower grade to Messrs. Spottiswoode, Chambers, Bradbury and Evans, Virtue, Stephenson and Blake, Cassell, Petter, and Galpin, Hanhart, Mackenzie, proprietors of Illustrated London News, and Rowney. For paper, binding, and artists’ materials, the first of the five gold medals has been awarded to Messrs. Cowan; and prominent amongst the recipients of the silver medals are Messrs. Gillott, Portal and Crompton, Marcus Ward, Letts, Stephens, Mordan and Hyde. The South Kensington establishment, and the Society of Arts, with Messrs. Wyon and Marcus Ward (the latter for admirable illuminations, which we have noticed more fully elsewhere), are among the most distinguished winners of prizes for the application of drawing and modelling to the common arts. In photography, Mr. Bingham (an Englishman residing in Paris) has a silver medal; and bronze medals have been awarded for their photographic portraits to Messrs. Bedford, Robinson, Mudd, England, and Thurston Thompson; silver medals have been given to Messrs. Woodbury and Swann for new or improved processes, and to Mr. Dalmeyer for his object-glasses. Two silver medals only have come to our countrymen for maps and geographical apparatus—one to the Geological Commission of Canada, and the other to Mr. Stanford, of London….” p. 196.]


“The Gold and Silver Medals Awarded at the Paris Exhibition to British Exhibitors.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 51:1434-1435 (Sat., July 6, 1867): 28. [“….88 gold medals, about 325 silver medals, 400 bronze medals and 720 “honorable mentions” awarded to all British exhibitors… Award of Silver Medals… Group II. Class 9. Photographic Proofs and Apparatus.—Bedford, Dallmeyer, England, Mudd, Robinson, Swann, C. T. Thompson, Woodbury.”


“Photography.” POPULAR SCIENCE REVIEW 6:25 (Oct. 1867): 479-483. [“…Awards of Photographic Jurors at the Paris Exhibition.—We give a list of the English photographers who have carried off honours at the Paris International Exhibition. Messrs. Bedford, England, Mudd, Thurston, Thompson, and Robinson were each awarded a silver medal for landscape photographs. Figure and portrait photographers were not recognised as worthy the silver medals, and therefore received medals in bronze….”]


“Official Reports of the French Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 12:186 (Oct. 15, 1867): 113-126. [“The principal proportion of the present Number is devoted to the Official Reports upon Photography in the International Exhibition at Paris, furnished to the Lord President of the Council of Education. The importance of preserving such a record for future reference renders apology to our readers for the space occupied unnecessary.”
Class 9. Photographic Proofs and Apparatus.”
“Section I. By Hugh W. Diamond, M.D., F.S.A.”
“It has been found convenient to divide the report of this class into two portions, inasmuch as it comprises not only photographs in all their various forms, but also the lenses, the apparatus, the many mechanical appliances, and different processes by which they are produced. The remarks made by the writer of this section will therefore be confined solely to the processes used, the apparatus employed, and the general application of photography, apart from its pretensions as a fine art, which division will be treated by another hand….”
“Class 9. Photography. Section II. BY C Thurston Thompson, Esq.”
“If we may judge from the number of pictures exhibited, photography must be approaching the full tide of its popularity. Never before were so many good works collected from all parts of the world; in whatever part of the globe they are produced the temperature of the climate would seem to be of little consequence, the photographer after a time appears able to overcome all difficulties that may arise from excessive heat or cold, and to produce works either in Canada or India quite equal to those made in England and France. In fact, we may almost conclude that no one country has any very special advantage over another, excepting perhaps England, which, with its slightly misty atmosphere, gives such beautiful distances to her photographic pictures, which may account for her landscapes being the best exhibited. To see the photographs systematically (there are about 600 exhibitors) begin with the French and continue in the same circle of the building, we shall then go through the whole collection in the following order:— After France comes England, India, Canada, and other colonies, Brazil, America, Constantinople, Rome, Italy, Russia, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Wirtemberg, Baden, Hesse, Prussia, Holland, Belgium, and Algiers; and having passed through this interesting series of works, the finest panorama that has yet been produced of the civilized world will have been seen. If we think of these beautiful .photographs, and the knowledge they convey to us, not only of the external appearance but also of the manners and customs of the people of so many distant countries, and then think (those who are old enough) how little we knew of these same countries some twenty-five years ago, we should be thankful to photography for the information and pleasure we derive from it….”
It would be remarkable if the English contributions were not conspicuous in this world-gathering of photography. Our great strength is in our beautiful landscapes; in these we are unequalled, as the works of Messrs. Bedford, Mudd, Wardley, Tod, H. White, Beasley, Rouch, Vernon Heath, England, and others testify. But in portraiture we do not hold so good a position in this Exhibition as we ought. Austria, France, and other countries show better portraits than we do; why this deficiency? We have the best of lenses and chemicals, and a climate equal to any in the world for photography. The reason is our photographers, as a rule, do not sufficiently study the pose of their sitters, and the light and shade of their pictures. This is a matter for serious consideration, if we wish for a good reputation in the world of photographic portraits. Among the best of our many good works are the following :—
4. Beasley exhibits some very successful photographs by the Fothergill process. “At Hungerford” is a very characteristic phase of English scenery.
6. Bedford, F., has a great show of beautiful landscapes, remarkable for their refined effects and perfect photography. “The Castle Grove, Kenilworth,” “Colossi” on the plain of Thebes, “Ruined Temples at Baalbec,” and “Bridge over the Lledr, North Wales,” are charming works of art….”]


“North London Photographic Association.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 12:187 (Nov. 15, 1867): 129-133. [“The usual Monthly Meeting of this Association was held on Wednesday evening, Nov. 6, at Myddelton Hall, Islington. W. W. King, Esq., in the Chair….” “…The Chairman said it would be in the recollection of the Members that the Association during the last session selected as the presentation print of the present year a picture produced by the carbon process from a negative by Mr. Bedford, of “Holey Street Mill, Chagford, Devon.” That print was now ready for distribution, and he thought the Members would say it was a very successful example of Mr. Swan’s very beautiful process. At the next Meeting of the Association a paper would be read on “Architectural Photography,” and he hoped Members on that occasion would bring with them any architectural photographs they might be possessed of….” p. 132.]


“The Times on the Great French Exhibition.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL: THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 12:187 (Nov. 15, 1867): 134-139. [“Paris, Sept. 28. Is no department of the Exhibition is there more activity of mind displayed than in that which is allotted to photographs. No recent discovery excites more curiosity and interest, or calls into play more ingenuity and science and taste, than this of printing by tho aid of light. The art, in all its various processes, has become of immense importance, admits of innumerable applications, and gives employment to a host of people, many of them highly endowed. Far more than the discovery of the telescope, of the microscope, or of a perfect balance, it has made a new era in science; and in the fine arts, also, it has exercised a prodigious influence. It is stated on authority that Sir Henry James has already saved the British Exchequer at least .£40,000 by the use of photozincography in the production of the maps of the Ordnance survey; and the copies of Doomsday Book now at Paris, printed by photozincography, speak for the value and beauty of the process. Photography is useful in so many ways—in astronomy, in ethnology, in anatomy, in botany, in architecture, in land-surveying, in engraving on wood and steel and copper, not to speak of ordinary portraiture, that no modem art can be said more truly to live than this; and few of us who visit the French Exhibition can form an adequate idea of the vast amount of scientific research and mechanical industry which are represented by the hundreds of photographic pictures and apparatus that meet our view. An- index of patents relating to photography alone tells us that down to the end of the year 1859 upwards of 190 separate patents had been granted in England; and since that period the number has been enormously increased. This, however, gives a very insufficient idea of the energy with which the wonderful art is pursued; for, in point of fact, the most important discoveries in photography have not been protected by the patent-laws. Thus the collodion process—a process by which nine-tenths of all the photographs in all countries are now produced— was made known freely to the public by its originator. So likewise the essential principles of all the various carbon processes of printing were announced by their discoverers without, any attempt to secure their rights by patent. So long ago as December 1827, M. Niepce, then living at Kew, submitted to the Royal Society some pictures taken on silvered copper plates smeared with the bitumen of Judea, a substance which is soluble in certain essential oils, but not so after exposure to light. Specimens of his skill are in existence as perfect in appearance as on the day on which they were produced. There is the beginning of the carbon process. On the 29th of May, 1839, Mr. Mungo Ponton made a communication to the Royal Scottish Society of Arts to the effect that bichromate of potash applied to paper in solution accepted a photographic image which could not be removed by water, the portions protected from the light being readily washed away. There is a step in advance. In January of the last – mentioned year M. Daguerre in France, and Mr. Fox Talbot in England, had each made public their independent discoveries of the daguerreotype and the talbotype. Such facts as those deserve to be mentioned, not only for the immediate purpose I have in view, namely, to show the inadequacy of a list of patents as a measure of the life and progress of the photographic art—but also for the purpose of reminding photographers of what they owe to their art. It is becoming too much the fashion now to have patents and secret processes in photography. Every new invention, however trifling, is being protected by a patent. The great discoverers who rendered photography practicable gave it to the world free; a crowd of small followers, on the strength of small inventions, try in their own small interests to make the art a monopoly. A splendid path has been generously thrown open to them by large-minded men; they come forward in the narrowest spirit to claim certain ruts in this broad road for their own. Here are certain trams which this man and that have laid down upon the road, and no one but themselves shall have a right to travel upon these trams. They forget that photography is itself free to them by the grace of their predecessors. Judging by the manner in which the prizes have been distributed, the jurors attach less importance to the successful practice of photography according to known methods than to the discovery of new developments and applications of the art. They have not given their chief prizes to the men who can produce the best portraits or the best landscapes, but to those who can render such portraits and landscapes permanent. M. Lafon de Camersac, of the Rue de la Paix, has received one of the three gold medals which the jury have awarded; but the business which he pursues is not that of taking photographs, it is that of transferring photographs to enamel. An ordinary photograph is apt to fade, and being upon paper it is easily destroyed; but send ‘this photograph to M. Lafon de Camersac, and, by a process which is not quite clear (for he keeps it a secret), he will transfer it with the most perfect accuracy to enamel; he will pass it through the fire, and he will return the picture to you vitrified. He has been working at this process of vitrification since 1851, and year by year since then has made such steady progress and met with such success, that now he boasts of having furnished the public with no less than 15,000 enamels. These indestructible enamels can be made of any size. You may have them small enough to be set in a ring, and you may have them large enough to hang in a picture frame on your walls. They do not cost much, and they are executed with rare taste and fidelity. The result is most valuable; for there is no other method of rendering photographic pictures indestructible that approaches this in the fidelity with which it reproduces all the attributes of the photograph to be preserved, and in the assurance of safety which it affords. M. Lafon de Camersac, as the discoverer of the process, and as its most indefatigable and successful worker, has accordingly been honoured with one of the highest prizes which the jurors had it in their power to bestow. Other chief prizes have been awarded to other methods of rendering photographic impressions permanent. And now we come to what is called the carbon process, or carbon printing. Is it possible to print a photograph on paper so that it shall be as permanent as the impression of a steel engraving in printer’s ink? Whatever we may come to hereafter, it is generally accepted at present that if a photographic print is to rival ordinary prints in permanence, this can only be by reproducing it in an ink which, like printer’s ink, has carbon for its base. So there are a great number of ingenious processes for transferring to gradations of carbon the gradations of light and shade which we see in photographs. The essential theory of these processes is suggested by the experiments of M. Niepce announced in 1827, and of Mr. Mungo Ponton announced in 1839. There are substances, soluble in water, which become insoluble when subjected to the agency of light. If a photographic image be transferred to the surface of such a substance, the light passing through the light parts of the negative, and not through the dark, will so act upon the surface that parts of it will wash away, and parts not. The surface when washed will bo raised or depressed according to the quantity of light which at different points has acted upon it; and the depressions thus contrived will accept a film of carbon, which in its various gradations of thickness will more or less accurately represent the lights and shadows of the photograph. The French have had great success in the production of their carbon prints, M. Gamier and M. Jessie du Motay being deemed worthy of gold medals. Most of the French carbon prints are described as produced by the process of Poitevin, who in 1855 succeeded in turning to account the discovery of Mr. Mungo Ponton. He combined carbon or any other pigment in a fine state of division with gelatine, starch, or gum, applied it over the surface of his paper, dried it, submitted it to the action of light under a photographic negative, and so first produced what is now usually called a carbon print. Many specimens are exhibited of this form of picture; some are of great beauty; and all pretend to the permanence which belongs to ordinary engraving. The chief English exhibitors of carbon printing are Mr. Woodbury, of London, Mr. Swan, of Newcastle, and Mr. Pouncey, of Dorchester. Among these, as a discoverer, Mr. Pouncey stands first in point of time. His first announcements belong to the year 1858—that is, three years after Poitevin’s first success. He is evidently on the right path, and he deserves some credit as one of the earliest to understand the importance of carbon printing. But a comparison of his results with those of other exhibitors in the same line is not satisfactory. His prints are rather coarse in appearance; in the production of them a solvent is used which is expensive enough to interfere seriously with the commercial value of the process; and the specimens which are exhibited in Paris seem to be varnished to secure protection. Mr. Swan, of Newcastle, comes after Mr. Pouncey in point of time; his discovery dates from 1864; but he appears to have carried his process of carbon printing to a high degree of perfection, and he shows some excellent results of it in landscapes and portraits. Mr. Swan’s process has been admirably worked by Mr. Nelson Cherrill, who exhibits some very fine work in landscape, printed after this manner; and it always speaks well for a process when others are able to use it successfully, following the prescriptions of the originator. The latest process of carbon printing which has been invented in England is that of Mr. Walter Woodbury. It is wonderfully simple, and the results are full of promise. A picture is transferred to a thin sheet of gelatine; water washes away those parts of the gelatine on which the light has not acted; and we have a relieved surface which perfectly represents the light and shadow of the picture. By hydraulic pressure the gradations of relief on the gelatine are transferred to soft metal; and the subsequent results, the impressions (which are of much softness and beauty), are produced by mechanical means so simple that hundreds and thousands of them can be obtained in a few hours. If it is necessary to produce numerous illustrations for a book in an incredibly short space of time, there are few processes which for beauty and rapidity of result can dare a comparison with that of Mr. Woodbury. Thus far we have been considering the means which have been invented to render a photograph permanent, whether by vitrification or by transference to carbon. Now we may turn to the photograph itself, and to the best means of producing it. The chief prize for photography proper has been awarded to an Englishman living in Paris, Mr. Bingham. It will be asked what does ho photograph? and few Englishmen will be able to imagine the answer. When they hear that he has obtained the first of the silver medals and was very near obtaining a gold one they will imagine that ho must be either a firstrato photographer of landscape or a first-rate photographer of portraits. His portraits are certainly of the highest order; but it is not for his portraiture that he has been rewarded. In fact, he has not thought it worth his while to exhibit a single portrait. He has obtained his honours for a species of photograph which has a deserved reputation here, but which is systematically repressed in London—for the reproduction of pictures. It is one of the great pleasures of French art that wc can obtain photographic copies of all the interesting pictures at a moderate price. You can get a Meissonier or a Gerome of all sizes, and at prices varying from If. to 20f., according to the scale of reproduction. What chance have you in London of seeing upon your table a fair representation of a Landseer or a Millais for 5s. or 10s.? The print-sellers don’t want to have anything to do with those cheap reproductions of our leading artists, because they imagine that the sale of them will interfere with that of expensive steel engravings. Here the shop windows are full of fine photographs of celebrated pictures. M. Gerome exhibits a new picture in the Salon. While it is hung there and all the public interest in it is fresh, you may go to the print-seller and get an authorized photograph of it. Suppose that Sir Edwin sends to the Academy a canvas in which he surpasses himself. All London is talking of it; but you have no chance of getting a reflection of it upon paper for three or four years; and then, when the excitement of curiosity has died away, you may subscribe for an engraving at a price which only men of some means can afford. Is it not possible to effect a compromise between photographers and engravers? to satisfy the popular demand without seriously hurting the subscription for costly engravings? or, if the sale of costly engravings be to some extent injured, may there not be compensation for it in the extensive sale of photographs? Our print-sellers should take a hint. They are not abreast of the time. It is folly in them to set their faces like a flint against photography. Some man among them will arise who will find his account in catering for the multitude. The multitude are of sufficient importance to have their wants attended to. Why should London in this matter be behind Paris? Why should tho most successful photographer of pictures—an Englishman—be obliged to come to Paris to have his merits appreciated and to make his fortune? Mr. Bingham has earned a great reputation in the practice of a most difficult art. Certain colours are rather unmanageable in the photograph—dark ones coming out bright, and bright ones coming out dark. The photographer has to humour these, and all his skill is tasked to produce a result that shall fairly represent the original. I have already had occasion to state that the English beat the French in the photographic landscape, and fall short of them in photographic portraiture. Nothing can surpass the beauty of some of the photographic landscapes which the English school has produced. Thus the views of Mr. Bedford (the same who went with the Prince of Wales to the East) are very fine. In some small landscapes exhibited by Mr. Russell Manners Gordon, and taken with Dallmeyer’s new wide-angle lens, the distance is in perfect detail, while the atmospheric effect is truly rendered. Captain Tod, of Cheltenham, another amateur, sends some choice little pictures of woodland and roadside scenery. So also the views presented by Mr. Macfarlane are quite wonderful for their accuracy and softness. Taken in Bengal, the photographer had to contend with the disadvantage of too dry a climate and too clear an atmosphere. Nevertheless the results are remarkable, and have all the softness of English scenery. Colonel Wortley’s instantaneous pictures of seas and skies are also admirable. The clouds are especially good, and are much sought after by artists as studies. Then Mr. Thurston Thompson sends an extensive series of architectural views. The reproduction of old architecture in this way, with so much definition of detail, is most important; and Mr. Thompson has succeeded in giving full pictorial effect to his records. All the views thus far mentioned are taken in the ordinary way, on wet collodion. No process is superior to this in the results which it produces, but it is sometimes inconvenient for the photographer in his travels. It is inconvenient, because the process needs that the sensitive plate of wet collodion which has received an impression from the scene should be at once developed. Of course, a photographer would always wish to be able to develop the impression at once, so that he may see how the picture will turn out; but it is not always convenient for him to carry about with him the materials and baths by which the plate is to be produced. Of late years, therefore, a method has been perfected of taking impressions in dry collodion, which need not instantly be developed. The picture may remain latent on the surface of the dry collodion for several months before it is developed for use. Mr. Mudd, of Manchester, has carried this method of taking pictures to a high pitch of excellence, and exhibits some beautiful pictures; also the pictures of Mr. Wardley, his pupil, who works according to his instructions, are very good. Other exhibitors, -working by different dry processes, do not seem to have reached an equally uniform and agreeable result. If in landscape the English photographers are before all the world, in portraiture it must be repeated that they are behind the French. It cannot, indeed, be said that in this department of the art the English photographers arc fully represented; but even if they were, the}’ must cede the palm to the French. M. Claudet is one of the best of the London photographers who exhibit here, and he is a Frenchman who exhibits likewise among the French. M. Adolphe Beau is another Frenchman settled in London who seems to suit the English taste. Some of his pictures are pleasing, but he is a little too fond of making his sitters twist about and attitudinize. Mr. Mayall has produced some interesting studies—enlarged portraits that are full of vigour; and his work may be taken as a fair example of good Regent-Street photography. Some of the most artistic-looking heads exhibited in the English department are the work of an amateur, Mrs. Cameron. This lady has produced a number of fine studies; but her work is unequal, and in most cases the delineation of her heads is too indefinite. Her process is stated to be the result of an accident. She happened to use a small lens to produce large work. The result was that the hardness of outline for which most of j our photographers are remarkable was effectually avoided. The lens could not do what the lady wanted it to do, and produced an image with a blurred delineation; so she strives for this blurred effect, and in many cases succeeds in turning out a head with a good deal of power in it, and with a softness of outline which is in singular contrast to the ordinary style of photographs. Some of Mr. James Ross’s (of Edinburgh) portraits of children, of which he exhibits a great number, are well arranged and pretty. Lastly, Mr. Robinson’s pictures, produced by combined printing, are remarkable. To take a scene and to fill it with figures engaged naturally in some action would be a difficult task if the result must he produced all at once. He takes several distinct studies — one of the scene which is to form the background of the picture, another of a figure in some particular attitude, a third of a figure in a different attitude, and afterwards he combines these separate studies into one complete picture. The result is rather good, but, judging from the greater success which attends Mr. Robinson’s less elaborate pictures, it will be generally thought that in these compositions the artist aims at more than photography can ever satisfactorily achieve—that harmony and coincidence of shadowing which only can be rendered by the hand and mind of the artist. If now we turn from the English to the French department we find a complete turning of the tables. In landscape the French photographers are not to be compared with ours. The finest landscapes in the French gallery are produced by an Englishman resident in France—Mr. Maxwell Lyte. They are good, but not so good as some of those in the English district of the Exhibition. Their chief failing is a want of aerial effect. But, on the other hand, the French photographic portraits are matchless. Those exhibited by M. Adam Salomon have never been equalled, and are beyond praise. He is by profession a sculptor, and as such has attained a great reputation, especially in that land of sculpture for which the French seem to have a special aptitude— portrait sculpture. His portraits are remarkable for the combination of grace with fidelity. M. Adam Salomon has carried that fine faculty which has been schooled in the severe art of sculpture into photography, and, doing so, has in his particular branch distanced all his competitors. He produces no small portraits of the carte-de-visite size; all his portraits are larger, about ten inches by seven. For the first impression of one of these he charges 100f., and for every succeeding impression 25f. The portraits are well worth the money, for nothing in the way of photography has yet been produced so perfect. He has a happy art of arranging his subjects and making them with all the accessories look their best, and then he produces them in a picture which is so soft and full of harmony that the first thought of a. critic is nearly always, “This cannot be pure photography; there must be touching and retouching here.” Perfect as M. Adam Salomon’s specimens are, they are not at all retouched. They are simply the result of great knowledge, true feeling, and much care; and so they are the finest photographic portraits in the world. Paris, however, is full of admirable photographers. It is impossible to walk along the boulevards, stopping to look at the cases full of portraits, without quickly coming to this conclusion. I may mention at random the names of Messrs. Reutlinger, Lege and Bergeron, Mulnier, Pierson, Trinquart, Alophe. Their names are legion. Take the exhibition of Messrs Lege and Bergeron, better known under the name of Carjat and Co., to whom they have succeeded. They exhibitlarge and small portraits—some of the usual carte-de-visite form, others larger, in which only the head of the sitter appears. It must be acknowledged that these portraits are of great excellence; that they display not a little taste and resource, and that they do honour to the Erench school of portraiture. Nor are Messrs. Lege and Bergeron alone. They have competitors, of whom one may say that it would be no disgrace even to be vanquished by them. Out of the English and the French territories the only very good photographers are to be found in the specimens sent from Vienna and from Berlin. Nearly every country has sent specimens of photography, and nearly every one has something respectable to show; but the impressions from Vienna and from Berlin are particularly good. In those contributed by M. Augerer, of Vienna, he shows that he can take a room full of people at once with more than tolerable success. This is clever; but there is no great interest in the result, beyond the wonder which attaches to the combination of so many people in a single view, and all in proper focus. The Berlin portraits of single persons are more interesting. They are full of character, full of life, yet have no hardness of outline, and stand out like pictures.”]


“North London Photographic Association.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 12:188 (Dec. 15, 1867): 152-155. [“The Monthly Meeting of the Members of this Association was held at the Myddelton Hall, on Wednesday last, the 4th inst. W. W. King, Esq., in the Chair….” “…The Chairman then read a paper
“On Architectural Photography.”
“It must be generally conceded that architectural photography has attained a position of greater prominence in the science than any other branch thereof, and this for two very good reasons:-—first, that the subjects themselves are not liable to be affected by wind, that enemy to photographers—so dangerous, indeed, that Mr. Jabez Hughes, in his excellent little work, advises the reader never to photograph on windy days; and, next, that the subjects possess a permanent interest from their clear individuality. Landscapes, beautiful as they are, cannot successfully compete with them in this respect, for one beautiful view may be exceedingly like another: we pass it by in our portfolios and think but little more about it. But the representation of a piece of architecture is altogether different. There the photograph appears to the greatest advantage: we at once recognize the building, and can, if need be, identify every stone or saint whose sculptured effigy adorns a niche or pinnacle. The building is seen from a point of view known and, therefore, familiar to all. We turn to the photograph again and again with renewed pleasure; for it forms a record of authority and weight. The architectural profession has not been slow to appreciate the value of photography, and the public themselves, now that archaeological and art knowledge are being more diffused, and taste somewhat improved, delight in the beautiful reminiscences of our ancient buildings. I think I may say that our countrymen are far in advance of any other nation in dealing with architectural and archaeological photography. Go to one of our photographic exhibitions, and you are sure to see some of Mr. F. Bedford’s exquisite productions, showing his possession of something more than a mere knowledge of photography—namely, a true appreciation of, and love for, the art works of our forefathers. Following him is Mr. Frank M. Good, whose fine interiors have attracted well-deserved attention. These gentlemen use larger-sized plates than Messrs. Wilson, Stuart, Thompson, and England, who have given us stereoscopic slides of great beauty. Looking at the French Exhibition of 1867, as usual, there were fewer architectural photographs than in the English department. This may be the result of the greater favour with which classic architecture is viewed in France, and the mediocre Gothic structures which the modern French architects produce having nothing of the old art-spirit about them. The same thing may be said of their ecclesiastical sculpture. Many of us, doubtless, entered the chapel in the grounds of the French Exhibition, which had been erected by an enterprising manufacturer residing at Beauvais, for the purpose of showing his wares. There were figures, both in sculpture and stained glass, with meaningless faces and bad drapery—in fact, having nothing whatever to recommend them as works of art. It seemed as if the nation cared but little for the glorious art of the mediaeval period, but preferred to produce very inferior works, devoid of the love for, and pleasure in, his work which, Ruskin says, the true artist should possess. Indeed, so little do they care for photography, so far as archaeology is concerned, that I was unable to procure any photographs of the “Moyen age” collections exhibited to illustrate the “Histoire du Travail.” There were priceless things which one might never see again in a single exhibition. I merely mention that wonderful foot of a Bronze candlestick, formerly in the Cathedral of Rheims,—some reliquaries and ornaments from the church of Conques, in the out-of-the way province of Auvergne, soon to be returned to its tresor,—crosiers, reliquaries, the wooden doorways of a demolished Norwegian church, —and the monstrance made of the first gold sent to Europe from America, a glorious consecration of first fruits to religion,—and other objects of historic and art interest. But I must not omit the statuettes, representing persons in various attitudes of mourning, from a tomb of one of the Ducs de Berri: one, of which not a feature or limb was visible, exhibited the intensest grief; and the whole sculpture was matchless. I mention this to show that they could not be looked upon by our French neighbours as we should have viewed them. Now I must say that this was a grand opportunity lost. We should have done far better in England; witness the catalogue (photographic) of archaeological objects, published by the South Kensington Museum. The superiority of modern English ecclesiastical architecture must be generally admitted, from the greater love for old works which our architects evince by their works; and we see why architectural photography of ancient remains should be more practised in England than in France. I think we may say that the photographs of interiors at the present time leave little or nothing to be desired. I must refer again to the honoured name of Mr. Bedford and to Mr. Good. Their works show the advance which has been made in photographing the interiors of our cathedrals and churches, as do also the stereoscopic slides by the other photographers I have named. Of course, photographers, as a rule, will take subjects which are most popular, those most known belong to that class; for it is nothing more than a mere truism to say that people will patronize things known, though they may be ugly, rather than a beautiful object which they have not seen. Still, it is a great thing to have some old objects from a new point of view. Now I never knew that Whitby Abbey would furnish more subjects for the camera than one, viz. the eastern end, till I saw those by Mr. Good, which are now on the table. The details of buildings which many professional photographers now take are in every way valuable, though I scarcely think they can be made to pay. We have no right to expect professional photographers to take subjects which the public in general will not buy, though they may do so occasionally; witness the works of Mr. Bedford, Mr. Good, and Mr. W. H. Warner; the latter has done some charming interiors of country churches in Herefordshire.I then appeal to amateurs. It is their place to fill up the gap, and give us photographs of our old country churches and domestic buildings, so valuable to the archaeologist; but to do this successfully, I would advise them to read two works by sound archaeologists, viz. ‘Gothic Architecture,’ by M. H. Bloxam, F.S.A., and the ‘Introduction to Gothic Architecture,’ by J. H. Parker, F.S.A., who has so greatly availed himself of photography to illustrate the antiquities of Rome. The study of these works will give zest to many a country ramble. They will create an interest in the deeds of those who preceded us, and also enable the photographer to select what is of the most value to the archaeologist, and render especial service to his science, by recording the state of our old buildings before they have undergone that most destructive process commonly called “restoration.”…”]





Bedford, Francis. “Guides to Practice. Landscape Negatives, and Some Hints for Their Improvement.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1868. (1868): 23-25 [“I propose to consider here, very briefly, certain means by which improved results may be obtained from such negatives as, from one cause or another, are not quite satisfactory examples of first-class photography: not, however, with the idea of leading any disciple of our art to be less careful in striving to get as perfect negatives as he can, but simply with the view of helping him to make the best of such as he has. No amount of ingenious “doctoring,” as it is called, can ever impart, or compensate for the absence of, those artistic and other good qualities which most photographers, who have happily emancipated themselves from their first crude notions of beauty produced by pure photography apart from art excellence, now regard as indispensable. The earnest worker, imbued with a true love of the beautiful in nature, will neglect no precaution and grudge no pains to transfer to his plate, with all the perfection his art admits of, the fair scene or picturesque objects before him. No mere transcript, however good as a mere photograph, will satisfy him now; he aims at a higher standard of excellence; his photograph must be a picture. The art claims of his favourite pursuit are very grudgingly allowed; he will therefore strive, for the honour of his art, to prove his claim to be an artist by his work. He will, whenever practicable, visit beforehand the scene he proposes to depict, and select his subject and his point of view with special regard to the most picturesque arrangement of the several parts; he will study carefully what are the main features which constitute its chief attraction, and give due prominence to them by so subordinating surrounding objects as to secure such proper balance in the several parts as shall form a perfect whole. He will note at what time of the day the light is most favourable for bringing out the beauty of the subject, aiming especially to secure breadth of effect, and forms well rounded and relieved, by the light coming rather upon the edges of the masses, and bringing out with crispness those exquisite details of foreground —foliage, for instance—which have probably attracted his eye, and been with him a point for careful study. In the matter, too, of his plates, choice of lens, and chemicals in satisfactory condition, no precautions will be neglected, and his most careful manipulation will be exerted towards securing the best result. But, unfortunately, one cannot always rely upon success, however he may strive to Reserve it. The photographer who goes to his work with hopes as bright as the morning, is, now and then, too forcibly reminded of the uncertainty of such hopes and of the unfulfilled promises of the morning too. Disappointed, but not discouraged, in failing light, or wind or rain, he pursues as a task that which was to have been a labour of love; but, having come so far, he will not be beaten; he will, at all events, take home something as a recompense, hoping it will not be so very bad after all, and the result is found in those not quite satisfactory pictures for the improvement of which I make the following suggestions. And here let me say I claim for them no novelty: the means which I adopted years ago have, in all probability, been used by others also, who, like myself, have to deal with large numbers of so-called commercial negatives, taken under all conditions of weather and accident, and needing all our ingenuity to make prints from them presents able. But such hints may be new, and of service also, to many readers of the Year-Book. We will suppose now a negative to have been taken in a dull or failing light: the exposure given has been too brief, and, in the vain attempt to bring out as much detail as possible in the shadows of the picture, our negative is a hard one, and black and white to look at. But by the judicious use of an extra dose of cyanide, sufficiently prolonged, much softness is gained, and that, too, without any detriment to the lighter shades. It is by this treatment made to print more quickly, and the resultant proof will probably be rich and full of colour. The cyanide may be applied to certain portions only of the negative, and its action longer continued; but, in that case, great care must be used to avoid stains. An imperfect sky may be treated so as greatly to enhance the effect of the finished picture by gumming upon the back of the glass plate an even layer of thin clear tracing-paper, upon which most effective clouding may be worked in with india-ink or lamp-black, while sharper touches to express high lights may be touched in upon the film side of the negative. The success of this operation will of course depend on the artistic ability and experience of the operator. One advantage of this method is, that it is rarely if ever necessary to paint out a sky altogether. Dark portions here and there—masses of heavy foliage, for instance, deficient in detail—may be much softened and improved by the application of one or more thicknesses of tracing-paper to the back, and greater appearance of atmosphere may be given by the same means to the distances in the view. Where the paper is removed or scraped away, as it must be from the lighter parts, it must be left with a serrated and not a smooth edge, or there will be a blurred appearance in the prints, anything but pleasing. A good deal may be done, too, by working on the film with a very soft pencil or lithographic chalk; and in this case it is a good plan to varnish first with amber varnish, which leaves a capital surface, capable of receiving the sharpest touches or most delicate tints, and it can afterwards be treated with hard spirit varnish in the usual way, by which means the retouching is effectually protected. A common defect in skies, particularly in stereos, is a transparent patch in the corners or along one edge of the plate. This may be remedied by dabbling or stippling on the back with lampblack, being careful to leave it rather lighter than, the rest of the sky; and this applies to all retouching with black. In filling up large transparent spots let the colour be light, and float it on; the edge will generally p to match the rest. But it is not defective negatives alone which are susceptible of improvement. The effect of many a fine landscape photograph is marred by its flat blank sky, from the simple circumstance of its having been taken on a bright and cloudless day. It is usual in such cases to supply the deficiency and restore the balance of colour by shading this part of the proof gradually from the horizon darker towards the upper edge of the picture; but it is apt to give a somewhat artificial effect, and is often carried too far, so much so as sometimes to convey the uncomfortable feeling of an impending storm. The plan I have been advising, of working up a clouded sky on tracing-paper, is, I think, a better one, and, when once it is done, there is no further trouble in the printing, unless it be thought desirable just to soften the effect a little by delicately tinting the sky after removal of the print from the frame. I have seen good results obtained by photographing the clouds from a lithographic tint, and printing it into the picture; but of the trouble and cost of double printing is to be incurred, it is far better to go direct to nature for all you want. It would be well if, while at work in the country or at the seaside, we could now and then devote a favourable day to securing good cloud negatives. In the early autumn, especially, very effective clouds, admirably suited for our purpose, could be obtained in endless variety of form and character. The grandest effects are not the best, but quiet, unobtrusive skies, which keep their place in the finished picture, are preferable; and a goodly number of such negatives should be taken, so that the same sky should not be used too frequently. I have seen on the walls of an exhibition two or three such skies made to do duty for a dozen or so of different views, and some of them not in harmony with the subject either. Photographers need to bear in mind that the art consists in concealing the art by which the means is obtained. In making these suggestions for the improvement of negatives, let me urge upon photographers not to abuse the means at their disposal for this purpose, by employing them beyond their legitimate limit. I saw, the other day, a view of a scene familiar to me, into which a snow-streaked mountain had been imported, which the camera certainly did not find there. Such falsifying of the truth is, to say the least of it, in bad taste, and calculated to bring our art into discredit, an art which it should ever be the ambition of its disciples to elevate and improve.”]


“Photography.” POPULAR SCIENCE REVIEW 7:26 (Jan. 1868): 109-113. [“…Exhibition of Photographs.—The London Photographic Society recently opened a photographic exhibition gratuitously for one week in the Architectural Gallery, 9, Conduit Street, Regent Street. The collection, if not a very large one, was good; and considering that the exhibition was only advertised in the pages of the photographic serials, it attracted a very fair attendance of visitors….” “…Some very fine specimens of carbon printing were exhibited by M. Cherrill, and some excellent landscapes by Mr. Frank Howard. Mr. Dunmore, a good and tasteful operator, seems to have a singular passion for pigeons, and never to photograph a landscape until these birds appear in it. Mr. Ayling’s architectural photographs were greatly admired. Bedford’s works retain their old supremacy as landscape photographs; and Mr. Faulkner’s pretty little portraits are still in the van….”]


“Transactions of Societies. The Queket Club.” ILLUSTRATED PHOTOGRAPHER 1:7 (Mar. 20, 1868): 86. [“The Queket Microscopic Club held its annual conversazione at University College, on Friday last. There was an extraordinary attendance, especially of the fair sex, and had it not been that all the rooms on the first-floor were thrown open for the accommodation of visitors, the crush would have been tremendous. As it was, every room, anteroom, hall, and corridor, were crowded with ladies and gentlemen, cither anxious to see each other, or the various objects of interest most liberally scattered throughout the rooms. There were microscopes by hundreds, all fully illuminated, with attendants standing near to adjust the instruments, and explain to the uninitiated why this animal was born with a tail, and the other without, &c. The great object of interest, however, was a display, by Mr. How, of Foster-lane, of magnified representations of the parasites which infest different animals. This exhibition took place in one of the lecture-rooms of the college. The objects were photographs from nature, thrown on a white screen, by means of the oxyhydrogen light in the magic lantern. This room was densely packed by a very appreciative audience, the majority consisting of ladies. To hear their half-suppressed, but almost unanimous expressions of surprise, disgust, or other feeling, as the slides were exhibited on the screen, was, to your reporter, more interesting than the monsters themselves (he does not mean the ladies by the latter substantive)….” “…Almost all the makers and sellers of microscopic instruments in London were represented at the various tables set apart for their use. But the most promising feature of the prosperity of this society was the intense interest taken by the members in bringing their own instruments, and explaining to those uninitiated in microscopy the various features of minute life, or dead existence, of which the microscope only can convey to the mind a true idea. Mr. Bedford contributed largely to the general entertainment, by sending a large and very fine selection of his admirable photographs, to fill up vacant spaces and relieve the eyes, tired and almost worn-out by peering through the microscope at objects intensely illuminated by condensing lenses….” “…Altogether the conversazione was a great success, and a very remarkable one, when we recollect that three or four years ago the members of the club numbered five, and met in a small room at Mr. Hardwicke’s house. Might not the Photographic Society take a lesson from this admirably conducted club?.”]


Wall, A. H. “Chapters on ‘Dodges.’” ILLUSTRATED PHOTOGRAPHER 1:10 (Apr. 9, 1868):.120. [(Describes various tricks used by Warner, Bedford, Adam Salomon and others to obtain better prints.)]


“Bits of Chat.” ILLUSTRATED PHOTOGRAPHER 1:10 (Apr. 9, 1868):123-124. [“Steps have been taken for the formation of an Archaeological Society for Birmingham and the neighbourhood, in connection with the Birmingham and Midland Institute, for the examination, study, and preservation of local antiquities. Members of the institute, on paying 5s. a year, are to become members of the archeological section. Donations are to be requested towards a copying fund for providing drawings and photographs of ancient documents and old buildings, and for preserving old relics of the history of Birmingham and its neighbourhood. It is rumoured that the talented artist, Lake Price, is on the eve of again commencing practice as a professional photographer. Messrs. Bell and Daldy have in preparation a volume of Scottish scenery, containing views of many of the places of interest visited by her Majesty and the Prince Consort, accompanied by descriptive letterpress, with an essay on the characteristics of Scottish scenery, by a popular writer. According to a paragraph which has gone the round of the press, the illustrations are sun pictures, taken by a process discovered by Mr. Joseph Adam, who has been engaged many years in bringing it to perfection. By this invention the photographs are said to have all the softness of the finest line engravings, and to be works of a very high class. The Prince of Wales has signified to the committee of the National Exhibition of Works of Art, at Leeds, that he will open the exhibition in the week commencing Monday, the 18th of May. Photography will, we believe, have no place in this collection. In a letter to a contemporary, M. K. de Roth says :— “A fact interesting to all lovers of the tannin process is published by Herr I. Heinz, viz., that tannin may be entirely freed from all colouring matter by dissolving six parts of common tannin in twelve parts of warm distilled water, and adding one part of ether to it….” At the ordinary monthly meeting of the Liverpool Amateur Photographic Association, on the 31st ult., Mr. Green said he wished to call attention to one of the minutes of the January meeting, referring to the picture presented to the hon. secretary, which had not been fully reported. The following is the inscriptionupon the picture, and will explain matters fully: —”This photograph, being the largest hitherto taken by the collodio-bromide process, is presented by the Liverpool Amateur Photographic Association to their secretary, Mr. W. Bolton, to whom photographers are mainly indebted for the discovery of the method of producing a photograph without a bath; and in testimony of his zeal in promoting the objects of the association.” We observed several cameras pointed from windows towards the starting-point of the Oxford and Cambridge boats on Saturday, immediately before the race. The photographers must have been much disappointed, for on such a morning it would have been simply impossible to get anything better than a representation of fog—and that they might have got at home; We observed also a peripatetic photographer plying his vocation with great industry among the carriages drawn up at Barnes. His apparatus and developing box were very primitive looking affairs, and one of his pictures that we saw had very much of the same character. An art exhibition will open at Darwen, in Lancashire, on Wednesday, May 6th, when the Marquis of Hartington will deliver the inaugural address. It is said that photography will be represented by the works of Bedford, Blanchard, A. Brothers, Eastham, Edwards, Elliot, England, Fry, Kirby, Mayall, McLachlan, Mudd, Nelson, Skaife, Vernon Heath, and Winstanley, and that several leading opticians and apparatus manufacturers will contribute. Communications should be addressed to Mr. Robert Edwards, manager.


Henderson, J. “Photography as an Aid to Archaeology.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 13:192 (Apr. 18, 1868): 37-40. [“(Liverpool Amateur Photographic Association.) Archaeology has been defined as “the science of teaching history by its monuments; that is, by every monument of man which the ravages of time have spared.” “By the study of the past we advance the interest of the present, and know how to make use of it for the benefit of the future.” This being the case, the reproduction by means of photography of objects of antiquity is one among the numerous applications of our art which is now receiving, as it deserves, no small share of attention. A great deal may be urged in favour of the readiness with which copies of various objects may be made by hand, of their cheapness, durability, and the ease with which they may be multiplied; but against these may be set the absolute truthfulness which is inseparable from a photograph when taken under proper conditions; the facility with which they also may be produced; the great advantage of a stereoscopic combination of views; lastly, with regard to permanence, tho carbon and allied processes, and greater care in the production of silver prints, point at least in this direction, while the simplicity of our own collodio-bromide process commends itself for yielding excellent glass transparencies, which, when encased in Canada balsam, would seem to defy the ordinary wear and tear of time. My attention was first drawn to the subject of my paper by reading a letter in the ‘Times’ in January last, wherein Mr. C. P. Stevens stated he had been enabled to form certain conclusions from photographs of flint implements from gravel-pits at Malton, in reference to which a vexed question was raised. In a letter to me, from the Blackmoor Museum, Salisbury, that gentleman, pays:—”I had a flint hatchet photographed yesterday; but for such objects photography is not very useful, as the yellows come out too dark. “For matters of detail, photography is admirably adapted, or for mere form. Our museum is set apart for pre-historic archaeology, and for weapons, and so on, in use by modern savages, as illustrating the collection, and photographs of rare forms of club, spears, ornaments, tools, weapons &c. are useful and valuable to us. We also collect photographs of the aborigines of various countries; and for this nothing is equal to photography, because artistic licence is impossible. “For dolmens and other megalithic structures, photography is a magnificent agent; likewise for sculptured stones of the early periods. Of course I do not now allude to any application of the art as available for other than purposes of archaeology. “Our county archaeological societies employ photography largely in their work, and the Hampshire Society also. Some photographs of the Roman city of Silchester were taken during a recent visit of that Society to the spot.” Many important historical monuments are in inaccessible positions, which the artist has to visit hurriedly, filling up subsequently the details of his imperfect sketches. This photography does effectually on the spot. Many objects of antiquarian interest are fragmentary, and form a mere portion; the probable outline of the whole has to be deduced; others (such as cinerary urns, bones, and implements, and also Roman frescoes), when exposed after ages of interment, rapidly crumble in our atmosphere, and are lost for ever. A sketch is often attempted by a rude draughtsman, where a photograph would render invaluable aid. The character, date, and evident use of objects, as in the foregoing instances, are frequently determined by the situation and other circumstances under which they are found; and here our art is of great use. I have, on a former occasion, referred to “architectural photography,” and now, in relation to the archaeological part of the subject, I may add that, although the architect will learn more by making a careful sketch of an old building, yet you will very seldom find two sketches of the same subject which agree perfectly, while the time and skill necessary to copy the endless intricacies of detail (say) in a Gothic building, would be better spent in taking a few photographs of the same. Photographs show the difference in the courses of masonry, which often determine relative dates. They also show the juncture of work of different periods and later insertions; and in connexion with this subject I may urge the desirability of photographing churches, &c, before and after restoration. As illustrating and adding force to what I have said, I may remind you of what has been done by our own Government, by public and other bodies, and by individuals who have employed photography for the purposes I have named.’ By command of Her Majesty, photo-zincography has been employed to reproduce in facsimile a selection of the national MSS. of England, from the Conquest to the reign of Queen Anne. Thus far, 230 have been published, to which the Domesday Book must be added. About 80 MSS. of Scotland are already in the hands of the public, and more of that country, and also of Ireland, are to follow. By the same process some municipal and other archives have likewise been copied. The Ordnance Survey of Stonehenge and of Turnsachau (I. of Lewis) is accompanied with illustrative photographs. In a communication received after the rest of my paper was written, Mr. C. J. Stevens, in speaking of the value of the Ordnance photographs of Stonehenge, refers to his remarks upon them in the Athenaeum, also to Mr. Parke’s photographic illustrations of the “Antiquities of Wells,” and after enumerating photographs of Celtic and other relics (including those of the Swiss lake-dwellings), he proceeds to say: “The stone axe from Mai ton, and the beds from whence it was derived, are chiefly known to archaeologists by the published photographs of them ;” and concludes thus: “An artist is not necessarily au archaeologist, and ho may slur over or misrepresent some trifling (to him) detail. I have a photograph of a church, with the village, cross, &c.; upon the latter, even the chalk scribblings of boys are shown. No artist would have taken this; but in a strange country and with all to learn about the antiquities and the people, such minuteness is invaluable” *.(* I am indebted to Mr. Stevens for the permission to use his remarks, which were not intended for publication.) The India Office has published an important work with photographic illustrations—’ The Textile Manufactures and Costumes of the People of India ‘; and the Indian Government has recently directed the whole of the ancient buildings of India to be photographed. The Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem has been the means of many valuable photographs being taken there; and the Hon. Secretary of the Palestine Exploration Fund also says: “We have already materials for almost an entirely complete and accurate map of the country, and photographs of more than 300 spots and objects, large numbers of which have never before been taken.” There are catalogues of photographs of about 10,000 objects of antiquarian interest in South Kensington Museum, not to mention the numerous photographs taken of loan and other collections, and also at the British Museum. While making a passing allusion to the use made of photography by our English and other Antiquarian Societies, I may mention that the Archaeological Society of Rome have proposed to photograph any antiquarian discoveries they make, and send copies to the Society of Antiquaries in London for publication. One account says: “Mr. J. H. Parker is proceeding with a collection of photographs of the ancient monuments of Rome and the Campagna, with a view to facilitate the researches of archaeological students, and demonstrate the successive styles of Roman construction during the periods of the kings, the republic, and the empire.” At that date about 500 photographs had been so taken. The mysterious remains of Egypt have attracted the attention of photographers from the first. Frith was early in the field, and was followed by Bedford ; who also illustrated Palestine, Greece, &c. The Vicomte de Ronge, in his mission to Egypt in 1863-4, produced six volumes of hand-copies of inscriptions and 220 photographs. Professor Piazzi Smyth lately took 166 photographs at the Pyramids (many for the lantern) and 50 stereo views. Most of them were taken “solely with a view to procuring aids to scientific enquiry.” They were produced on glass slips, 3 inches by 1 inch, exposed while in the bath, and they include eleven views in the interior of the Great Pyramid by magnesium light. He prefers stereo views taken with two cameras, and very justly urges the taking of distant objects with the cameras placed widely apart. This, I think, we might often do with advantage, using one stereo camera, first taking one half and then moving the camera and refocussing for the second half. In this connexion I ought to mention the labours of Thompson among the ruins of Cambodia, Fergusson and Hope in Indian architecture, and Svaboda at the Cave of Elephanta, likewise in Mesopotamia and on the sites of the Seven Churches of Asia. Helsby has illustrated some of the antiquities of South America; and a new work on Central America by Squier is, I believe, to be illustrated by 3000 photographs ; and any one acquainted with the elaborated monuments of that country will admit that by no other means could fair representations be given. It would be»tedious to enumerate the volumes bearing on antiquities which photography has illustrated, either directly by silver or other prints, or as furnishing a groundwork to the wood-cutter. In ‘Sinai Photographed, or Contemporary Records of Israel in the Wilderness,’ Lord Lyndhurst suggested the application of photography “as the only way so to certify their copies of the inscriptions as to silence cavil.” Noel Humphrey’s interesting work on the ‘History of the Art of Writing’ is cleverly illustrated by photography. Our art-science has been employed, to some extent, in illustration of old coins and medals, also in copying old mosaic pavements on a reduced scale. Some time since Mr. Rejlander turned his attention to the ancient brasses for which our country is so famous; and, by superimposing rubbings on sensitized paper, obtained copies of the same size as the originals. I am of j opinion that negatives of the rubbings, reduced ; to a known scale, would yield equally useful i and more convenient prints.  Of the numerous works of antiquarian interest I will only mention ‘ The Ruins of Pompeii ;’ but I may mention that, as its counterpart in this country, ‘Uriconium,’ a photograph previously taken, was useful in enabling 120 columns of a hypocaust to be restored after they had been wantonly overthrown. Some of the details at Iona, and upwards of a hundred photographs at Melrose, have been taken, the latter embracing everything of constructive or ornamental interest; and it is somewhat in this spirit that I would urge the copying, by photographic means, wherever practicable, of such works of antiquity as remain to our own day, as well for the purpose of study as for transmission, if possible (either in the form of negatives or prints), to posterity, to whom the originals may be partially or entirely lost. The portico of the Temple of Dendera, on the Nile, was added by Tiberius; but against this recent acquisition may be set the fact that Egyptian monuments known to exist in the fourteenth century are now no more. Of some treasures of antiquity now lost, only rude representations have come down to us; for example, on the arch of Titus at Rome we have some of the sacred trophies from the Jewish Temple, and in this country drawings of the famed shrine of St. Thomas of Canterbury only exist on portions of an undestroyed window, and in a partly burnt manuscript. The idea I have suggested may appear speculative, if not visionary; but who shall say whether our art-science may not be the means of much more being known hereafter of men and things as they existed in the nineteenth century than could have been had photography been unknown? Let me conclude in the words from the ‘Essays of Elia :’—’ “Antiquity I thou wondrous charm, what art thou? that being nothing, art everything! When thou wert, thou wert not antiquity ; then thou wert nothing, but hadst a remoter antiquity, as thou calledst it, to look back to with blind veneration, thou thyself being to thyself flat, jejune, modern! What mystery lurks in this retroversion? or what half Januses are we that cannot look forward with the same idolatry with which we for ever revert! The mighty future is as nothing, being everything! The past is everything, being nothing!”]


1 b & w (Frieze from a Buddhist Dagoba.) on p. 139 in: Henderson, J. “Photography as an Aid to the Study of Archaeology.” ILLUSTRATED PHOTOGRAPHER 1:12 (Apr. 24, 1868): 139-141. [“Our illustration is from one of these photographs. It was taken from one of some forty-eight or fifty Dagobas, “covered with sculptures, and all the ornaments which these monuments possessed in the palmy days of Buddhism,” as Sir James Fergusson remarks in a paper communicated to the Royal Asiatic Society in 1867. The principal figure is Buddha, seated on the great Naga snake.” “Archeology has been defined as the “science of teaching history by its monuments, that is, by every monument of man which the ravages of time have spared.” “By the study of the past we advance the interest of the present, and know how to make use of it for the benefit of the future.” This being the case, the reproduction, by means of photography, of objects of antiquity, is one among the numerous applications of our art, which is now receiving, as it deserves, no small share of attention….” “…My attention was first drawn to the subject of my paper by reading a letter in the Times, in January last, wherein Mr. C. J. Stevens stated that he had been enabled to form certain conclusions from photographs of flint implement.’ from gravel-pits at Malton, in reference to which a vexed question was raised. In a letter to me from the Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, that gentleman says:—” I had a flint hatchet photographed yesterday, but for such objects photography is not very useful, as the yellows come out too dark.” For matters of detail, photography is admirably adapted, or for mere form. Our museum is set apart for prehistoric archaeology and for weapons, and so on, in use by modern savages, as illustrating the collections; and photographs of rare forms of clubs, spears, ornaments, tools, weapons, &c, are useful and valuable to us. We also collect photographs of the Aborigines of various countries, and for this nothing is equal to photography, because artistic license is impossible. For dolmens, and other megalithic structures, photography is a magnificent agent, likewise for sculptured stones of the early period. Of course I do not now allude to any application of the art, as available for other than purposes of archaeology. Our country archaeological societies employ photography largely in their work, and the Hampshire society also. Some photographs of the Roman city of Silchester were taken during a recent visit of that society to the spot. Many important historical monuments are in inaccessible positions, which the artist has to visit hurriedly, filling up subsequently the details of his imperfect sketches. This photography does effectually on the spot…. As illustrating and adding force to what I have said, I may remind you of what has been done by our own Government, by public and other bodies, and by individuals who have employed photography for the purposes I have named. By command of her Majesty, photo zincography has been employed to reproduce in facsimile a selection of the national MSS. of England, from the Conquest to the reign of Queen Anne. Thus far 230 have been published, to which the Doomsday-book must be added. About 80 MSS. of Scotland are already in the hands of the public, and more of that country, and also Ireland, are to follow. By the same process, some municipal and other archives have likewise been copied. The Ordnance Survey of Stonehenge and of Turusachan (Isle of Lewis) is accompanied with illustrative photographs. In a communication received after the rest of my paper was written, Mr. C. J. Stevens, in speaking of the value of the Ordnance photographs of Stonehenge, refers to his remarks upon them in the Athenaeum : also to Mr. Parker’s photographic illustrations of the Antiquities of Well’s; and after enumerating photographs of Celtic and other relics (including those of the Swiss Lake-dwellings), he proceeds to say, “The stone axe from Malton, and the beds from whence it was derived, are chiefly known to archaeologists by the published photographs of them ;” and concludes thus, “An artist is not necessarily an archaeologist, and he may slur over or misrepresent some trifling (to him) detail. I have a photograph of a church with the village cross, &c.; upon the latter, even the chalk scribblings of boys are shown—no artist would have taken this; but in a strange country, and with all to learn about the antiquities and the people, such minuteness is invaluable.”* The India Office has published an important work, with photographic illustrations, The Textile Manufactures and Costumes of the People of India, and the Indian Government has recently directed the whole of the ancient buildings of India to be photographed.*  The Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem has been the means of many valuable photographs being taken there; and the hon. secretary of the Palestine Exploration Fund also says, “We have already materials for almost an entirely complete and accurate map of the country^ and photographs of more than 300 spots and objects, large numbers of which have never before been taken.” There are catalogues of photographs of about 10,000 objects of antiquarian interest in South Kensington Museum, not to mention the numerous photographs taken of loan and other collections, and also at the British Museum. While making a passing allusion to the use made of photography by our English and other antiquarian societies, I may mention that the Archaeological Society of Rome have proposed to photograph any antiquarian discoveries they make, and send copies to the Society of Antiquaries in London for publication. One account says, “Mr. J. H. Parker is proceeding with a collection of photographs of the ancient monuments of Rome and the Campagna, with a view to facilitate the researches of archaeological students, and demonstrate the successive styles of Roman construction during the periods of the kings, the republic, and the empire.” At that date about 500 photographs had been so taken.” The mysterious remains of Egypt have attracted the attention of photographers from the first. Frith was early in the field, and was followed by Bedford, who also illustrated Palestine and Greece, &c. The Vicomte de Rougé in his mission to Egypt, in 1863-4, produced 6 volumes of hand copies of inscriptions and 220 photographs. Professor Piazzi Smythe lately took 166 photographs of the Pyramids (many for the lantern) and 50 stereo views. Most of them were taken “solely with a view to procuring aids to scientific inquiry.” They were produced on glass slips 3ins, by 1in., exposed while in the bath, and they include 11 views in the interior of the great Pyramids by magnesium light. He prefers stereo views taken with two cameras, and very justly urges the taking of distant objects with the cameras placid widely apart. This, I think, we might often do with advantage, using one stereo camera, first taking one half, and then moving the camera and refocussing for the second half. In this connection, I ought to mention the labours of Thompson among the ruins of Cambodia; Ferguson and Hope in Indian Architecture; and Svobodo at the Cave of Elephanta, likewise in Mesopotamia, and on the sites of the seven churches of Asia. Helsby has illustrated some of the antiquities of South America; and a new work on Central America, by Squier, is, I believe, to be illustrated by 3,000 photographs; and anyone acquainted -with the elaborated monuments of that country will admit that by no other means could fair representations be given. It would be tedious to enumerate the volumes bearing on antiquities which photography has illustrated, either directly by silver, or other prints, or as furnishing a groundwork for the woodcutter. In Sinai Photographed; or, Contemporary Records of Israel in the Wilderness, Lord Lyndhurst suggested the application of photography, “as the only way so to certify their copies of the inscriptions as to silence cavil.” Noel Humphrey’s interesting work on the History of the Art of Writing is cleverly illustrated by photography. Our art science has been employed to some extent in illustration of old coins and medals, also in copying old mosaic pavements on a reduced scale. Some time since, Mr. Rejlander turned his attention to the ancient brasses for which our country is so famous, and by superimposing rubbings on sensitised paper, obtained copies the same size as the originals. I am of opinion that negatives of the rubbings, reduced to a known scale, would yield equally useful and more convenient prints. Of the numerous works of antiquarian interest, I will only mention The Ruins of Pompeii; but I may mention that at its counterpart in this country, “Uriconium,” a photograph previously taken was useful in enabling 120 columns of a hypocaust to be restored after they had been wantonly overthrown. Some of the details at Iona, and upwards of 100 photographs at Melrose, have been taken, the latter embracing everything of constructive or ornamental interest ; and it is somewhat in this spirit that I would urge the copying, by photographic means, wherever practicable, of such works of antiquity as remain to our own day, as well for the purpose of study as for transmission, if possible (either in the form of negatives or prints), to posterity, to whom the originals may be partially or entirely lost. The portico of the Temple of Drudera, on the Nile, was added by Tiberius; but against this recent acquisition may be set the fact that Egyptian monuments, known to exist in the fourteenth century, are now no more. Of some treasures of antiquity, now lost, only rude representations have come down to us. For example, on the arch of Titus, at Rome, we have some of the sacred trophies from the Jewish Temple, and in this country drawings of the famed shrine of St. Thomas of Canterbury only exist on a portion of an undestroyed window, and in a partly burnt manuscript. Let me conclude in the words from the Essays of Elia— “Antiquity! thou wondrous charm, what art thou? that being nothing art everything! When thou wert, thou wert not antiquity, then thou wert nothing, but hadst a remoter antiquity, as thou calledst it, to look back to with blind veneration, thou thyself being to thyself flat, jejeune, modern! What mystery lurks in this retroversion? or what half Januses are we, that cannot look forward with the same idolatry with which we for ever revert? The mighty future is as nothing, being everything ; the past is everything, being nothing!”]


“Bits of Chat.” ILLUSTRATED PHOTOGRAPHER 1:13 (May 1, 1868): 159-160. [“In some remarks on Mr. M’Lachlan’s Novel Process, described in our last—Mr. John Spiller, F.C.S., states his belief that the only new feature in the above gentleman’s scheme consists in the efficacy of nascent chlorine, and says, …” “…The Darwen Exhibition should be a great success, judging by the character it is likely to assume. A very fine and large collection of modern paintings, such as are rarely got together, will doubtless prove widely attractive. Amongst the works already promised are specimens of Turner, Landseer, Millais, Maclise, David Cox, Ansdell, Clarkson Stanfield, Linnell, Ward, Elmore, Rosa Bonheur, Cooper, Hunt, Copley, Fielding, Rosetti, Cattermole, Birkett Foster, Taylor, and a long list of other eminent painters. Choice works by Vandyke, Guido, Gainsborough, Northcote, and other eminent deceased painters are promised. A circular informs us, “the art and science of photography will have a locale and an exposition not surpassed, if ever equalled, in the provinces. Photographic apparatus, lenses, and cameras will be exhibited in all their latest perfections, by Messrs. T. Ross and J. II. Dallmeyer, and P. Meagher, of London, a fact which needs no comment to those familiar with the details of this rapidly-developing art. Those eminent opticians will send also fine specimens of work done by their apparatus, and practical photography will be richly illustrated by the following London artists :—Valentine Blanchard, Bedford, Elliot and Fry, Ernest Edwards, Kirby, Nelson, Scaife, Vernon Heath and England, Messrs. Mayall, Heath and Maul, who will send specimens of their latest productions. From Manchester, frames of very interesting pictures are promised by Messrs. John Eastham, Silas Eastham, Mr. Winstanley, Mr. A. Brothers, Mr. McLachlan, and Mr. Mudd….”]


Dawson, George. “Reduction of Silver Residues and Other Matters.” ILLUSTRATED PHOTOGRAPHER 1:24 (July 17, 1868): 290-291. [(Describes various experiences and processes.) “…Again, Mr. Wilson, of Aberdeen, the most eminent landscape photographer we have, says :—” If we have to stand out conscientiously good work, our profits now must depend mainly on the amount of nitrate of silver and chloride of gold that we can save.” And I believe Bedford arid England are of very much the same opinion. The real antidote is to get carbon printing so simplified and made commercially efficient that it shall compel universal approbation, and therefore success. To return to my subject. Above all things, I advise photographers to keep unstable sulphur compounds, especially hydrogen sulphuretted, as far away from their premises as they possibly can. Nothing is more pernicious to silver pictures, and these fumes, when inhaled by the human subject, are injurious to health. Better far to waste entirely fixing solutions containing silver than run the risk of endangering your health and injuring your chemicals by such fumes.”]


[Advertisement.] “Fine Arts. Photographic Exhibition.” SPHINX 1:1 (July 25, 1868): 4. [“Bourne and Shepherd’s Photographs of India. Bedford’s Photographs of the East. Soulier’s Photographs of Switzerland, Paris and Rome. England’s Photographs of Switzerland and the Rhyne. Photographs of Naples, Pompeii, Florence and other places. Five hundred photographs taken direct from the pictures in the Royal Museum at Madrid, and many others now on view at Marion & Co., Soho Square, London. Admission and Catalogue Free. 250,000 Carte Portraits always in stock.”]


“Transactions of Societies. The Photographic Society of London.” ILLUSTRATED PHOTOGRAPHER 1:41 (Nov. 13, 1868): 492. [“9, Conduit-street, Regent-street, W. We have just returned from this meeting with quite a gleeful sense of satisfaction. The general arrangements were by no means of the best. In the hanging of the exhibited specimens there was a display of apparent favouritism and bad taste, although less than we expected to find, together with much slovenliness in the hanging, due, perhaps, to a want of sufficient time; but, as a whole, a finer exhibition of artistic photographs we were never privileged to examine. The collection is a large one, and we trust as many of our readers as can possibly visit it during the week it is to remain open will do so, for it is an opportunity which no photographer should neglect. Admittance, as we have already stated, will be free. Soma specimens by M. Adam Salomon, on the centre screen, formed the great centre of attraction. The white paper round them was very damaging to their effects. Beautiful as they were, we did not think them so fine as other specimens of this talented gentleman’s work exhibited at the societies some months buck. A portrait of Salomon, by Locke and Whitfield, is an excellent photograph, well posed, and forcibly “rounded out,” not in the Salomon style. Mr. Briggs, of Leamington, takes high rank as a most accomplished portraitist, and we liked some of his specimens of the Salomon school as well as Salomon’s own. Mr. Hubbard exhibited some of the most artistic little pictures in the exhibition; one, a cottage interior, was full of fine pictorial qualities and broad picturesque effect. We have never seen greater artistic power displayed in a photograph. We shall have much to say about this on another occasion. The Salomon mania is evidently spreading fast, and narrow black frames, with a gold “hollow” inside, are likely to be in great demand. Intense blacks and staring whites are not, however, as one or two of the exhibitors appear to have imagined, the only things required to make a “Salomon” portrait, although we suppose some of the “hanging committee” must have thought this was the ease, for they have given some of the worst productions of such vulgar imitators prominent positions, and put other works conceived after the same model, but with more true and artistic taste and feeling, near the floor, and in one of the most obscure corners of the inner room. The visitor will readily discover the instances we allude to. Mr. Fry’s “Salomoniac” photographs out-Salomon Salomon himself in the intensity of their blacks and the prominence of their whites. The top picture on the right is, however, a very excellent photograph^ simple and effective, and less intensely hard. In the others the attempt at composition is childishly ineffective, because accessories are introduced without any purpose being apparent in their arrangement, which, we need hardly add, is not in imitation of Salomon. Mr. Smith’s decorative art examples, although not put in their place until late in the evening, proved very attractive. Mr. Bedford’s specimens were certainly not the most artistic of this gentleman’s landscapes, although excellent photographs. A large collection of Mr. Rejlander’s beautiful photographs have been awarded a position by no means the most favourable for their examination—close to the entrance….”]


“Transactions of Societies. North London Photographic Association.” ILLUSTRATED PHOTOGRAPHER 1:45 (Dec. 11, 1868): 545. [“Myddelton Hall, December 4th, 1868. H. W. King, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. The business of the evening having been disposed of, and three new members elected, the chairman regretted to state that he had no paper to place before the meeting on that occasion, but he was gratified at being able to add that papers had been promised for future meetings by Mr. England, Mr. Lake Price, Mr. Swan, and other gentlemen. In January the committee thought it advisable that no meeting should be held. In February he would have the pleasure of calling attention to some neglected subjects for photographic art, and in March he hoped to illustrate his remarks by adopting a suggestion made by Mr. Taylor, and introducing some magic-lantern photographs. A specimen of printing on the back of albumenised paper, and afterwards treating the proof with encaustic paste, was exhibited by Mr. Bedford, junr., who apologised for its imperfections by stating that it was merely printed by way of experiment, otherwise it would have been produced with greater care, and amongst other improvements he should certainly have toned down the sky. Its defects appeared to be invisible to others if so visible to its author, for it was justly and warmly admired by those present; and although it doubtless would have been improved by making the sky less obtrusively prominent and blank, it would as certainly not have been improved by being printed on the other side of the paper. The Chairman said be thought the interest awakened by Mr. Bedford’s charming view and its very artistic character, might serve to call attention more pointedly to one of the great photographic wants of the day—that is, a really good and simple plain-paper process of printing….” (This may not be Francis Bedford, but possibly a son?)]


“Photographic Society of London.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 13:200 (Dec. 15, 1868): 182-188. [“Ordinary Monthly Meeting. Held at No. 9 Conduit Street, London. Tuesday, December 8th, 1868. J. Glaisher, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., &c., Vice-President, in the Chair. The minutes of the Meeting held in June last, together with a memorandum of the circumstance of a highly successful Exhibition and Soiree having been held at the opening of the Session in November, were read and confirmed….” “…The following paper was then read:—
Photography in connexion with the Abyssinian Expedition. By H. Baden Pritchard, of the General Photographic Establishment of the War Department.
“The purposes for which photography was used with the army in Abyssinia were very different to those for which it is generally employed by professional followers of the art. Photography in that campaign fulfilled all the duties of a printing-press in the field, and rendered unnecessary, in many ways, the employment of skilled draughtsmen and lithographers. Maps, plans, and sketches of routes were by its means elaborated and put together and afterwards multiplied with unerring exactitude and great rapidity. This was the principal function performed by the art, and for the fulfillment of which the photographic equipment was sent out; the taking of pictorial views and sketches of the country, although forming an important part of the photographer’s duties, was a matter of secondary importance, and partook more of a semi-official character. In moving an army over an enemy’s land, especially if that land be an untravelled and unknown one like Abyssinia, it is imperatively necessary for the commander-in-chief to obtain correct information of the nature of the surrounding country, the state of the roads, &c., over which his troops will have to pass….” (Remainder of paper, followed by comments from the audience, among them several by Francis Bedford.) “…Mr. Spiller, having had some experience of the requirements of military photographers, thought highly of the suggestion of using a white calico envelope for covering the tent when working in hot weather. The advantage of printing directly upon calico or linen was manifest for the purposes and under the circumstances indicated; and the productions of this kind formerly exhibited by Mr. Pritchard at the Dundee Meeting of the British Association, as well as those now shown, supported this opinion. Referring to Sergeant Harrold, who had received a medal for gallant conduct at Magdala, he thought it very satisfactory to know that he was as good a man before the enemy as behind the camera. Mr. Bedford said that, when on his photographic tour in Egypt, he found that stretching a white sheet a little distance above the tent, kept moistened if possible, gave great coolness and comfort. During the hot weather of last summer he was working m North Wales, and then found the advantage of covering his photographic carriage in the same way. His own experience in the East led him to believe that the times of exposure were not considerably shortened, since it was necessary to allow for the rendering of the dark shadows, which were often very intense. Excepting for distant views, ho usually gave ten or twelve seconds for 10 X 12 plates. Sergeant Harrold had generally found the exposures long rather than short. The temperature sometimes reached 100° F. in the shade. Mr. Blanchard sketched the difficulties encountered last summer at Wimbledon when working in an almost tropical heat. Water there was nearly as scarce as in Abyssinia; but whenever possible he made a practice of covering his vehicle with a wet sheet. Mr. Sebastian Davis did not consider that stoppers alone could be depended upon for preventing evaporation of ether and other volatile fluids in hot climates. He would suggest that the collodion bottles be packed in felt-lined cases. Mr. Bedford found no difficulty in storing collodion in bottles placed within tin canisters with sawdust between. Upon many occasions the collodion cases were out in the sun all day in the Nile boats without taking harm. The Chairman, in putting the vote of thanks, spoke of the “Norwegian kitchen” as a contrivance which was likely to be found useful on account of its remarkable non-conducting powers. The suggestion of Mr. Bedford to use a moist white sheet suspended above the tent was very important, since by this means a reduction of thirty degrees in temperature could be secured. Great credit was due to the photographers who went with the expedition to Abyssinia, for they had achieved success under great disadvantages. The vote of thanks having been put and earned,…” p. 188.]


“Photography in Upper Egypt.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 13:200 (Dec. 15, 1868): 194-195. [“The following interesting letter from Dr. Vogel appeared in the Photographic News of the 27th ult. “We are now arrived at Denderah, fifty miles from Cairo, the second station on our photographic journey. The roof of the Temple of Hathor is our lodging, the quarter for night being established in a chamber without roof— I could almost say without walls. The temple beneath is a horrible chaos, once a wonderful piece of work covered with sculpture, paintings, and gold. It is now destroyed by the tooth of time, half buried with dust, offering a shelter to myriads of bats, extinguishing with their wings the candle of the harmless traveller, grazing his face, and infecting the vaults by their stench. Every now and then a lizard is gliding along the blackened walls, uttering, in the evening hours, a peculiar smacking noise, and called, therefore, the Egyptian nightingale. For variety’s sake, a scorpion joins them, and we cannot therefore be astonished that the Arabians are afraid of these horrible rooms during night, and assert that abode within them after the day is past brings death. Our adventures in this place began with a misfortune: when the Arabians transported our effects on the roof of the temple, one of them fell in one of the apertures which afford the only light to the inner rooms of the temple. It was in the night; we therefore descended with lanterns, and found him with his arm broken in two places; but, happily, alive….”
“…The extreme dryness threatened our materials, constructed of too unseasoned a wood. First of all our tripod-stand became full of fissures; afterwards the framework of my camera inclined to part. The first was tolerably repaired, the other smeared over with wax. In order to secure the other camera, we kept it wet day and night. Our photographic operations often began by retouching the originals, being often obliged to scrape the dirt from the walls in order to make visible the hieroglyphics. Other difficulties arose—as, for instance, the gases produced by the dirt of the bats, which caused many evils, especially with long exposures, and the north wind perpetually blowing, which often made exposures in the open air impossible. Mr. Bedford is known to be a very excellent landscape-photographer, and his productions highly appreciated. I felt a little disappointed when I first saw his Egyptian pictures immediately before my departure. These prints were not equal to his other productions. Now I am no longer astonished at this circumstance. In spite of all these difficulties, we have been pretty successful, securing at Denderah alone about fifty negatives, a result with which we may be satisfied. We are now working in the interior of the temple, making visible the dark corners by sunlight reflected to them by mirrors; magnesium light is only to be made use of when the flame can be brought quite near the object. If the light be removed further than 25′ it is of no effect. On such occasions we have often burnt six grammes of magnesium wire without success. On the short distances of Sakara the magnesium light was much more useful….”]


Dawson, George. “Printing on the Back of Albumenised Paper.” ILLUSTRATED PHOTOGRAPHER 1:46 (Dec. 18, 1868): 549-550. [“At a recent meeting of the North London Photographic Association, where I happened to be present, Mr. Bedford, Jun., exhibited two or three large prints on plain paper, taken by an empyric formula, of which nothing more definite could be said than—here are the pictures, judge for yourselves. The paper, he stated, was an ordinary albumenised sample, sensitised on the back, and printed on the same side. I may here remark that the pictures could not be examined so narrowly as one could have wished, inasmuch as they were saturated with encaustic paste, and mounted in close contact behind a sheet of glass a la Salomon. In that position they looked very well indeed. But I should much liked to have seen them denuded of the encaustic paste, and removed from their glass enclosures, before I could have pronounced them comparable to positives on plain paper prepared specially for that work. Not being a member of the North London Society, I felt indisposed, at the meeting at which these pictures were shown, to enter into the general question of the desirability of using, under any circumstances, the plan of printing adopted by Mr. Bedford, more for experiment, I presume, than for any other purpose. Nevertheless, I could not refrain from putting a few queries, which I must say were not answered very satisfactorily….”]


Your Gossiping Photographer. “Once a Month.” ILLUSTRATED PHOTOGRAPHER 1:46 (Dec. 18, 1868): 553-555. [“Such papers as Mr. Pearce read at the November meeting of the South London Society may be better than none,…” “…The North London Photographic Association has been having a long nap; but it is now arousing, and will soon be wide-awake again, and apparently refreshed and invigorated. The few last meetings have been paperless; and, although the members doubtless enjoyed the chatty, pleasant intercourse which took the place of more important business proper to the society, yet their published reports made no very stately appearance, and the attendance was becoming very thin. Thanks to the energy and enthusiasm of Mr. King, this society, with a well-stored exchequer and a long, goodly list of members, is now likely to assume a more prominent position. Mr. Warwick King reads a paper in February, Mr. Hooper in March; and as their successors, we have Mr. Lake Price, Mr. Bedford, Mr. Swan, Mr. England, and others—tried veterans all. This looks healthy, and is due, I am told, solely to the energy and perseverance of Mr. Warwick King, the society’s able vice-president….”]





Bedford, Francis. “Aphorisms for Photographers.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1869 (1869): 6. [“No amount of ingenious “doctoring,” as it is called, can ever impart, or compensate for the absence of, those artistic and other good qualities which most photographers, who have happily emancipated themselves from their first crude notions of beauty produced by pure photography apart from art excellence, now regard as indispensable.—Francis Bedford.”
(This aphorism, taken from an 1868 essay by Bedford, was re-published in the YB of P& PNA several times over the years, i. e. in 1871, 1878, and in others.)]


“VI. The Great Solar Eclipse of August 18, 1868.” By William Crookes, F.R S., &c., Editor. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 6:1 (Jan. 1869): 1-72. 7 illus. [“The phenomena attending a total eclipse of the sun have always been of a most impressive character, but only within a comparatively recent period have they been observed systematically, and still more recently looked forward to as an opportunity for solving many important problems in solar physics….” “…It is probable, from what we can learn, that to a cause of this kind the failure in result was due. Be this as it may, however, it appears tolerably clear that no experienced photographer formed part of the expedition staff, or we should not have heard of such puerile difficulties as spots from concentrations of the silver solution. We have in this country several photographers of high repute and great practical skill, who have -had experience in Eastern photography, and who have succeeded amid the gravest difficulties. We refer to such men as Bedford, and Frith, and Goode. Surely it would have been possible to have secured the services of some of these or other experienced photographers to whom the purely photographic operations should have been confided, and who would have certainly secured immunity from the disasters attending concentrated silver solutions, and probably also from the risk of under-exposure.”…” pp. 51-57….”]



“The High Priest at Nablus Reading the Pentateuch.” ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS 55:1571-1572 (Sat., Dec. 18, 1869): 623, 625. 1 illus. [(The illustration is a drawing by Carl Haag of a rabbi reading from the scrolls.) “…We may mention that a photograph of the MS. was taken by Mr. Bedford when accompanying the Prince of Wales on his journey to the East…”]




“Minor Topics of the Month.” ART JOURNAL ns 9:1 (Jan.1870): 29. [“Mr. Francis Bedford, who holds high rank among the best of British photographers, has recently visited Warwick—the most renowned of our ancient castles that has in the nineteenth century its resident lords—and has made photographs of exteriors and interiors; taking, indeed, every point of the venerable and “time-honoured” mansion in which resides the long-descended earl. Altogether he has taken no fewer than thirty-five views; but this will surprise no one who is acquainted with the attractions of the place, on the summit of a steep above the Avon—Shakspere’s Avon—surrounded by trees many centuries old, and bearing to-day the grandeur of aspect, and with all the characteristics for “defence,” it possessed in the tenth century. These photographs are most beautifully executed; they have the vivid freshness and truth of nature, aided by matured skill in Art. It would be difficult to find a series so perfect. We may consider ourselves “authority,” for we have recently visited Warwick, with a view to introduce it into our series of “Stately Homes,” and in due course shall avail ourselves of the valuable aid we are at liberty to derive from Mr. Bedford, with the free consent of Messrs. Catherall and Prichard, of Chester, the publishers, who have published so many of Mr. Bedford’s works, and who have issued many hundreds (it may be thousands) of photographs of the scenery of England.”]



Hall, S. C. “The Stately Homes of England. (Occasionally Open to the People. Warwick Castle.” ART JOURNAL 9:7 (July 1870): 197-200. 5 b & w. [(The illustrations are “The Castle from the Temple Field,” p. 197; “The Keep, from the Inner Court,” p. 198; “The Castle from the Bridge,” p. 199; “Ceasar’s Tower,” p. 199; “The castle from the Island,” p. 199.) “Warwick. Castle holds forth-most rank among the Stately Homes of England, both from its historical associations, and the important positions which, in every age, its lords have occupied in the annals of our country. Situated in one of the most romantic and beautiful districts of a fertile and productive Shire, overlooking the “sweet flowing Avon,” and retaining all its characteristics of former strength and grandeur, Warwick Castle is renowned among the most interesting remains of which the Kingdom can boast….* (*We are indebted principally to Mr. Francis Bedford for the photographs from which our engravings are taken. His views of the castle, interior or exterior, are numerous, and of great excellence, as will be readily understood by those who are acquainted with the works of the artist— who has produced so many views of the rare places of England, and the beautiful scenery of its most attractive localities. They are, for the most part, published by Messrs. Catherall and Prichard, of Chester.)”]



Hall, S. C. “The Stately Homes of England. (Occasionally Open to the People. Warwick Castle.” ART JOURNAL 9:8 (Aug. 1870): 241-244. 8 b & w. 3 illus. [(The illustrations are “The Castle from the Outer Court,” p. 241; “The Inner Court from the Keep,” p. 242; “Guy’s and the Clock Tower, from the Keep,” p. 242; “The Confessional,” p. 242; “The Oratory,” p. 242; The Castle from the banks of the Avon,” p. 242; “The Beauchamp Chapel, Monument to the Founder,” p. 243; “Warwick, the East Gate,” p. 244.]



“General Notes. The Photographic Society of London.” JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, AND OF THE INSTITUTIONS IN UNION 18:938 (Nov. 11, 1870): 941.[“This society opened its 14th session on Tuesday evening last, the 8th inst., with an exhibition of photographs illustrative of the present capabilities and condition of the art. the specimens exhibited show marked progress in many directions. Some of the specimens of landscape photography are unequalled, and have rarely, if ever, been surpassed by any specimen of the engraver’s art. Composition pictures and mechanically-printed photographs have evidently commanded more general attention than in former years, and the results in many instances are in advance on former productions. The specimens of American work which Mr. E. L. Wilson, of Philadelphia, has sent over, and the enlargements by Mr. Albert Moore, seem to mark an era in the art. M. Emile Bondonneau shows also some fine enlargements and reproductions, together with a collection of enamels by Lafon de Camarsac. the portraits of Messrs. Bullock Brothers, Valentine Blanchurd, Marshall Wane, and Henry Ashdown will be much admired. the contributions from the Continent are not so numerous as last year, but that is probably due to the war. Colonel Stuart Wortley, Captain Lyon, Mr. R. M. Gordon, Mr. T. M. Brownrigg, Messrs. F. and W. Bedford, Mr. Nettorville Briggs, and Mr. Vernon Heath have sent in specimens of their best work, and Messrs. Robinson and Cherrill’s “The Trysting Tree ” and “The First Hour of Night” cannot fail to receive the attention they deserve. Captain Bedford Pirn exhibits an interesting collectionof photographs representing the “Passion Play” as performed last summer in Ober-Ammergau. The exhibition will be open to the public daily until the 30th November, from 9 a.m. till dusk. Free admission during the first five days in the week is granted to all comers, on complying with the usual formality of presenting the address card or signing the visitors’ book. On Saturdays the privilege of free admission will be reserved for members (and their friends on presentation of a member’s ticket), the general public on these days being charged an admission -fee of one shilling each person.”]





Bedford, Francis. “Guides to Practice. Some Hints on Landscape Photography.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1871 (1871): 24-26. [“So much has been written about landscape photography that it may appear almost superfluous to recur to the subject; but this most captivating branch of our art is ever winning new disciples, and I venture to think a few remarks may not be without use to the less advanced readers of the Year-Book. The most superficial consideration of the many qualities which go to make a good photographic picture would fill a book. I will only briefly allude to a few of them. And first, as regards the proportion of the pictures. The plates ordinarily used for negatives are too square, and however well the surface may be covered with subject, one feels impelled to trim down the print to get a more pleasing-looking picture; but the more common fault of excess of sky, or flat unoccupied foreground, is a still greater inducement to pursue the same treatment, and in most cases the picture is all the better for it. A good rule is to make the length of the picture just equal to the diagonal of the square of the smaller dimensions. This gives a very satisfactory proportion for a view, but artistic “bits,” or architectural studies, may be made on plates of any shape. Still, it is well to suggest that the amateur, in arranging his subject, should adapt his plate to the picture, and not the picture to the plate. As regards the choice of a lens, I may safely affirm that for pure landscape there is nothing comparable to the old view lens. It works rapidly, covers well with a fairly large stop, and gives both vigour of image and crispness of definition, and works without danger of flare. If, however, the view embraces architectural features, this lens is not so suitable; then either the “rectilinear”‘ or “doublet” must be used, both of which give correct forms and freedom from distortion, and are almost as good as the single lens in other essentials also, when the art of using them properly has been mastered. As a rule, a lens of long focal length gives the most satisfactory picture in all respects; but it sometimes happens that a building must necessarily be taken from a near point of view, and then the “wide-angle ” lens comes to our aid. And although much has been urged, and with truth, against the false and unnatural aspect of some pictures taken with it, the fault is to be attributed not so much to the lens, as to the want of skill in him who thus misuses it. To reject its valuable help is, to say the least, unwise, and that photographer is behind his age who is without it. In my own case, I have found it a new power in my hands, having obtained with it such comprehensive views of cathedral and other buildings as were quite unattainable previous to its introduction. Nor is it without advantage in an artistic point of view, for as it brings one nearer to the object, we get thereby sharper perspective, better separation of masses, a more broken sky-line, and more of the picturesque. But it must not be strained beyond its power, or used for unsuitable subjects. Whatever lens is used, we must bear ever in mind the absolute necessity of working with the camera level, for converging lines are an abomination which, outside of photography, would never be tolerated. In some cases the evil is unavoidable, and if the view must be had, we can only bow to necessity, and reduce the defect to a minimum by a judicious use of the rising front and swing-back, with which every camera should be provided. To secure a satisfactory view a fine day is indispensable; foliage cannot be properly rendered in a high wind, nor can a good effect be obtained in a bad light. Nature rejoices in the pleasant sunshine, and every object receives a charm of life under its influence. The best effects are to be obtained when the sun shines softly through a not too brilliant atmosphere; the several distances separate better, and while the foreground and mid distance come out with clear and sufficient definition, the extreme distance receives that aerial beauty which characterizes an English landscape. In selecting a view, we choose that which brings into prominence its most interesting feature, and try to subordinate all the rest to it. A very little deviation to the right or left will often make all the difference. We study the general composition so as to bring the leading forms into picturesque combination, and obtain the best balance of the different parts. Blank or uninteresting parts may often be concealed, and new beauties introduced, by bringing a bit of tree, or mass of foliage, or other object, in front of it, so improving both the composition and effect by getting a dark mass against a light one, or the reverse. A flat foreground may be rendered pleasing, and suggestive even of more than the picture itself contains, by bringing the shadows from a tree across it, or a figure or group may be introduced with equal effect, and give life to the whole; but figures must be kept subservient, so as to lead up to, and not away from, the main features of interest. If a building be the chief object, it should not be viewed exactly opposite the angle, but more of one side shown than the other, and, generally, that side should be the lighted one. Never work with the sun at your back—the effect will be flat and poor—but more or less at either side, according to the subject. Beautiful effects may sometimes be obtained by working with it as much in front as the exigencies of work will admit of, the objects being in that case made out with gradations of shade, the edges only being lighted brightly by the glancing sunlight. I have now before me a photograph of one of those old water-mills—now so rare, alas!—which drive an artist crazy with delight. Its overhanging, weather-beaten, and stained gable end, with border of thatch, a study in itself; the broken window panes; the ferns and moss which grow in wild luxuriance between the lichen-covered stones; the heavy water-wheel, quiescent now; while the brawling streamlet, diverted for the moment from its course, runs clear and swift amid the gray boulders and rank grass of the foreground under a tangle of briar and wild flowers, full of most exquisite detail; and for a background to the whole, a broad mass of umbrageous foliage. Is not this a subject for the camera, despite our inability at present to arrest the flowing stream, or to convey any adequate notion of all the wonderful colour which charms the eye in the object itself? The sun is so far round as to leave the mill in soft shadow; but reflected light brings out all the marvellous detail, the bright sunlight catching only on the edges of the floats, and on the rich and varied foreground. The wheel itself, the centre of a mass of dark shade, against which some tall hemlock flowers plucked from an adjoining bank, and placed where they are wanted, stand out in bright relief, while the sun shines softly in behind, across the leafy background of trees, forming such a picture as is indeed a full reward to the ardent and too oft disappointed landscape photographer.”]





“Minor Topics of the Month. The Photographic Society.” ART JOURNAL    (Dec. 1872): 313. [“The society has held its annual conversazione, prior to its exhibition, which is now open at No. 9, Conduit Street. The society claims for the photographs exhibited this year, that their superior excellence is due rather to increased skill and knowledge of what is wanted to produce certain effects “than to any strides having been made in any new direction.” However the effect may be attained, it is certain that something approaching perfection in photography has been arrived at, and that the society is able to show as the production of its members some beautiful works of Art. Among the principal exhibitors are Mr. Bedford, Messrs Robinson & Cherrel, of Tunbridge Wells, Mr. Rejlander, Mr. Mawdaley, Mr. Piercy, Mr. Abney, Mr. Mitchell, Mr. Vernon Heath, and the Hon. Stuart Wortley. The exhibition is certainly not an advance on those of a similar kind that have preceded it.”]





Bedford, Francis. “Photography Applied to Architecture.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1873 (1873): 21-22. [“It is, I consider, a matter of regret that more has not been done by the followers of our art in this country in the direction of Architectural Photography. Can it be that this class of subjects is lacking in attraction? I really cannot think so. The monuments of England’s history in the past, her glorious and majestic cathedrals and abbeys, her feudal castles and baronial halls, scattered throughout the land, offer a wide and ample field to the lover of the picturesque and beautiful, and should surely tempt us to a more admiring study of their many interesting features. And the further study it would lead up to would doubtless prove a very interesting one to many of our amateur friends, who, in the distinguishing characteristics of the various successive styles and periods of our English architecture, could travel back through its history and note the changes and development of an ever-growing art. Photography is so specially well adapted to render all the detailed graces of these ancient fanes, and to perpetuate their beauties, that they should, one would imagine, of themselves attract and command attention; and I cannot help thinking that the reason why such subjects are not more generally illustrated is, not that the subjects themselves are deficient in interest, but that they have not been rendered in sufficiently attractive form to create a demand for such works. There can be no reason why photographs of architecture should be wanting in pictorial effect, and yet a large proportion of those I have seen, even the most ambitious, undoubtedly are so. What, for example, can be more lifeless than the photographs of Venice, that beautiful City of the Sea, with its long vistas of palaces, its Square of St. Mark, its canals and gondolas; and how well might they not be worked up into attractive and charming pictures by the simple but judicious, introduction of a characteristic figure or two, and, most of all, by the addition of a suitable and delicately clouded sky! The commercial photographs sold in large numbers to tourists in Venice have always white skies, and there is no sign of life, and certainly there is no evidence of atmosphere for life to exist in; and yet they are perfect in manipulation. Happily, these stopped out skies are a thing of the past, no longer to be tolerated, and it is pretty freely admitted now that, in such circumstances, the end justifies the means, and, if the pictorial effect which the worker strives for cannot be reached in the camera at one operation, it is perfectly allowable to have recourse to double printing, or other such harmless artifices, ‘to attain the much desired result. Who cares now for that which, in times gone by the devotees of our art strived and contended warmly for;’ and used to describe as pure photography? We labour no more for such crude results; we want to produce pictures, never mind whether they are acknowledged to be works of “fine art”, or not; and we must work with the camera and without it, with the camera and with the understanding also, and with an artist’s perception of the beautiful and the true, if we would obtain them. The student of architectural photography would do well to examine thoughtfully the lithographed views of Samuel Prout, so fresh and charming in their picturesque and vigorous treatment and in their evidence of air and sunshine, and the engravings, after John le Keux, in Britton’s Cathedrals and Architectural Antiquities, and see what it is that gives them their peculiar force. It is quite true the photographer, with his limited appliances, cannot obtain such results as the skilled artist is able to achieve so readily with his pencil, but he can and will discover, by such careful study of their works, to what extent he may, by judicious choice of subject, by seizing the right opportunity, and by discriminating management of light, bend circumstances to his will. It is quite possible to treat one of our old ministers as a picture without sacrificing one iota of its characteristic and beautiful detail. Infinite care will be needed to bring the leading masses into symmetrical combination, and to get such effect of light and shade, with atmosphere, as will give to each feature its proper place; prominence and brilliance to one portion, and subduing softness and delicacy to the rest. The right moment may be long in coming, but if a fine picture be the desired aim, it is worth the waiting for. Unfortunately, many of our cathedrals are so hemmed in by surrounding buildings, often of incongruous design, that to get a general view is out of the question; but what opportunities there, are within their walls for fine interiors and architectural studies, the long drawn aisle, with clustered columns, and high embowered roof, carved screens, and venerable shrines! Small views, such as are taken now and then for local sale, are barely adequate to their due representation. Work on a larger scale, more commensurate with the dignity of the subject, is what I wish to urge. It is worth one’s while, and more satisfactory, to expend time and study on a large work. There is room for the display of ability in the management of fine effects of chiaroscuro, with rich colour and vigour, and for the due rendering of the finest detail. I do not propose to enter here into the question whether such work would be remunerative or not. I suggest simply that here is a field for work of the most striking character.”]  



“Exhibition of the Photographic Society. 9, Conduit Street.” ART JOURNAL    (Jan. 1873): 20. [In variety of experiment the photographic exhibition of this season is as prolific as any that has preceded it; but .it is remarkably deficient of really ambitious purpose, for looking through the rooms the attention is invited to this or that “new process” or “invention” which brings nothing of any real value to the legitimate process of photography, but greatly complicates the manipulation…..” “…We have not only what we regard as a few of the most attractive examples, but there are other very interesting plates by W. Bedford, F. Hudson, F: Beasley, F. M. Good, V. Blanchard, &c.; still, with the recollection of what we have seen in former years, the exhibition will not be regarded so successful as others that have preceded it.” (This is William Bedford, Francis Bedford’s son.)]





“Minor Topics of the Month.” ART JOURNAL  (Dec. 1874): 350-351. [“The Photographic Society this year exhibits its works in profusion, with ample evidence of satisfactory progress: the exhibition is held in the rooms of the Society of British Artists, and consists of nearly five hundred productions of the Art….” “…Other contributors, professional and amateur, manifest great excellence; foremost among them are Mrs. Cameron, Col. Stuart Wortley, Vernon Heath, J. Mayall, Francis Bedford (who maintains his old renown), O. G. Rejlander…”]





“The Photographic Society.” ART JOURNAL  (Dec. 1875): 349. [“The best photographic exhibition yet held in London is now open to the public in the gallery of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours, Pall Mall. Upwards of four hundred examples are on view, including every variety both of subject and in process, and exhibiting the skill of artists in all quarters of the globe…”. “…The landscape-views of R. T. Crawshay are all of them delightful, and come very close in excellence to those of two of the most famous men in this department. These are Mr. W. Bedford, of Camden Road, and Mr. G. W. Wilson, of Aberdeen, both of whom are amply represented in the present exhibition….” (William Bedford is Francis Bedford’s son.)]





Bedford, Francis. “Landscape Photography and Its Trials.” PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER 13:148 (Apr. 1876): 118-119. [“From The Year-book of Photography.” “The life of the landscape photographer is assuredly an enviable one. The pursuit of his favorite art leads him to pleasant places, and brings him face to face with whatever is most lovely and enjoyable in Nature’s fair domain; but it is not a life of unmixed content. How often it happens that the buoyant hopes with which he has looked forward to the coming trip are disappointed, and the harvest on which he has too confidently reckoned is never reaped (I do verily believe that no member of the community is so sorely tried as he is. He may be a master of his art, and yet his most carefully laid plans, and all his efforts, may be frustrated by a spell of bad weather. Causes entirely beyond his control often reduce him to inaction, and unless he be blessed with wonderful patience and determined devotion to his art, he soon becomes dejected and hopeless. So many are the conditions of success, that it is scarcely to be expected that all will go well with him. A light sunshiny day, and perfect stillness, are indispensable for some particular view on which he has set his heart. He has carefully studied it beforehand) and he comes to it full of spirits, hoping to secure at the right moment the bright picture he has painted in his mind’s eye. The camera is adjusted, and the plate is ready, when, to his infinite chagrin, the sun goes behind a cloud from which it is not likely to emerge again; or the wind rises, and sets in motion the trees or foreground foliage, on which all the beauty of the picture depends. Or, greater trial still, successive days of rain or wind or leaden dullness bring matters to a standstill altogether, unless he be sufficiently hopeful and patient to take advantage of such casual gleams of sunshine as may come even on the most unpromising days; and that it just what he must make up his mind to do, for it is often on these very days, when it appears to be of little use venturing out at all, that a break will come in the clouds, and the sun shine out white and bright, and the most charming effects are seen. Such chances should never be neglected, for they may prove to be the sole opportunity. But it is quite possible on the roughest days to get good results with the exercise of a little patience. Of course, if wind blows continuously, as it does sometimes without cessation, landscape photography is simply impossible; but when it comes in sudden gusts, violent enough, perhaps, to dash the camera to the ground, there are intervals of perfect stillness, during which foliage may be rendered perfectly by uncapping and capping the lens at the right time. A plate carefully prepared, with a bath in good order, and then closely drained, will keep longer than is generally supposed, and it will be hard if one cannot, during half or three-quarters of an hour, get the requisite two or three minutes’ exposure. But I would suggest here that he should, first of all, fix his camera-stand firmly in the ground, and then, with a stout string, suspend from the screw-head a big stone or other heavy-weight. He will then be free from any solicitude for the safety of his camera, and can give all his thoughts to his work. Sometimes small shrubs or weeds in the foreground cause much annoyance by their motion when all else is still; these may be judiciously pruned without injury to property. If a bough of a tree obtrudes, or is otherwise troublesome, it is better to tie it back out of the way, and release it as soon as your view is taken. I have succeeded in obtaining, in a very high wind, subjects consisting almost wholly of foliage, which had all the appearance of being done on a perfectly still day. If, however, the wind, our greatest foe, proves too much for us, even then there is good work to be done. There are often magnificent cloud effects at such times, and if the photographer will set to work upon them, he may obtain a stock of such cloud negatives as will serve to convert comparatively uninteresting views into perfect pictures. And then, again, while waiting for this or that view, which can only be done on a very perfect day, the true worker need never be at a loss for subjects for the camera; there is a wide field open, and he will find occupation of an improving and delightful kind in taking, as occasion offers, studies of many a picturesque object full of interesting details. An old barn or shed, for instance, with a cart or implements of farm industry; or a pretty cottage mantled with ivy or clematis, with, perhaps, its aged and simple inmate or a little child at its rustic porch; boats and other craft on the sea-beach, or a group of brambles and ferns by the roadside, or a gate at the entrance to a wood,—such subjects as these, and many others of a like nature, are often met with in sheltered spots, and can be photographed successfully even on a dull and windy day; and they form such choice “bits ” as his artist friends, when they turn over his folio, will stop at, and find true delight in.”]


“The Photographic Society’s Exhibition.” ART JOURNAL  (Dec. 1876): 350.[“So varied and rich are the tones now obtained by the various photographic processes, that the walls of the Old Water Colour Society, on which the present collection is displayed, have to the intelligent eye all the interest of colour; and cunning manipulation can, by skilful arrangement and other means, imitate schools of painting, and almost individual masters. The exhibition is all the more complete this year from the fact that, besides the three hundred and fifty-two photographic examples of foliage, scenery, architecture, prepared groups, and portraits in all sizes, ranging from miniature to life, there are arranged on the tables complete sets of photographic apparatus, besides lantern transparencies, stereoscopes, cameras, &c. ; the general effect being altogether satisfactory. In cloud phenomena Colonel H. Stuart Wortley maintains his reputation for truth and delicacy; while for architectural detail and picturesque effect William Bedford and Robert Crawshay attract the attention of the visitor as readily as ever. The Royal Engineers and Captain Abdney are large contributors, and appear equally happy whether they are operating in the New Forest or among the ruins of ancient Egyptian cities….” (William Bedford is Francis Bedford’s son.)]





Bedford, Francis. “On the Mounting and Framing of Photographs.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1878 (1878): 22-23. [“On my last cursory view of our recent Exhibition in Pall Mall, while admiring the excellence of many of the pictures, and their generally good effect upon the walls, I could not help noticing the disadvantage under which many really fine works suffered, from the want of taste or care in the mounting of them; and it has occurred to me that a few remarks on the subject of mounting and framing may be of some use to readers of the Year-Book. I will begin with the finished print, and, at the outset, express my surprise (en parenthese) that those who make it their business to mount photographs should still use materials for attaching them to the card which invariably cockle, twist, and curl them, when there is an easily made “mountant” (gelatine in alcohol) ready to hand, the use of which would insure perfect flatness in the finished work. In the ease of landscapes, a rather nice effect is obtained by placing the unmounted print in optical contact with the glass with a card mount behind it. My son exhibited some views about seven years ago treated in this way, but he has not repeated the experiment, for although this process gives great clearness to the work, and brings out the details in the dark shadows most charmingly, it somewhat impairs the vigour of the photographs, and gives an unpleasant greenish hue to the sky and other light parts of the picture. It is a disadvantage, too, that photographs so fastened to the glass cannot be returned to the portfolio, and that, in the event of the glass being broken, the picture is spoilt. A better plan is to wax the print j this in every way improves the effect, and is a protection against damp and exposure, and so diminishes the risk of fading. I think it will be allowed that most photographs, as a rule, look all the better for a margin, which need not, however, be very large. For pictures 10 by 8, a margin of two and a half inches; for 12 by 10, three inches; for 15 by 12, three and a half to four inches; and larger sizes in proportion, will be found to produce a good effect. It may be uniform all round, or a little larger in the direction of the length of the subject. Most photographs show to greatest advantage on white or cream-coloured cards, either plain or with a cut-out mount. Landscapes printed in a rich purple or black tone look best with a white, or, if reddish-brown in tone, with a warm-tinted margin. Reproductions of drawings and crayon sketches may be put upon bluish or greenish-grey mounts; and, in the case of copies of sketches of old masters, I have seen a very pleasing effect produced by lines ruled on the margin of the photograph, embracing an umber-coloured band. Black-toned prints also look remarkably well on stout plate paper, the margin being impressed with a plate mark; but this is in good taste only when such plate is required for the printing-in of a title or lettering of any kind. Ornamental mounts to views are, to my mind, a great mistake; they cannot possibly improve an indifferent photograph, but they can and do vulgarize or spoil a good one. The more simple the mount, the more refined and agreeable will a work of art appear; but there can be no objection to the use of a plain border line, in brown or violet, or other quiet colour. Indeed, it is of great use in some cases—for instance, in a subject which appears to want tying together, as it were; but so-called “Greek” and other ornamental corners must be studiously avoided. Titles, when not printed in, should be neatly written in pencil, without any attempt at ornamental lettering, rather low down on the mount, and not just under the edge of the picture. It is surprising how much of the effect depends upon attention to these small matters. Although landscapes with skies require a light margin, there are, nevertheless, some well-filled subjects, such as woodland studies, dark glens and secluded nooks, and genre and composition pictures, full and rich in colour and tone, which look very well indeed with a matt gold margin of narrower dimensions, in a black or gilt frame; but to place together six or more views in one frame without any intervening margin at all, with nothing but a flat strip of wood to separate them, as I have seen done, is a very grave mistake, for each picture requires to be studied by itself, which is simply an impossibility when they are so crowded together. As with the mounting, so also with the framing of the class of works I have alluded to—quiet, unobtrusive frames are the most pleasing. I give the preference in all cases to moulded gilt frames, with not too much enrichment; but plain. Hat frames of oak, or other light-coloured wood, left in its natural colour, unvarnished, or only slightly polished, with an inner gilt moulding next the glass, answer very well. All imitations of carved wood are bad in taste, and varnish is detestable. Oxford frames, so called, are inappropriate for any other than sacred subjects. As regards the mounting and framing of portraits, I confess I am rather at a loss. They seem to be subject to other laws of taste, for I see around me such marvellous eccentricity of design and ornament, such fantastically decorated passepartouts for the enshrining of very7 matter-of-fact, ordinary looking portraits, that I can only suppose such things are considered as independent of all rules, and that a certain craving after novelty must needs be satisfied at any cost. There is no reason, however, why portraits, figure subjects, and composition pictures should not be put into frames as handsome as the gilders’ art can make them, provided they are in good taste, and do not detract from the value of the work of art they are intended to adorn.”]



“The Photographic Society.” ART JOURNAL  (   1878): 228. [“This Society opened its annual exhibition with a soiree on the 8th of October, in the gallery of the Society of Water-Colour Painters in Pail Mall East.. Mr. J. Glaisher, F. R.S., President of the Institution, and other members of the Council, received the invited guests as they arrived. The gallery is well supplied with photographic pictures of a most meritorious order and in great variety, the landscapes taking the lead both in number and excellence. The large landscapes produced by Mr. Vernon Heath, and, those of the Autotype Company, rival each other in beauty of detail and forcible expression. The marine ‘views of Mr. P. Jennings are remarkable for truth to Nature and beauty of effect. The pictures of Mr. Bedford and Mr. England attracted much attention, as did the. contributions, few in number as they are, of the School of Military Engineering….” “…This year the society has adopted the practice of giving prizes for the best objects exhibited, the adjudicators being Mr. Poynter, R.A., Mr. John Brett, Mr. Glaisher, Mr. F. Bedford; and others. The medal for the best landscape was adjudged to the Military School of Engineering, Chatham, represented by Lieut. L. Darwin. Mr. Vernon Heath obtained another, principally for some admirable Scotch and Welsh landscapes….”]





“Photographic Exhibition.” ART JOURNAL    (   1879): ?. [“The Photographic Society of Great Britain opened their annual exhibition on the 6th of October, at the gallery of the Society of Painters in Water Colours, Pall Mall. The number of exhibits reached four hundred and four, and it is interesting to note how much nearer to nature the art reaches year after year. When we say this we have in our mind scientific experimenters, a class represented by such men as Colonel H. Stuart Wortley, Major Van-der-Weyde, Captain G. H. Verney, Captain Abney, A. Lombardi, A. Boucher, William Bedford, Matthew Whiting, Payne Jennings, and Vernon Heath….”  The last-named photographer occupies a place of honour at the far end of the room with his enlarged landscape view of Stoke Pogis Church ‘(8), and in its immediate neighbourhood will be found his ‘Burnham Beeches’ (7)….” “…Beneath the Autotype Company’s enlargement of Stoke Pogis Church,’ already mentioned, will be found very small negatives and carbon enlargements of ‘Lion and Lioness’ (111), by T. J. Dixon, also a ‘Lion’ (118), by Henry Dixon, all remarkable for their felicity of pose as well as truth of texture. We can imagine the operators waiting a long time before .the beasts assumed-unconsciously on their part, of course-an attitude to please them….”]





“Mr. Francis Bedford at Camden Road.” PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS 24, (Apr. 23, 1880): 195.





“Gelatino-Bromide in a Nutshell.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1881 (1881): 129-149. [(This article printed the processes of several prominent photographers using Gelatino-Bromide, including Bedford’s.)
”Mr. Bedford’s Process.”
Mr. Bedford employs, for heating, an Argand gas-burner, or petroleum lamp provided with a deep ruby chimney, further screened with paper stained with aurine. The formula for ten ounces of emulsion will stand tons:— No. 1. French gelatine ‘. 20 grains Ammoniam bromide 110 „ Potassium iodide … 10 „ Ammonia, -880 sp. gr 2 minims Water 2 ounces No. 2. Silver nitrate 200 grains Distilled water … 2 ounces The gelatine must be soaked in the two ounces of water in which the bromide and iodide are dissolved. Both solutions are then heated to 150° Fahr., and No. 2 is added very gradually to No. 1 through a small glass funnel, while the vessel containing the bromized gelatine must be briskly agitated, for which purpose Air. Bedford uses a bottle brush made with silver wire. When the whole silver solution has been added, a small quantity of the emulsion may be poured on a slip of glass, and examined by the transmitted light of a gas-flame; if the flame appears of an orange-yellow colour, the emulsion will have been properly mixed; but if of a cold grey or blue tint at this stage, it shows that the operation has been too hurriedly performed, and the result will not be satisfactory. The emulsion may now be transferred to a stoneware bottle placed in a saucepan of boiling water to be kept boiling for thirty minutes. It is them strengthened up by the addition of 250 grains more gelatine (previously soaked in water and drained), and filtered into a dish to set. Mr. Bedford finds Nelson’s photographic gelatine too soluble, unless mixed with a firmer kind, such as Coignet’s “Gold Medal.” When thoroughly set, the pellicle is broken up into pieces, and passed through a syringe, having a disc at the end pierced with holes, into a hair sieve standing in a vessel of running water, for six hours. The washed emulsion having been re-melted, and filtered through swandown calico, the plates may be coated without warming; the addition of alcohol is unnecessary, unless the emulsion has to be kept before use; but in any case it is best used fresh. Heating the plates during the drying process renders them liable to frill during development, unless a small proportion of chrome alum, two drops of a sixteen-grain solution to each ounce of the washed emulsion, is added previous to coating. pp. 143-144
“Mr. Bedford’s Drying Closet.”
The closet is constructed to contain three dozen 10 by 8 plates, or an equivalent number of smaller sizes, the inside dimensions being: height, thirty-eight inches; width, twenty-nine inches; and depth, front to back, fourteen inches; and there is attached to the bottom a galvanized iron trough, through which the supply of fresh air passes, a Bunsen burner being lighted beneath it in cold weather; and the outlet at the top is connected with about four feet of three-inch pipe, in which another burner can be lighted to stimulate the draught of air through the whole. The special feature in this closet is the series of shelves, twelve in number, which are so contrived that they may be separately levelled with great precision. To this end each shelf consists of a light iron casting in the form of two parallel bars, five inches apart, joined by cross-pieces at each end, and accurately planed on the narrow top edges, where the plates will rest while drying. In order to counteract any tendency to spring while under the action of the tool in the process of planeing, there are likewise two intermediate crosspieces. The shelves, with the exception of the lowest, which rests on the bottom, are supported, at a distance of three inches apart, on the points of ordinary wood-screws passing through wooden cleats, which are firmly screwed to the sides of the closet. There are two screws at one end, and one at the other, for each casting to rest on; it is then easy, with the aid of a pair of gas pliers, to accurately adjust the level of each shelf separately, so that the emulsion will set and dry in an even film.” p. 147. 1 illus.]





Spiller, John, F.C.S. “Recollections of the First Photographic Exhibition.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1882 (1882): 41-42. [“At the time of my writing, the British public has the advantage of inspecting the fine collection of pictures constituting the twenty-sixth Annual Exhibition held under the auspices of the Photographic Society; and at this period it may not be deemed inappropriate to revert to some of the leading characteristics of what may be called the first public exhibition of photographs, for although the opportunity of inspecting and comparing notes will have passed away before these lines will appear in print, my remarks generally will hold good for all time, and serve, I trust, to heighten the interest felt in future exhibitions…. p. 41.” “….. Dr. Percy, Robert Hunt, J. D. Llewellyn, Francis Bedford, Peter le Neve Foster, C. H. Waring, and Sir T. M. Wilson were all practising photography at this period, but did not show anything at this first Exhibition; all their names appear, however, in the catalogue of the Photographic Society’s first exhibition, held at the Suffolk Street Gallery in 1854….” p. 42.]





Bedford, Francis. “An Early Experiment with the Electric Light.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1883 (1883): 78-79. [“Now that the subject of electric lighting is attracting so much attention, and bids fair to prove so valuable an aid to the photographer, it may be interesting if I briefly relate an early experiment made by me some twenty years ago, with the object of ascertaining how far the electric lamp of Professor Way might be available for the production of negatives and for printing from them. Referring to notes communicated by me to the Editor of the Photographic News at the time, I find it was in January, 1861, that, on the invitation of Professor Way, I visited a room in the Adelphi, where the lamp was set up for the inspection of those interested in the invention, taking with me the usual equipment for working the collodion process as then practised. The novel feature in this lamp was the production of the light by means of a continuous fine stream of quicksilver flowing vertically from a jet above into a cup below, heated to incandescence within a glass tube, intended to prevent any escape of mercurial vapour—a purpose hardly ‘fulfilled in this case, as the apparatus had been fitted up hastily in an improvised sort of way, and was imperfect—the condensation of vapour on the inside of the glass dimmed and somewhat obscured the light But it was nevertheless exceedingly vivid, and of a very decided bluish tinge—so blue, indeed, that it was noticed that crystals of proto-sulphate of iron appeared quite colourless. It was also very steady, of great volume as compared with the spark produced by the usual carbon points, and, as the result showed, intensely actinic. Setting to work, I placed a piece of sculpture in bas-relief at a distance of about two feet from the lamp, at such an angle as to obtain the best effect, suspending a sheet of paper at one side to reflect light into the cast shadows, which were very black indeed. I used Ross’s ‘Orthographic lens (a favourite of mine at the time, as with it I had produced some of my best work), and worked with a large stop. I have, unfortunately, no note of the exposure, but it was just right, and the result all I could desire, no solarization of the lights (if I may use the term in this instance), and the shadows full of detail. I was much struck with the peculiarly penetrating power of the new light; so, when I returned the following evening to my improvised studio to print the negative I had taken, I took with me other two negatives, the densest I could find, by which to test it. The printing-frames were placed round the lamp at a distance of two feet—or perhaps rather less—and the paper, sensitized as usual, was exposed to the light for about an hour, and the prints, when finished on the following day, were rich, bright, and vigorous; and the lights in the prints from the denser negatives had far more of detail in them than could have been obtained by printing in daylight. They were altogether, in fact—to say the least—fully equal to prints produced in the usual manner. Thinner negatives, such as we use now, would have required to have been placed at a greater distance .from the light, and would no doubt have yielded satisfactory results. I was informed that the expense of this beautiful light was about two shillings an hour, representing the cost of maintaining the powerful battery employed. Here, then, was a new power seemingly ready to our hands, applicable to varied uses, and capable of rendering us independent to some extent of daylight; and it does seem strange that such an invention should not have been brought into practical photographic use.”] 



Jones, Baynham. “The Calotype Process.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1883 (1883): 92-93. [“For some years previously to the discovery of collodion, I worked the calotype process with a moderate amount of success, and should in all probability have continued to do so up to the present time had it not been subject to many difficulties and drawbacks. I am still of opinion that there is no process which contains the same amount of really artistic beauty, and I am happy to say I am not alone in this view, which is entertained by many artists of reputation to whom I have mentioned the subject. I have before me a letter from Mr. Francis Bedford, whose works were so well known and appreciated some years since, and whose knowledge of art is indisputable. He says, in reply to a letter which accompanied a few calotypes I sent him in return for some collodion views he had very kindly given me. “I have often admired your works, and have regarded them as convincing proofs of the all-sufficiency of paper photographs. Indeed, though I follow the collodion process, I have often felt inclined and wished to try the calotype.”….”]





“Francis Bedford.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL n.s. vol. 18, no. 9 (May 1894): 225. [Died May 15, 1894 at his residence 326, Camden Road, N., at age 78. Elected to RPS in 1857, became a member of Council in 1857, and served to 1887. His son William, took his place after Francis retired from active photographic work “some years since.” William died “some sixteen months ago.”]



“Francis Bedford.” PHOTOGRAPHY: THE JOURNAL OF THE AMATEUR, THE PROFESSION & THE TRADE 6, no. 290 (May 31, 1894): 349-350. [Detailed, affectionate obituary.]



“Notes and News.” PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES 24, no. 665 (June 15, 1894): 382. [Brief note that Bedford died.]


“Wills and Bequests.” THE ECONOMIST: WEEKLY COMMERCIAL TIMES 52:2656 (July 21, 1894): 891. [“The Illustrated London News gives the following list of wills proved with the amount of personalty in each case :—
Mr. Samuel Sandars, J.P., late of 7 De Vere gardens, Kensington £256,000.
Mr James Boyd, late of 17 Queen’s Gate gardens £45,000.
Mr Samuel Wright, D.L., J.P., late of Brattleby Hall, Lincolnshire £32,000.
Mr. Benjamin Standring, late of St. Mary’s Spa road, Boscombe, Hants £21,000.
Mr. Francis Bedford, late of 326 Camden road £18,000.
Mr James Woodley, J.P., D.L., late of Halshanger, Ashburton, Devon £1,242.
Mr. Edmund Austen Willett, J.P., late of Strathwell, Whitwell, Isle of Wight £1,349.
Dame Sophia Ann Hayes, late of Garfield House, Drayton Green road, Ealing £1,074.”]



“Summary.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY ANNUAL, AND PHOTOGRAPHER’S DAILY COMPANION for 1895 (1895): 571-572. [“….Death has been busy in the ranks of photographers, from among whom many well-known men have disappeared. Among those whose loss may be noted are D. P. Coghill (December 20th, 1893), secretary of the Northern Photographic Association, a talented young microscopist of great promise; J. W. Ramsden (January); one of the earliest photographers, a pioneer in the collodion process, and a man of varied attainments; A. M. Levy (February 19th), a man of great chemical knowledge: and amiability of character; J. Moffat, Edinburgh (March); John Penney (March 27th), whose name will go down to history for the early carbon printing process he devised; W. H. Davies (April 30th), long a valued contributor to The British Journal of Photography, whose writings on art topics were at one time much appreciated — he was one of the founders of the Edinburgh Photographic Society ; Francis Bedford (May 15th), who for many years enjoyed eminence as a high-class landscape photographer; H. G. Cocking ; Sir G. .R. Prescott (July 30th), chairman of the Camera Club; G. Thomas, Liverpool (August 5th) ; and T. Scotton, Derby (October 9th), an esteemed-member of the Derby Photographic Society. C. G. H. Kinnear, of Edinburgh, who died suddenly – on November 5th, was an architect of high eminence, and is known to photographers mainly as having invented the Kinnear camera. He was one of the founders of the now extinct Photographic Society of Scotland, and of which he was long the Honorary Secretary. Dr. Charles Ehrmann, of New York, who died in October, was an able photographic chemist and teacher of photography, whose writings were appreciated on both sides of the Atlantic….” p. 572.]



Jay, Bill. “Francis Bedford, 1816-1894.” UNIVERSITYOF NEW MEXICO BULLETIN OF ART no. 7 (1973): 16-21.


“Francis Bedford.” CREATIVE CAMERA No. 186 (Dec. 1979): 424-425, 428. 2 Illus. [Portfolio of photographs taken by Bedford in Egypt in the 1860s.]


“Photographic Pictures of Egypt, the Holy Land and Syria, Constantinople, The Mediterranean, Athens, Etc. taken during the Tour of the East in why, by Command, Mr. F. Bedford accompanied H.R.H. the Prince of Wales.” PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTOR 3:1 (Spring 1982): 106-107. [Facsimile reprint of Bedford’s sales catalog of this series, listing 172 views.]


Spencer, Stephanie. “Francis Bedford’s Photographs of North Wales: Selection and Interpretation.” HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY 11:3 (July-Sept. 1987): 237-245. 7 b & w. 2 illus.


“150 Years.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 136:6724 (June 29, 1989): 36-7, 40-1, 43-5, 47, 49-53, 55-7, 45 b & w. [Selection of photographs covering the period 1839-1980, representing some of the key figures in the history of photography, including Richard Calvert Jones, Felice Beato, Julia Margaret Cameron, Francis Bedford, etc.]




Hallett, Michael. “The Grand View of England.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY 139:6870 (May 7, 1992): 14-15. 5 b & w. [The author examines the work of some prominent 19th century photographers and their depictions of Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, England. Francis Bedford Francis Frith, and Sir J. Benjamin Stone discussed.]




[Very partial listing of references for the son of Francis Bedford, who was also a highly respected photographer, active in the photographic societies and exhibitions. Chairman of the Photographers’ Benevolent Association. Took over much of the family firm’s activities by the late 1860s, including the making of views, etc. William died from illness a year before his more famous father.]


“North London Photographic Association.” PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 10:156 (Apr. 15, 1865): 41. [“The Annual Meeting of this Association was held in Myddelton Hall, Islington, on Wednesday evening, March 22, G. Dawson, Esq., in the Chair. The Minutes of the last Meeting having been read and confirmed, the following Gentlemen were elected by ballot Members of the Association:—Mr. R. Temple, Mr. W. A. Clark, Mr. W. Bedford, Mr. H. Smith, Mr. W. Malby, and Mr. R. M. Gordon….”]


Bedford, William. “Improvement of Negatives.” BRITISH JOURNAL PHOTOGRAPHIC ALMANAC 1873 (1873): 106.


Bedford, William. “An Automatic Syphon.” BRITISH JOURNAL PHOTOGRAPHIC ALMANAC 1874 (1874): 83-84. 2 illus.


Bedford, William. “The Best Light for Toning.” BRITISH JOURNAL PHOTOGRAPHIC ANNUAL 1875 (1875): 70-71.



Bedford, William. “Cleaning Varnished Negatives.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1875. (1875): 51. [“It often happens, unless an exceptionally hard varnish be employed to protect the negative (and this is open to the fatal objection of its liability to crack) that the surface becomes tacky, and the dust which after a time accumulates, in combination with silver from frequent contact with the sensitized paper in the process of printing, produces brown spots and marks on the varnish, which print white. Several methods have been suggested for treating negatives when in this condition, and, where the varnish will admit of it, none is better than to remove it entirely with methylated spirit, and then re-varnish; but with many samples this proceeding is hazardous, if not altogether impracticable, M other solvents are often added, which render the gums made use of insoluble in spirit of wine. I think Mr. England once proposed cleaning with spirit of turpentine, but this does not always answer the purpose. Has anyone ever suggested the use of cyanide of potassium? I have found it a very useful agent rubbed on with a soft rag, taking care to wash it off well afterwards. The operation is a very simple one, and, having practised it for some time, I can testify to its thorough efficacy.”
(William Bedford listed on Council for the Royal Photographic Society, Francis Bedford not listed as either Vice-President or on Council for first time.)]




Bedford, William. “Transparencies for the Stereoscope and Lantern.” BRITISH JOURNAL PHOTOGRAPHIC ALMANAC 1877 (1877): 46-48.




Bedford, William. “Note on Washed Emulsion.” BRITISH JOURNAL PHOTOGRAPHIC ALMANAC 1878 (1878): 55-56.



Bedford, William. “Cracks in Varnished Negatives.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1878 (1878): 32.  [“As the question of the cause of cracks in varnished negatives has beta recently revived, and opinions seem to differ on the subject, it may not be out of place to record my own experience in the matter, which has been rather extensive. It is, perhaps, necessary to say that I do not refer to the vermicular raised ridges which are produced in films by the action of damp, be: to the fine open cracks which may be temporarily filled up by rubbing in plumbago, or any other suitable substance. These seem to be generally attributed to the use of an unsuitable varnish, impure water, imperfect washing, or other causes, and for a longtime 1 was myself of that opinion, and many different kinds of varnish were tried without curing the evil, except in the case of one of a very tacky nature, and this, of course, is open to other objection: but at length, now some three years ago, I turned my attention to the collodion, and since I have exclusively used another sample I am glad to say that 1 have quite got rid of the trouble. It is well known that pyroxyline is very variable in constitution, some preparations being of such a nature that a film of collodion made from them will have no permanent adhesion whatever, and will frequently fly off the glass in the act of drying the finished negative A collodion such as this should never bo used without a substratum to bind it to the glass; as, otherwise, the film when varnished will be liable to crack at any future time, and especially in cold weather, or under the influence of sudden changes of temperature; in fact, 1 have known negatives, stored away with paper between them for two or three years, which, when taken out to print, have cracked all over in the course of one night. This being the result of my experience in this direction, I would, therefore, recommend any who may be similarly troubled to at once abandon the use of any collodion which leads to such disastrous results.”]



Bedford, William. “On Photographing Interiors.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1878 (1878): 39-41. [“Having occasionally been privately asked to give my experience in this branch of the art, I am induced to think that a few practical words on the subject may not be out of place in the pages of the Year-Book. First of all, it is absolutely essential that a non-distorting lens should he employed, and as want of light is the chief difficulty we have to contend with, it is important that it should be one which will work with an aperture large in proportion to the focal length, and the ” rapid ” lenses now may admirably fulfil both these conditions. But it frequently happens that lenses of this class do not include a sufficiently wide angle of view, and in this case resort must be had to a combination of shorter focus, though this must of necessity involve a corresponding loss of light, and prolonged exposure. I need not say much about the camera, except that it should be one that will allow of a considerable elevation of the front carrying the lens, and as the sensitive plate must always be kept in a truly vertical position, it should be provided also with a swing-back. It is often an advantage, ‘specially when working in cathedrals and other large churches, to elevate the camera some eight or ten feet from the pavement, and for this purpose a high pair of steps makes an admirable camera stand, and can generally be obtained on the spot. The excellence of an otherwise good negative is often marred by the blaze of light, coming through the windows opposite to the lens, causing a halo, which completely obliterates the details of the glazing. To obviate this defect it will frequently repay the photographer to have a blind of coloured calico or other suitable material suspended outside the window, which will allow no more than just sufficient of the light to pass through. This expedient is not always practicable, but where it can be adopted the gain of detail in stained glass, for instance, is immense. In my own practice I generally use and prefer a collodion which has been iodized some two or three months previously, as with an unripe sample it is difficult, if not impossible, to avoid the oyster-shell markings which are a great source of annoyance when the plate has to be kept a considerable time between sensitizing and development. For the same reason it will be better if the silver bath should have been in use for some little time, as it seems then to assimilate better with the collodion film, owing to accumulation of ether and alcohol, and saturation with iodide of silver. A bath of thirty grains to the ounce, though less sensitive, is preferable to a stronger one, as the nitrate of silver is less likely, through evaporation and concentration during the long exposure, to dissolve the film of iodide. The greatest safeguard against these oyster-shell markings or matt silver stains is the use of blotting paper, not merely at the corners, bat under and along the whole length of the lower edge of the plate, as, even when thoroughly drained before being placed in the dark slide, the solution continues to run down the plate during exposure, and, unless entirely absorbed by the blotting paper, stains will be sure to appear. This is a precaution that should never be neglected if you wish to obtain a negative free from blemish, and it has also another great recommendation, namely, that when your work is done you can depart with the comfortable conviction that you have left no trace of your presence behind you in the shape of silver stains on the pavement, to call down obloquy on yourself and your profession. The exposure is seldom less than twenty minutes, and ranges up to an hour in length, beyond which time it is not desirable to extend it. The developer should be of the strength of about 80 grs. of sulphate of iron to the ounce of water, and as it has to be kept for a considerable time on the plate to bring out all the detail that can be got, it is necessary that it should be made up with distilled or other soft water. There is much scope for skill in the process of intensifying, so as to avoid adding too much density to the high lights, which would cause an appearance of chalkiness, at the same time that details are further developed in the shadows; but in spite of all precautions it will generally be found that if there be a window admitting much white light, opposite the camera, that it will be too dense in comparison with the surrounding architecture. In this case a strong solution of cyanide of potassium allowed to fall, a drop at a time, from a pipette on to the centre of the window, after fixing, and washed off when it has extended far enough, will effect a wonderful improvement, if the process be repeated with care and patience as often as necessary. As the film of a negative taken in a weak light, and slowly developed, is very likely to split off the plate in drying, it will be a wise precaution to give it, after thorough washing, a thin coating of gum-arabic while still wet. in conclusion, it will perhaps be well to say that I submit the foregoing disjointed remarks not on account of any intrinsic novelty they may possess, bat simply as a resume of my own actual practice. 



Bedford, William. “A Convenient Plate Box.” YEAR-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS ALMANAC FOR 1878 (1878): 48-49. [“I send you a brief account of a plate-box I have found very useful during the last summer, for storing albumenized plates while travelling. It may also be used for containing sensitive dry plates, or unvarnished negatives. The box is made of pine, dovetailed at the corners, and large enough to leave a space of a quarter of an inch all round the plates, and of sufficient depth to contain the requisite number. The boxes I use are three inches deep, and each holds about twenty-five plates. The lid is made to slide in a groove, and if the box is to be used for dry plates, the whole of the interior should be lined with tinfoil, to avoid injury to the sensitive surface by exhalation from the pine. Two upright pieces of hard wood, bevelled at one edge, are then screwed on at each corner (see fig.) so that the plates may be dropped in face  downwards, one at a time, and four triangular pieces of thin cardboard, placed one at each corner, to keep the plates from contact. The bevelled pieces of wood prevent the cards slipping from their proper places, and at the same time keep the plates from shifting. The special recommendations of this form of plate-box are, portability, safety, cleanliness, and economy. Plates thus packed occupy about half the space they would require in ordinary grooved boxes; there is no risk of the surfaces becoming scratched; they are kept perfectly clean and free from dust until they are required for use, when they may be readily removed by applying the pneumatic holder to the back, without then touching them with the fingers; and, lastly, the box may be made by any joiner at a small cost.”]





“Notes and News: William Bedford.” PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES 23, no. 596 (Feb. 17, 1893): 88. [“Bedford, late President of the Photographic Convention of the United Kingdom at Great Britain, died of typhoid fever, January 13th, in the 46th year of his age.”]